Introduction: Iroquois Indians: A Documentary History

This compilation is like none other. It is an archive of documents made by and concerning a people without scribes--documents recorded by other parties and originally filed away obscurely in repositories devoted to other interests. Because the League of the Iroquois and its constituent Six Nations negotiated diplomatically with the agents of empires, provinces, and nation-states, as well as with other Indian nations, Iroquois treaty documents came to rest in the Netherlands, France, Great Britain, Canada, and the United States, and in many state and private collections. In all of these the Iroquois documents were secondary to the thousand and one concerns of Europeans and Euro-Americans. Now these many scattered collections have been culled to create the first authentic archive of an indigenous tribal people. It is a body of texts exceedingly important to genuinely reconstituting the history of the United States and its predecessor colonies and native people.

The Iroquois League was a great military and political power in North America during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its importance was recognized by contemporary statesmen of competing European empires and colonies, who vied with each other to secure Iroquois friendship and alliance. After 1700, the Iroquois policy of neutrality maintained a balance of power between the empires that lasted until the Seven Years War, and the Iroquois nations were wooed by Britain and the United States during the War of the American Revolution. It is not possible to write a valid political history of eastern North America during the era preceding the Revolution without carefully considering Iroquois participation in the most important events of the time; and the basis of the Northwest Ordinances of 1784-87 was the treaty made at Fort Stanwix between the United States and the Iroquois in 1784.

Though the Iroquois League fragmented during the American Revolution and its people are now scattered, its history after the Revolution became inextricably part of the history of the Great Lakes region and of the vast intersocietal trade that moved westward across the continent. Defying dogmas of the vanishing Indian, more Iroquois are now alive than were previously recorded at any one time.

The major problem in studying Iroquois participation in North American history has been the scattered and unreliable condition of the source materials. A large number of documents were virtually inaccessible. Most have never been validated by critical examination for omissions, variance between copies, or other contradiction by other contemporary documents. In national and state archives, Iroquois treaties are submerged in the general material, their arrangement and cataloging ill-suited to the study of indigenous peoples. Indexes are at best inadequate, often erroneous and misleading. There is continuing attrition of source manuscripts, identifiable by later references to documents that no longer can be found.

Now, however, most of the problems of access have been solved by the archive presented here, and comparison of documents has been facilitated. The documents included were compiled by a project begun in September 1978 at the D'Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago. Funded for three years by the Research Division of the National Endowment for the Humanities, and staffed by a historian and three anthropologists with the assistance of many temporary aides, the project initially aimed at compiling fewer than 3,000 texts. But even the specialists had seriously underestimated Iroquois diplomatic activity and its involvements. The documents piled up to three times the original estimate and the project's actual duration extended past its formal closing for three more years. It was completed largely owing to the dedicated support of the Newberry Library and donation of labor by the staff. Many generous contributions by individuals and institutions are acknowledged below.

Project staff made copies of the original source documents by photography or xerography and made paper copies of all documents to be filed in an archive at the Newberry. This film collection reproduces that archive. It is open to addition as new documents come to light, and students are requested to send information about such new documents to the Newberry. The archive's calendar forms the first part of this guide to the microfilm collection. The second part of this guide is an alphabetical index of names and subjects; it refers to about one-sixth of the documents on file. An indexed document is noted as such by a degree sign () after the date of the document on the headnote to the document and in the calendar. Regrettably the index could not be completed, but it is useful in combination with the calendar. A reader may wish to scan the calendar for context before concentrating on particular documents. Calendar and index, especially when used together, are aides to locating particular documents and sets of related documents.

About the Texts

What They Are

The Documents in the collection span a period from the earliest surviving sixteenth-century texts through the year 1842. They include the minutes of treaty conferences, the agreements resulting from formal meetings, and a broad range of background materials useful for interpreting motives, procedures, and effects. The editors' basic standard for selection was relevance to the diplomatic history of Iroquois nations or their league. Other parties involved in the negotiations are also included. Most of the documents are manuscript or printed texts arranged in chronological order. Often it has been possible to compile copies of the same text from different sources, and sometimes these are variant, sometimes significantly so. All copies are included. Texts in languages other than English are presented but only rarely translated.

Photographs of wampum belts are also included as representing Indian records of negotiations. In almost all instances, it has not been possible to identify a particular belt with a specific written record, and the editors have concluded regretfully that the belts cannot be deciphered by a general code. Nevertheless certain conventional patterns have been observed, so the belts are grouped on Reel 50 according to emblematic content.

How They Were Copied

For exact xerographic copies of original documents the editors depended on many archives and repositories. The variety of their facilities for copying, however, prevented adoption of a uniform reduction ratio. Therefore, although the final microfilming at Research Publications (now Primary Source Microfilm, an imprint of the Gale Group) was done at a constant reduction ratio, there is no constant relation between the relative size of documents on the film and the actual dimensions of the originals. The integrity of the documents was the editors' foremost concern. No document has been altered. Very few extractions were made and they are noted in every case. No marks were made on copies received, except in some cases for bold editorial lines with arrows to denote the beginning and end of a document. Such indications were also used to note overlapping when a large page had to be copied in sections.

The editors aimed at comprehensiveness. This objective required inclusion of some texts so mutilated or faint in the original as to be minimally legible. These are given nevertheless for whatever information can be extracted from them. Some are more legible in the technically enhanced copies than in the originals. As in all publications, the originals remain the ultimate source to be consulted when issues of textual validity arise. The location of every document is given in a headnote.

How They Are Presented

Each entry on the microfilm consists of a headnote with the document's date, a brief description, and the source, followed by the document itself. In a few cases a translation or annotation follows the document. Each headnote description reflects the perspective of the document rather than editorial comment about it. As descriptions were often taken from catalogs or notations of source repositories, spelling of names is not standardized. Editorial remarks, if present, appear in parentheses or as annotations.

Bracketed dates have been assigned by the editors. Single documents are given with the date when written regardless of the time referred to in their contents. To preserve textual integrity, some texts have been included as found in collections of documents spanning a period of time which is so dated: e.g., 1645-Sept 1654. Multiple copies of the same document, same date, are distinguished as Document I, Document II, etc., and filed in sequence under their common date.

If a document is dated more than one year from the date of the treaty to which it pertains, it is cross-referenced under the treaty date. Because of the prolonged nature of many treaty negotiations, users should scan the compilation's calendar to find appropriate documents within a year of any event of interest. Although cross-references refer to specific documents, distinguished by Roman numerals when there is more than one document of the same date, references to other documents in editorial remarks within descriptions of a particular document do not use Roman numerals to distinguish documents of the same date. In these cases, all documents of the date cited should be checked for the reference.

The editors have not tried to reconcile or adjust dates in the Old Style Julian calendar used by the English for many years after the French and Dutch had changed over to the New Style Gregorian calendar. Dates are given herein as they appear on the documents. When the English finally changed over, they often gave both new and old dates on the same text; in such instances the editors opted for the New Style annotation.

The project staff has compiled a reference manual to assist in interpreting the texts, and we urge that it be consulted during research. It is The History and Culture of Iroquois Diplomacy: An Interdisciplinary Guide to the Treaties of the Six Nations and Their League. Edited by Francis Jennings, it is available from Syracuse University Press, 1600 Jamesville Avenue, Syracuse, New York 13210.

All matters relating to the copyright of individual documents contained in the microfilm collection are the sole responsibility of the D'Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library.

Acknowledgements

This archive could not have been compiled without the generous contributions of counsel and materials from many persons and agencies. No one is intentionally left out of the following list. Pardon is asked for any inadvertent omission.

Indian People

Early in the project, Richard Powless and Paul Williams of the Union of Ontario Indians visited the project from June 23 to 29, 1979 and offered comments and suggestions. Phil Monture, Land Researcher at Six Nations Reserve shared knowledge of locations of source materials. George Abrams, Director of the Seneca Iroquois National Museum on the Allegany Seneca Reservation, and Ramona Charles, Librarian at the Community House on the Tonawanda Seneca Reservation, provided information about the location of materials. Tribal historians from different political persuasions, on fellowship at the Center, discussed the project with staff members during their residence: Norbert Hill and Sandra Orie came from the Oneida Reservation in Wisconsin, and Douglas George, recommended by the "traditional" Mohawk Nation, came from the St. Regis (Akwesasne) Reservation. Everett White, born and raised at St. Regis (Akwesasne), provided valuable information about documents based on his experiences as an Indian Health Service employee and his personal interest in the history of his people. Most important information and advice were given by Cayuga Chief Jacob E. Thomas who represents the Cayuga nation in the Grand Council of the Houdenosaunee and teaches at Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. On May 22, 1980, Chief Thomas made a joint presentation with Dr. Michael K. Foster, Iroquoian Ethnologist of the Canadian National Museum of Man. At a colloquium at the Newberry, they showed slides and facsimile artifacts and explained symbols in terms of Iroquois custom. Through the following day, Chief Thomas spoke with project staff who took extensive notes and taped his analyses of certain wampum belts. He continued in correspondence afterward. Informal visitors to the project included Charles Patton and Tyler Hemlock, Caughnawaga (Kahnawake) Mohawks; and Alice Armstrong and Helen Laughing, Mohawks employed in the Demographic Office, Mohawk Tribal Offices, St. Regis Reservation.

When Associate Director Mary A. Druke traveled to Indian communities, she was received hospitably everywhere. Indians of Onondaga, including Oren Lyons, Irving Powless, Jr., and Irving Powless, Sr., though unsympathetic to the project, received her graciously and explained their attitudes. Information about documentary material and oral traditions was provided to her by residents of the following communities: Allegany; Cattaraugus; Caughnawaga (Kahnawake); Onondaga; St. Regis (Akwesasne); Six Nations Reserve; Tonawanda; and Tuscarora.

Project Aides:

Consultants: Charles Gehring, of the New York State Library, Manuscripts, provided notes on Dutch manuscripts in the Livingston Family Papers at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. Paul Stevens, a Fellow at the McNickle Center, compiled and annotated source documents of the era of the American Revolution. Another McNickle Center Fellow, Professor Richard Haan, contributed copies of documents he had been collecting for ten years. Mary Anne Mayes searched William N. Fenton's files and compiled a list of cited Iroquois documents. Lieutenant Commander C. McD. Stuart, RN, searched uncalendared treaty texts at the Public Record Office of Great Britain and arranged for transmission of copies. Paul Grey, graduate student at the University of London, acted as liaison between the project staff and the Public Record Office in acquiring documents ordered by the staff. Professional indexer Elin Christianson advised on indexing procedures. Major F.E.G. Bageshawe, of Matlock, England, provided photographs of a wampum belt in private hands.

Office employees at various times included Nancy Kovitz; Peter Radke; Polly Strong, University of Chicago graduate student; Andrew Tobin, Bennington College student; Karli Erica White. Wesley Andrews arranged much of the final organization of the archive files. The project was also helped by several students enrolled in undergraduate independent study seminars of the Association of the Colleges of the Midwest and the Great Lakes Colleges Association, whose wages were paid by the associations and the Newberry. David L. Ghere accomplished "last minute" tasks.

Volunteers included Claudette Alm; Jeanette Campanella; Lucey Caples; Herbert Furse; Ted Knutson; Nancy Kovitz; Dorothy Markowitz; Virginia Meyers; Noel O'Reilly; Mary Louis Ramsey; Mrs. Gerald Sivage. They sorted and identified the masses of documents arriving in the mails, and put them in order for editors' review.

Newberry Library staff. Special interest was maintained and special help provided by John Aubrey, Michael Kaplan, Steve Mandel, Terry Sullivan, and Michelene Fixico; and much gratitude is owed for the patience of Richard H. Brown.

Advice and information were exchanged with collegues of the Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History project: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, Adele Hast, and Jacqueline Peterson. The members of the Conference on Iroquois Research and the American Society for Ethnohistory devoted three successive panel sessions to the project at annual meetings.

Institutions:

Special gratitude is owed to the Public Archives of Canada for its gift of copies of treaties and surrenders in its possession. Thanks must also be expressed to Rochester [NY] Museum and Science Center for its donation of photographs of its large collection of wampum belts. The University of Chicago made paper copies of microfilm at a minimal cost. Research Publications sent a photographer without charge to film documents located at the Albany Institute of History and Art and at the New York State Archives in Albany. Work on the project was greatly facilitated by materials collected in research travel previous to the project and incorporated into project files. The American Philosophical Society made such research fellowship grants to Director Jennings and Associate Directory Druke. Through such generous contributions, as well as time and energy given by individuals, the project managed to stay within its budget despite its massive increase in size. When the project could not be finished within its allotted three years, the Newberry Library financed it to completion.

Thanks are due to each repository, publication, or individual source of materials listed below which made available copies of materials in its collections. Together they have made this publication possible.

Sources of Manuscripts

Albany County Clerk's Office, Albany, NY.
Albany Institute of History and Art, McKinney Library, Albany, NY.
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA.
American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, PA.
Les Archives Nationales, Paris, France. Copies obtained from microfilm at the Public Archives of
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Archives of the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, PA. Copies obtained from microfilm published by
Research Publications, Woodbridge, CT.
British Library, London, England. Copies of Amherst, Bouquet and Haldimand Papers obtained
from microfilm published by World Publications, Ltd., London, England.
Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Buffalo, NY.
Burgerbibliotheck, Berne, Switzerland. Burgerbibliotheck should be informed when material in its
collections is published.
Burke Library, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Samuel Kirkland Papers.
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Division, Pittsburgh, PA. George Morgan
Letterbooks.
Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Permission to reproduce or publish
material must be obtained from the Clements Library.
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, PA.
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. See Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Division
of Land Records.
Connecticut Historical Society, Manuscripts Collections, Hartford, CT.
Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT. Material may not be reproduced or published without
permission of the Connecticut State Library.
Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. See Public Archives Canada.
Detroit Public Library, Burton Historical Collection, Detroit, MI.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY. Livingston Family Papers, Indian Affairs are on
indefinite loan from the National Archives and Records Service.
George Arents Library for Special Collections, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.
Haldimand-Norfolk Regional Museum, Cayuga, Ontario, Canada.
Hamilton College Library. See Burke Library.
Haverford College Library, Haverford, PA. Quaker Collection.
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Huntington Free Library and Reading Room, Bronx, NY. Depository for the Museum of the
American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.
Indiana Historical Society Library, Indianapolis, IN.
Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, KS.
Library Company of Philadelphia. Collections are housed at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA.
Library of Congress, Manuscripts, Washington, D.C.
Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD. Copies obtained from microfilm published by
Scholarly Resources, Inc., Wilmington, DE.
Massachusetts Archives, Secretary of State, Division of Archives, Boston, MA.
Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, MA.
Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, MO.
National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. Diplomatic Branch, Legislative and
Natural Resources Branch.
Neville Public Museum, Green Bay, WI.
New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, NH.
New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, NJ.
New York, State of. See State of New York.
New York Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY.
New-York Historical Society, New York, NY. Material published courtesy of The New-York
Historical Society.
New York Public Library, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden
Foundations, New York, NY.
New York State Archives, Albany, NY., State Education Department, Albany, NY.
New York State Library, Albany, NY. No further reproduction of documents is allowed without
written permission from the New York State Library.
Newberry Library, Chicago, IL.
Niagara County Clerk's Office, Lockport, NY.
North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and Records Section, Division of
Archives and History, Raleigh, NC.
North Carolina State Archives. See North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Archives
and Records Section, Division of Archives and History.
Ontario County Historical Society Museum, Canadaigua, NY.
Penfield Library, State University of New York, Oswego, NY.
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburgh, PA. Division of Archives and
Manuscripts Division of Land Records.
Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Federal Archives Division, Manuscripts Division,
Map Collection, Records in the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canada, Ottawa,
Ontario are under the auspices of the Public Archives of Canada.
Public Record Office, Kew, England.
Scottish Record Office, Edinburgh, Scotland. The Dalhousie Papers at the Scottish Record Office
may not be cited, reproduced, or published without written permission of the Earl of Dalhousie,
Brechin Castle, Angus, Scotland.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. Archives Division.
State of New York, Department of State, Albany, NY. Indian treaties.
State of North Carolina. See North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources.
State University of New York at Oswego. See Penfield Library.
Syracuse University. See George Arents Library for Special Collections.
Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, OK.
Union of Ontario Indians, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
University of Tulsa Library, Tulsa, OK.
Vassar College Library, Poughkeepsie, NY.
Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier, VT.
Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, VA.
Virginia State Library, Richmond, VA.

Printed Material

An Abridgement of the Indian Affairs Contained in Four Volumes, Transacted in the Colony of New York, from the year 1678 to the year 1751, by Peter Wraxall. Ed. Charles Howard McIlwain (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1915).

An Account of Conferences, and Treaties Made, Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the Chief Sachems and Warriours of the Indian Nations in North America at Fort Johnson, in the Colony of New York, in the Years 1755 and 1756. (London: A. Millar, 1756).

Account of Journey to Attend Treaty at Sandusky, by Jacob Lindley. Extract. See Friends Miscellany.

American Archives: Consisting of a Collection of Authentick Records, State papers, Debates, and Letters and other Notices of Publick Affairs, the Whole Forming a Documentary History of the Origin and Progress of the North American Colonies. Ed. Peter Force. 9 vols. (Prepared and published under authority of an act of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1837-1853).

American Historical Record, and Repertory of Notes and Queries Concerning the History and Antiquities of America and Biography of Americans. Ed. Benson J. Lossing. Vol. 2, No. 13. January 1873. (Philadelphia: Chase and Town, Publishers, 1873).

American State Papers. Indian Affairs. 2 vols. (Washington: Duff Green, 1832-1834).

The British Invasion from the North, the Campaignes of Generals Carleton and Burgoyne from Canada, 1776-1777, with the Journal of Lieut. William Digby of the 53rd, or Shopshire Regiment of Foot, by James Phinney Baxter. (Albany: NY.: Joel Munsell's Sons, 1887).

The Cadwallader Colden Papers. See The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden.

Calendar of State Papers. Colonial Series. America and West Indies. Ed. W. Noel Sainsbury et al., (London: H.M. Stationary Office, 1860- ).

Collections of the Maine Historical Society. 10 vols. [Proceedings of treaty at Deerfield, 27 Aug-1 Sept 1735. Vol. 4, pt. 6, pp. 123-144 (1856).] (Portland: Maine Historical Society, 1831-1906.).

Collections on the History of Albany, New York, from its Discovery to the Present Time, with Notices of its Public Institutions, and biographical sketches of Citizens Deceased. Ed. Joel Munsell. (Albany, NY.: J. Munsell, 1871).

Congressional Series Set. See Serial Set of Congressional Documents.

The Correspondence of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, with Allied Documents Relating to His Administration of the Government of Upper Canada. Ed. E.A. Cruikshank. 5 vols. (Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1923-1930).

Court Minutes of Rensselaerswyck 1748-1652. Trans. and ed. A.J.F. Van Laer. (Albany, NY.: The University of the State of New York, 1922).

Découvertes et établissements des Francais dans l'ouest et dans le sud de l'Amerique Septentrionale (1614-1754): Memoires et documents originaux recueillis et publiés par Pierre Margry. Ed. Pierre Margry. (Paris: D. Jouaust, 1876-1886).

Der Inhalt Von Den vershiedener Conferentzen, Welche Mit Den Indianern Gehalten worden Zu Eston, In Dem Monath July und August 1757. (Germanton, Grdruckt: Christopher Saur, 1757). A copy of this printed source is in The Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

Doc. Hist. N.Y. See Documentary History of the State of New York.

Documentary History of the State of New York. Ed. Edmund B. O'Callaghan. 4 vols. (Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1849-1851) Folio edition, plus quarto edition, each with different pagination.

Documents of the American Revolution, 1770-1783 (Colonial Office Series). Ed. K.G. Davies. 21 vols. (Dublin, Ireland: Irish Academic University Press.)

Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Procured in Holland, England and France by John P. Brodhead. Ed. Edmund B. O'Callaghan. 15 vols. (Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1853-1887).

Early Records of the City and County of Albany; and Colony of Rensselaerswyck (1656-1675). Trans. and ed. J. Pearson. (Albany: J. Munsell, 1869).

Early Western Travels 1748-1846. Ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites. (Cleveland: A.H. Clark, 1904-1907).

Extracts from the Journal of the Commissioners of the United States, United States Commissioners Appointed to hold a treaty at Sandusky 1793. Photostatic copy, Newberry Library, Chicago, IL., Graff collection 5086.

Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures. (Philadelphia: B. Franklin and D. Hall, 1757).

Friends Miscellany. [Account of Journey to Attend Treaty at Sandusky, by Jacob Lindley. Extract.] (Philadelphia: Society of Friends, 1832).

George Croghan's Journal of His Trip to Detroit in 1767. Ed. Howard H. Peckham. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1939).

Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books: A Journal Kept in Canada and Upon Burgoyne's Campaign in 1776 and 1777. by James M. Hadden. Ed. Horatio Rodgers. (Albany: J. Munsell's Sons, 1884).

Histoire de l'Amerique Septentrionale, par M. de Bacqueville de la Potherie. M. de Bacquéville de la Potherie. (Paris: Jean-Luc Nion and Francois Didot, 1722.

Histoire et description generale de la Nouvelle France: avec le journal historique d'un voyage fait par ordre du Roi dans l'Amerique Septentionale par le p. de Charlevoix. P. de Charlevoix. (Paris: Nyon, 1744).

History of Hartwick Seminary. By Schmitthenner. Unpublished(?) work in the New York Metropolitan Synod archives of the Lutheran Church in America in Metropolitan New York. [Contains photostat of a deed pertaining to land obtained from Indians.]

History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. By Mann Butler. (Louisville, KY: Wilcox, Dickerman, and Co., 1834).

History of the Indians of the Five Nations of Canada. (Cadwallader Colden). (London: Printed for J. Whiston, et. al., 1750).

A History of Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne Country Pennsylvania from Its First Beginnings to the Present Time; Including Chapters of newly Discovered early Wyoming Valley History, Together with Many Biographical Sketches and Much Genealogical Material. By Oscar J. Harvey. 2 vols. (Wilkes-Barre, PA.: Reader, 1909).

Indian Historian. [Tawagonshi: Beginning of the Treaty Era. Vol. 1, Number 3, pp. 22-26. Summer 1968.] (San Francisco, CA., 1968).

Indian Treaties Ratified at the Call Sessions of 1837-38 and 1839. Oneidas at Green Bay. (Washington, 1839). A copy of this printed material is in Special Collections at the Newberry Library, Chicago, IL.

Jefferson papers. See The Papers of Thomas Jefferson.

Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travel and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries, in New France, 1610-1791; the Original French, Latin, and Italian Texts, with English Translations and Notes. Ed. Reuben G. Thwaites. 73 vols. (Cleveland: The Burrows Brothers, 1896-1901).

Jesuites. Abbreviation for Un College de Jesuites aux XVIIe and XVIIIe Siecles: Le College Henri IV de la Fleche le Mans. By Rochemonteix. 4 vols. [Lettre a un Pere Missionaire de Chine. Jean de Lamberville, Paris, 23 Jan 1695. Trans. and presented from vol. 3, pp. 628-630 of Jesuites by Reuben G. Thwaites, ed. in vol. 64, pp. 238-259 of Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents.] 4 vols. (Leguicheux, 1889).

Journal of Isaac Norris During Trip to Albany in 1745, and an Account of Treaty Held There in October 1745. By Isaac Norris. Ed. and published by J.P. Norris. (Philadelphia: Privately printed, Hawthorn Press, 1867). A copy of this printed material is in the Newberry Library, Chicago, IL., Ayer collection.

Journal of Nicolas Cresswell, 1774-1777. By Nicolas Cresswell. (New York: L. MacVeagh, 1924).

The Journals of Samuel Kirkland. Ed. Walter Pilkington. (Clinton, NY.: Hamilton College, 1980).

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. Ed. Library of Congress. 34 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904-1937).

Journey to the Land of Eden and Other Tracts, History of the Dividing Line and Other Tracts from the Papers of William Byrd. (Richmond, VA., 1866).

The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden. In Collections of the New York Historical Society. (New York, NY.: New-York Historical Society, 1916- ).

Letters of Members of the Continental Congress. Ed. Edmund C. Burnett. 8 vols. Publications No. 299. Papers of the Division of Historical Research, Carnegie Institution of Washington. (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1921-1936).

The Livingston Indian Records, 1661-1723. By Lawrence H. Leder. (Gettysburg, PA.: Pennsylvania Historical Association, 1956).

Massachusetts Historical Society Collections. 10 vols. [Witham Marshe's Journal of Treaty at Lancaster, 1744. In Vol. 7, pp. 171-201.] (Boston, MA.: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1831-1906).

Memoir of Lieut. Col. Tench Tilghman, Secretary and Aid to Washington, Together With an Appendix, Containing Revolutionary Journals and Letters, Hitherto Unpublished. . . Ed. Samuel Alexander Harrison. (Albany: J. Munsell, 1876).

Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting a Treaty, as Amended by the Senate, and Negotiated with the New York Indians. 25th Congress (Confidential D), 3rd Session. (Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, Printers).

The Minute Book of the Committee of Safety of Tryon County, the Old New York Frontier . . . Ed. Howard J. Hanson and Samuel L. Frey. (New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1905).

Minutes of the Court of Albany, Rensselaerswyck and Schenectady, 1668-1685 . . . Being a Continuation of the Minutes of the Court at Fort Orange and Beverwyck. Ed. and trans. A.J.F. Van Laer. 3 vols. (Albany, NY.: University of the State of New York, 1926-1932).

Minutes of the Court at Fort Orange and Beverwyck, 1652-1656. Ed. and trans. A.J.F. Van Laer. 2 vols. (Albany, NY.: University of the State of New York, 1920).

Minutes of the Court of Rensselaerswyck, 1648-1652. Ed. and trans. A.J.F. Van Laer. (Albany, NY.: University of the State of New York, 1922).

Minutes of the Executive Council of the Province of New York, Albany. Ed. Victor Hugo Paltsits. 2 vols. (Albany, NY.: University of the State of New York, 1910- ).

Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania from the Organization to the Termination of the Proprietary Government, March 10, 1682 to September 27, 1775. Ed. Samuel Hazard. 16 vols. (Harrisburg, PA.: Theophilus Fenn, 1838-1853).

Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren Among the Delaware and the Mohegan Indians, from Its Commencement, in the Year 1740, to the Close of the Year 1808. By John Heckewelder. (Philadelphia, PA.: M'Carty and Davis, 1820).

Narratives of New Netherland 1609-1664. Ed. J. Franklin Jameson. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1909).

The New Regime 1765-1767, British Series. Ed. C.W. Alvord and C.E. Carter. In Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, vol. 2. (Springfield, IL.: Illinois State Historical Library, 1916).

New Voyages to North-America by the Baron de Lahontan. Reprinted from the English Edition of 1703, with Facsimilies of Original Title pages, Maps, and Illustrations and the Addition of Introduction, Notes, and Index. Ed. Reuben G. Thwaites. 2 vols. (Originally published 1905. Reprinted New York: Lenox Hill Publishing and Distributing Company [Burt Franklin], 1970).

N.Y. Col. Docs. See Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York.

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications. [Account of the Harrison-Tarhe peace Conference. Reprinted as It Appeared in an Issue of 'The Freeman's Chronicle' of 25 June 1813.] Vol. 14, pp. 121-131. (Columbus: OH Historical Society).

The Olden Time. Ed. Neville B. Craig. 2 vols. (Pittsburgh, PA.: J.W. Cook, 1846-1848).

Our Revolutionary Forefathers, the Letters of Francois Marquis de Barbé- Marbois, 1779-1785. Ed. Eugene Parker Chase. (New York: Duffield and Company, 1919).

The Papers of Benjamin Franklin. Ed. Leonard W. Labaree et al. 20 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959- ).

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Ed. Julian P. Boyd. Vols. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).

Penn. Arch. Abbreviation for Pennsylvania Archives. Ed. Samuel Hazard, et al. 138 vols. (Philadelphia: Joseph Severns; Harrisburg: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1852-1949).

Penn. Prov. Coun. Min. See Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania . . .

Private Papers of John, Earl of Sandwich. Ed. G.R. Barnes and J.H. Owen. (London: Navy Records Society, 1832).

Proceedings of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs, Appointed by Law for the Extinguishment of Indian Titles in the State of New York. Introduction and notes by Franklin B. Hough. 2 vols. (Albany, NY.: J. Munsell, 1861).

Publications of the North Carolina Historical Commission. Christoph Von Graffenreid's Account of the Founding of New Bern. Edited with an Historical Introduction and English Translation by Vincent H. Todd.] (Raleigh, NC: Edwards and Broughton Printing Co., State Printers, 1920).

Public Papers of Daniel D. Tompkins, Governor of New York, 1807-1817. 3 vols. (Albany and New York: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, and Crawford, 1898-1902).

Public Papers of George Clinton, First Governor of New York, 1777-1795, 1801-1804. Introduction by Hugh Hastings. 10 vols. (Albany and New York: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, and Crawford, 1899-1910).

Public Speeches, Delivered at the Village of Buffalo, on the 6th and 8th Days of July, 1812 by Hon. Erastus Granger, Indian Agent, and Red Jacket, One of the Principal Chiefs and Speakers of the Seneca Nation, Respecting the Part the Six Nations Would Take in the Present War Against Great Britain. (Buffalo: Printed and sold by S.H. and H.A. Salisbury, 1812). A copy of this printed material is at the New York State Library, Albany, NY.

Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society. Ed. Frank H. Severance. Buffalo, NY.: The Peter Paul Book Company, 1896).

Red and White on the New York Frontier, A Struggle for Survival: Insights from the Papers of Erastus Granger, Indian Agent 1807-1819. Ed. Charles M. Snyder. Harrison, NY.: Harbor Hill Books, 1978).

Relation de ce qui s'est passé de plus remarquable . . . ; Relation de ce qui s'est passé en la Nouvelle France . . . ; and Relation de ce qui s'est passé en la mission . . . These citations are to the original Jesuit Relations. Bibliographical detail is given with each appropriate entry in the headnotes and calendar.

Report of a Committee of the United States Continental Congress, Assembled 15 October 1783. A copy of this printed material is at the Newberry Library, Special Collections, Chicago, IL.

Report of the Commissioners Appointed by the Governor on the Claim of the Iroquois Indians, Made to the Legislature November 3, 1855. By J.M. Hotchkiss. (Montpelier, VT.: Printed by E.P. Walton, Jr., 1855). A copy of this printed material is at the Vermont State Historical Society, Montpelier, Vt.

Report on the Claim of the Iroquois Indians upon the State of Vermont for Their 'Hunting Ground'. By Timothy P. Redfield. (Montpelier, VT.: E.P. Walton, Jr., 1854). A copy of this printed material is at the Vermont State Historical Society.

Royal Gazette. Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 17 July 1839.

Samson Occum and the Christian Indians of New England. By William DeLoss Love. (Boston and Chicago: Pilgrim Press, 1899).

Serial Set of Congressional Documents. Publication of the U.S. Government, beginning with the 15th Congress, 1817. A reference is available in the form of Steven L. Johnson's Guide to American Indian Documents in the Congressional Serial Set: 1817-1899, Library of American Indian Affairs, (New York: Clearwater Publishers, 1977).

Simcoe Papers. See The Correspondence of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe . . .

Sir William Johnson Papers. Abbreviation for The Papers of Sir William Johnson. Ed. James Sullivan, et al. 14 vols. (Albany, NY.: University of the State of New York, 1921-1965).

The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America. Ed. James Matthews. (Richmond, VA.: R.M. Smith, 1864).

Treaties and Surrenders from 1680-1903. Also known as Indian Treaties and Surrenders from 1860-1903. 2 vols. (Ottawa, Ontario: Queen's Printer, 1905-1912).

[The United States and the Indians: A Collection of Congressional Documents Relating to the Indians, 11th Congress- , 1810- ]. United States Congress, 29th congress, 2nd Session, Senate Report. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1810- ). Report 156. A copy of this printed material is at the Newberry Library, Special Collections, Chicago, IL.

Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, Being Letters of Kilianen Van Rensselaer, 1630-1643, and Other Documents Relating to the Colony at Rensselaerswyck. Ed. A.J.F. Van Laer. (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1908).

Voyages de la Nouvelle France Occidentale, dicte Canada, faits par le Sr. de Champlain Xainctongeois, Captaine pour le Roy en la Marine de Ponant, et toutes les descouvertes qu'il a faites en ce pais depuis l'an 1603, jusques l'an 1629. (Paris: Pierre Le-Mur, 1632).

Washington Irvine Correspondence. Ed. C.W. Butterfield. (Madison, WI, 1882).

William and Mary Quarterly. [Catastrophe in the Wilderness: New Light on the Canada Expedition of 1709, Bruce T. McCully. Third Series, Vol. 11 (October 1954)]. (Williamsburg, VA: Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1954).

The Writings of James Madison Comprising His Public papers and His Private Correspondence, Including Numerous Letters and Documents Now for the First Time Printed. Ed. Gaillard Hunt. 9 vols. (New York: G.P. Putnam's sons, 1900-1910).

The Writings of James Monroe Including a Collection of His Public and Private Papers and Correspondence Now For the first Time Printed. Ed. Stanislaus Murray Hamilton. 7 vols. (New York: G.P. Putnam's sons, 1898-1903).

Individual proceedings are not listed above because full bibliographic information about each is given in the appropriate headnote or calendar entry. For a general reference to this material, check Henry F. Dupuy's A Bibliography of the English Colonial Treaties With the American Indians, Including A Synopsis of Each Treaty. (Printed for the Lenox Club, 1917).

Source of Wampum Belts

American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY.
American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, PA. Photograph of belts.
British Museum. See Museum of Mankind.
Buffalo Museum of Science, Buffalo, NY.
Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Etnografiska Museet, Göteborg, Sweden.
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL.
McCord Museum, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool, England.
Museum für Völkerkunde, Hamburg, Germany.
Museum für Völkerkunde, Vienna, Austria.
Museum of Mankind, British Museum, London, England.
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York, NY.
National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
New York State Museum, Albany, NY.
Onondaga Historical Association, Syracuse, NY.
Ontario County Historical Society Museum, Canadaigua, NY.
Peabody Museum, Salem, MA.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, NY. Courtesy of the Research Division.
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Ste-Marie Among the Hurons, Midland, Ontario, Canada.
Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY.
Smithsonian Institution, Museum of Natural History, National Museum of Man, Washington, D.C.
Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, Washington, D.C. Photographs of
wampum belts.
The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Volkerkundiche Sammlungen der Stadt Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

Where appropriate, documents and wampum belts in this microfilm publication are included with the kind permission of the sources listed above. In other instances, permission for inclusion was not granted, and in this case, a reference to the document is included in the Calendar of Documents published in the guide to this collection. On the microfilm, a gap in the sequential numbering of documents headed by the same date is an indication of a document deletion due to failure to obtain reproduction permission.

Reel Summary

Reels and Dates

1 -- n.d. through December 13, 1665 (II)
2 -- 1666 through 1684-1688
3 -- February 8, 1684 through December 27, 1689 (III)
4 -- 1690 through [between February 1694 & March 1699]
5 -- February 2-9, 1694 through August 17, 1698
6 -- August 22, 1698 through November 14, 1703
7 -- 1704 through December 14, 1713
8 -- 1714 through September 8, 1722 (III)
9 -- September 10, 1722 (II) through December 27, 1727 (III)
10 -- 1728 through September [27, 1736]
11 -- September 28, 1736 through December 26, 1743
12 -- 1744 through December 24, 1745
13 -- 1746 through November 18, 1748
14 -- 1749 through November 25, 1751
15 -- [1752-1754] through February 3, 1754 (II)
16 -- February 13, 1754 through December 15, 1754
17 -- [after December 15, 1754 - before March 26, 1755] through October 16, 1755
18 -- October 16, 1755 (II) through May 26, 1756
19 -- [after May 28, 1756] through November 17, 1756 (III)
20 -- November 19, [1756] through June 21-23, [1757]
21 -- June 22, 1757 through [March 11-14, 1758]
22 -- March 11-15, 1758 through November 27-December 2, 1758
23 -- November 30 [1758] through June 25, 1752
24 -- June 27, [1761] through July 25, 1762
25 -- [August?] 1762 through June 25, 1763 (II)
26 -- June 28, [1763?] through July 17-18, 1764 (II)
27 -- [July 17-August 4, 1764] through May 8, 1765 (II)
28 -- [May 9-11, 1765] through February 29, 1768
29 -- [March 1-3, 1768] through [February 1-2, 1769]
30 -- February 13, 1769 through December 28, 1773
31 -- [January 5-15, 1774] through August 6, 1775
32 -- August 7, 1775-May 17, 1784 through [Ca. August 11, 1776]
33 -- August 13, 1776 through March 7-9, 1778
34 -- March 9, 1778 through September 7-10, 1779
35 -- September 7-11 [1779] through December 14, 1780
36 -- February 7, 1781 through May 29, 1783 (III)
37 -- June 2, 1783 through [August, 1784] (II)
38 -- August 3, 1784 through December 18, 1786
39 -- January 29, 1787 through 1790
40 -- [1790s (?)] through July 10-11, 1791
41 -- July 11, 1791 through April 19, 1793
42 -- April 22, 1793 through March 26, 1794 (II)
43 -- April 21, 1794 through December 23, 1796
44 -- February 6, 1797 through [after May 25, 1807]
45 -- May 30, 1807 through [November 30, 1818]
46 -- December 1818 through January 15, 1830
47 -- January 20, 1830 through 1837 (II)
48 -- [between February 8, 1837 & April 5, 1839] through November 30, 1840
49 -- [1841, or later] through December 9, 1921
50 -- Photographs 1 through 163

Index

View Index

This index is presented as a tool for orientation to documents in the microfilm collection. Although only a portion of the documents have been indexed, it can be an indispensible key, especially when used with the calendar of documents. Indexed documents are marked on the calendar with a degree sign () after the date. When a document with information that is of interest to a user is located via the index, the calendar may be checked to find other documents of the same time period that may contain additional material about the person, place, or subject of interest. Each index entry refers users to the date of the document of concern.

The following changes in dating were made after indexing had been completed. It is recommended that this list be checked before searching through a document for a reference, or if one has difficulty finding an item.

22 May 1666 CHANGED TO 25 May 1666
22 May 1666 (II) CHANGED TO 25 May 1666 (III)
7-12 July 1666 CHANGED TO 12 July 1666 (II)
7 & 12 July 1666 (II) CHANGED TO 12 July 1666 (III)
30 Aug. - 1 Sept. 1686 (II) CHANGED TO 30 Aug.-1 Sept. 16860
[6 Aug. 1687] CHANGED TO [5 Aug. 1687] (II)
26 May 1692 CHANGED TO 26-27 May 1692
25 Feb. 1693 CHANGED TO 25-26 Feb. 1693
25 Feb. 1693 (III) CHANGED TO 25 Feb. 1693 (II)
30 Dec. 1693 CHANGED TO [1694] (III)
16 Aug. 1731 CHANGED TO 16 Aug. 1731 (III)
8 July 1742 CHANGED TO 9 July 1742
9 July 1742 CHANGED TO 9 July 1742 (II)
29 Sept. 1744 CHANGED TO 29 Sept. 1744 (II)
24 Apr. 1748 CHANGED TO 24-26 Apr. 1748 (II)
7 Aug. 1753 CHANGED TO [Aug. 1753]
7 Feb. 1755 CHANGED TO 28 Feb. 1755
25 Mar. 1755 CHANGED TO 25 Mar. 1755 (II)
23 Apr. 1755 CHANGED TO 23 Apr. 1755 (II)
29 July 1755 (II) CHANGED TO 29 July 1755
25-29 Sept. 1755 CHANGED TO 1 Oct. 1755 (III)
10 July 1756 CHANGED TO 10 July 1756 (II)
28 July 1756 CHANGED TO 28 July 1756 (II)
28 July 1756 (II) CHANGED TO 28 July 1756 (III)
31 Aug. 1756 CHANGED TO 21 Aug. 1756
8 Dec. 1756 CHANGED TO 8 Dec. 1756 (II)
14 July 1757 CHANGED TO 14 July 1757 (IV)
20 Oct. 1758 CHANGED TO 19-20 Oct. 1758
25 Oct. 1758 CHANGED TO 23 Oct. 1758
4 Oct. 1784 CHANGED TO 4 Oct. 1784 (II)