Introduction: Bute Broadsides in the Houghton Library, Harvard University

The interest of a collection of ephemera lies in its multifariousness, not in its exhaustiveness: the reader must incessantly take the part for the whole and the intellectual exercise of conjecture is deeply invigorating. Equally, one values the power of illustration in such a collection over its power of proof. De Quincey’s distinction between a literature of knowledge and a literature of power is here paradoxically refuged. Ex ungue leonem: if only we can eliminate the hordes of blank forms, handbills, price lists and posters from the past in favor of a magical few, the lion will roar. And it is correspondingly hard to form such a collection, for in contrast to a collection of baseball cards or stamps, where you desire what you do not have, you must here desire what you ought to have, fit documents though few. In this quest for a bibliographical grail, you can never really be certain that it lies before you.

The collection of about 500 broadsides and other ephemera reproduced here was formed around 1892 by John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, third marquess of Bute (1847-1900), who recorded his achievements in a catalogue of one hundred copies, entitled A List of Broadsides and Satires, Prose, Poetical, Poetical, Religious, with Verses of Bellmen, etc., illustrative of English History and Social Life, the Property of Marquess of Bute, K.T. (1892). He could hardly have hoped to reach a wide audience, and yet the catalogue seems exceptionally rare even for a limited edition--copies of which are infrequently read and zealously preserved. With all these advantages, no copy of the catalogue is recorded in the British Library, and in the United States, the National Union Catalogue lists only the Newberry and Harvard copies. Neither does it appear under "General Works. Bibliographies" in vol. 2 of the new CBEL, though it forms a useful supplement to Wing.

The Harvard copy, indeed, was only acquired in the course of the negotiations that brought the Bute broadsides themselves into its collections in 1951. As W.A. Jackson, the then librarian of Houghton, plaintively confessed to Mr. C.E. Harris of Francis Edwards, Ltd., his agent in London:

"Though I have a personal copy here, it really doesn’t belong to me but belongs to Graham Pollard, from whom I borrowed it some years ago and have since, on many occasions and at the cost of a good many cocktails, tried to buy it."1

One inevitably wonders whether it was Pollard who first drew Jackson’s attention to the Bute collection, but I have been unable to confirm this conjecture. One also notes that Jackson, whose grasp of rare books was legendary, never seems to have contemplated returning the catalogue he borrowed.

In any case but most probably because the catalogue was virtually introuvable, the collection was little known while it remained in private ownership. It is not recorded in the first STC nor in the first edition of Wing (1945-51) nor (which is harder, perhaps, to explain) in volume 1 of the second edition of Wing (1970). The bellmen’s verse, particularly noticed on the title-page of the catalogue, is explicitly excluded from D.F. Foxon’s English Verse 1701-1750 [1975], for reasons that are perhaps obvious enough if you have ever read any of these productions--but then, who but Foxon has? The present catalogue and facsimiles, then, should make generally available for the first time a mass of quite uncommon yet exceptionally interesting material.

Lord Bute, one imagines, was inspired by the agreeable productions of John Ashton, who rummaged through the British Museum collections of chapbooks, broadside ballads and other ephemera in the 1880’s for anthologies illustrating English eighteenth-century life and social conditions. In its present form, the collection is variously mounted or inlaid in five large (66 cm.) portfolios, bound in three-quarter green morocco and marbled boards. The rather garish polychrome bookplate of the third Marquess adorns the whole. The general arrangement is chronological, interrupted only by a wild excursion of Bellmen’s verse at the end of volume 4, which extends down to 1779. Each volume is numbered in a code that possibly reflects the ultimate provenance of the pieces and that has been retained as far as possible in the Houghton cataloguing: A 1-100, 101-198 (vols. 1-2); B 1-79, 80-153 (vols. 3-4); C 1-95 (vol. 5). In particular, most of the "B" section from 1685-1720 derives from the library of Narcissus Luttrell (1657-1732), who has annotated each item in his characteristic fashion, giving (usually) the price he paid, the day, month and year of publication and (occasionally) a well-informed comment on the author or political viewpoint.

I can scarcely improve upon W.A. Jackson’s enthusiastic description of the contents, as set out in his Houghton Library Report for 1950-51:

"The majority of these pieces, which are in both prose and verse, do not appear to be otherwise recorded. If other copies are known, they rarely number more than one or two. Most of them are anonymous but they include works by Richard Baxter, John Bunyan, Thomas Bushell (Lord Bacon’s man), Nicholas Culpeper, George Fox (2), John Lilburn (2), Peter Motteux, William Penn (2), Matthew Prior, William Prynne (2), and Dr. Wilde.

There are a good many poetical pieces relating to Cromwell, the Restoration, Titus Oates, and the coming of William of Orange, as well as to victories in Ireland, at Namur, etc. There are half a dozen or more regarding powders, plasters, and other remedies; as many more relating to the plague; and a dozen regarding hospitals and the relief of the poor. Several give interesting light on projects for the rebuilding of London after the Fire; others refer to the activities of corporate bodies, such as the East India Stock Company, the African Adventurers, and the Royal Society. A number relate to earthquakes, eclipses, monsters seen in the country, horrible murders, and other phenomena. Some are concerned with commercial ventures of the patentee glassmakers, weavers, soapmakers, and watermen, the draining of the fens, the sale of forests, and the holding of lotteries and horse races. A dozen or more are publication proposals; while others attack the government, the Quakers, the Jews, the exiled Jacobites, as well as individuals. Some thirty are Bellmen’s ballads, while there are a number of elegies, including one by Robert Midgley on Dr. Fell and another on the death of Dryden. No one concerned with the period covered by this collection could fail to find material here of value and interest to him."2

He celebrated the occasion with the reproduction of A General Note of the Prices of Binding all Sorts of Books (1669), no. A 182.

The purchase of the collection, for what now seems the bargain price of £2,500, was made possible by the gift of Curt H. Reisinger, the British Museum generously acceding to an export license in return for the deposit of a microfilm of the originals sold to Harvard. The Museum’s generosity was sweetened, one hopes, by the gift to them later in the same year of yet another Bute collection of broadsides, composed of nineteenth-century political cartoons.

The third Marquess of Bute, to whom we owe the assembling and survival of these rarities, is not best known as a collector, though he inherited distinguished libraries formed by the third Earl, George II’s prime minister, and the first Marquess, both of whom had served as trustees of the British Museum. These included a large part of the library of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, his great-great-great grandmother, a notable collection of early English drama (deposited in 1956 in the National Library of Scotland) and a superb collection of scientific rariora and association volumes formed by the third Earl.3 "Although he expended annually a considerable sum on the equipment of his libraries," writes the biographer of their descendant,

"Bute was no bibliophile in the sense in which that word is now often used. Tall-paper copies, first editions, volumes unique for their rarity, and publications de luxe had no interest for him at all. What he aimed at was to surround himself with a first-rate working library… His library had standing orders, in the case of new books of interest and utility, to purchase three copies, so that wherever he chanced to be resident [i.e., in Scotland, Wales or London?] he found the tools of his craft ready to his hand."4

Within these interests, however, as some of the books and manuscripts dispersed by his descendant at Sotheby’s, 30 Oct. 1950, suggest, he acquired some items of surpassing interest and quality. Of these, I would only note (and mourn) a book that Harvard "tried desperately to get" but lost: one of the two known copies of the first book printed in Paraguay, J.E. Nieremberg’s De la diferencia entre to temporal y eterno [Loreto] 1705; translated into Guaraní with plates engraved by the Jesuit mission’s converts, and printed by them in specially cut and cast type.5

A man "of scholarly tastes and a shy disposition,"6 Bute’s most notorious feat was rather his youthful conversion to Catholicism; disdaining, as he sturdily wrote some years later, to participate in the crimes of "a lustful and tyrannical King, and…a pack of greedy, time-serving and unpatriotic nobles", who pillaged the church in the sixteenth century.7 The resulting scandal is supposed to have provided Disraeli with the theme of Lothair. The fruits of the national crime, in the form of rights of presentation to the numerous ecclesiastical benefices in Bute’s English and Welsh estates, fell on his conversion to the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge; or would have fallen, if Lord Bute had not eluded the spirit of the law by vesting the rights in Anglican trustees to exercise on his behalf.

His expressed motives may seem a little unrealistic, therefore, or at least, a rationalization of more genuine feeling; but that is not to question his sincerity, nor his tolerance, which was generously extended to all but the schismatic Anglican and Eastern Orthodox churches. In later years, as Lord Rector of St. Andrews, he sought for the appointment of a rabbi to alleviate "the religious desolation" of the Jewish students, and protested the setting of an examination during the High Holy Days. It is true (and perhaps had some weight in a mind of his historical persuasion) that he believed the "very famous…Pilgrim of Treves," who briefly proclaimed himself Pope during the Great Schism before relapsing into Judaism, was one of his ancestors.8

He seems to have been especially gifted in languages, now addressing the National Eisteddfod in Welsh, now translating the Euchologion from Coptic, now learning Hebrew in order to translate the Psalms for his magnum opus, an English version of the entire Roman Breviary (1879). Among the manuscripts sold at Sotheby’s in 1950 were the records of the Spanish Inquisition in the Canary Islands, on which he based a discourse "On the Ancient Language of the Natives of Teneriffe." Inspired by a lively devotion to Saint Magnus of Orkney, he investigated that earl’s remains, part of which, including two shinbones, was allegedly preserved in Kirkwall Cathedral and part of which, including one shin-bone, was venerated at Prague. A Latin letter to the Cardinal Archbishop of Prague received no reply, much to the disgust of the secular prince of the church: "the reliques of St. Magnus themselves," he wrote, "could not be more voiceless than the Cardinal of Prague in regard to my (I hope) courteously-worded request."9 In the event, he concluded that the Kirkwall bones were those of St. Magnus’s nephew, Earl St. Rognwald. There is a touching contrast between the delicacy of these scholarly investigations and the stalwart tenacity of the personality pursuing them.

He was diverted from these avocations by numerous architectural projects, including the rebuilding of his principal seat Mountstuart (Isle of Bute), on which he lavished his abundant taste, wealth and scholarship:

"The feudal massiveness of Cardiff and Castell Coch, of Rothesay Castle and Mochrum, the graceful Gothic of Pluscarden, the Franciscan austerity of Elgin, the rich Renaissance and Jacobean details of Falkland, the Byzantine perfection of Sancta Sophia (copied by him in miniature at Galston)--all these appealed to him, each in its degree, with equal interest and force."10

There is something very American in this last (there is another copy of Sancta Sophia in Lowell, Mass.); though Lord Bute’s opinion of Americans (I am sorry to say) was that they were "as like one another (to English eyes) as Chinese or negroes. It is impossible to tell them apart."11 At all events, as an architect friend observed, "One of the outstanding facts of his life was that he was never out of the mortar-tub."12 Above his head, on the dome of his study in Mountstuart, appeared the horoscope of his nativity, while in the central hall, mused his obituarist (not without aid from Shelley and Coleridge).

"at Lord Bute’s bidding was that great vault encircled with a translucent zone which pictured the constellations of the Ecliptic; the starry lights represented by prisms inserted in that "dome of many-coloured glass." There through, as through a fictive Zodiac, travelled the sun all day; with many a counterchange of azure stains or emerald on the broad floor below, and here and there the dazzling flash of a sudden-kindled star."13

Lord Bute, one feels, had the proper obsessions but rather too many of them, wanting the ruthless singlemindedness of a true collector. His biographer mentions his work on Scottish chronology, still unpublished, "the immense folio volumes, specially constructed for the purpose, in which day by day and year by year he inserted dates, with the barest and briefest statement of facts bearing on the history of Scotland and her early kings, as he encountered them in the course of his omnivorous reading."14 There is an interesting connection here with his passion for ephemera, and the impartiality that makes his selection so balanced and various.

The catalogue, reproduced here from Houghton cards, is largely the work of my predecessor Daniel Whitten. I have tried to incorporate the advance in knowledge since 1951, profiting particularly from the findings of the new STC and D.F. Foxon, but also, in various ways, from the Wing Revision, Margaret Crum’s First-line Index of English Poetry, 1500-1800 (1969) and the Yale Poems on Affairs of State (1963-70). The uniqueness of many of the pieces, though it rightly made Jackson’s heart rejoice, is not a property that conduces to exact description or good cataloguing; a few items turned out to be unique, for example, only because they were more or less unrecognizably imperfect. One important by-product of the facsimile will be to make unique pieces multiple, allowing their integration into ordinary scholarly resources and sparing the originals unnecessary use. I would welcome any corrections that are uncovered as a result.

Since a catalogue is an organic whole, it is not entirely feasible to form a new catalogue by abstracting part of it. There are occasional references to other cards in the Houghton catalogue not reproduced here, and more commonly, the Bute copy appears as the second copy on the set, which may prove slightly confusing. The collection includes parts of one serial, variously called A true report of the president and governours of the [London] corporation for the poor, whose fortunes are interwoven with those of another serial, A psalm [or, Two psalms] of thanksgiving to be sung by the children of Christ’s hospital, which began ca. 1610.15 Possibly these are periodicals; but they have been catalogued as monographs here--a cumbersome solution, but unavoidable, given the incompleteness of our knowledge concerning this serial. I have tried to indicate possible connections between the scattered pieces by cross-references. The original subject cataloguing, whose divisions are appropriate for a catalogue of some three or four million cards, often seems needlessly encumbered with subdivisions and distractingly modern in its concepts when reduced to the scale of a few thousand entries and restricted to a single vanished era. I have tried to cope with these mechanical inconveniences, relying on the native sloppiness of the human mind to make accommodations for the more intractable headings. I have added a few headings for items of special interest, such as corrected proofs, or special forms, such as lists. The work is not likely to become a work of reference--indeed, if it were not so large, it would make a perfect livre de chevet. I hope, therefore, that my gimcrack apparatus will suffice.

To Use the Print Guide

The catalogue and index to the Bute Broadsides contain references to the original numbers assigned to them: A1-198, B1-153; C1-95. The microfilm is arranged in this sequential order, and each item is identified on the film with its Bute number, enabling the reader to go directly to the desired broadside from either catalogue or index.

Footnotes

1 Letter dated 3 November, 1950, in Jackson’s correspondence, Houghton Library.

2 Pages 17-18.

3 See my introduction to the facsimile of the sale catalogue of her library (Sotheby, 31 July 1928) in Sale Catalogues of Libraries of Eminent Persons (A.N.L. Munby, gen. ed.) v. 7 (London, 1973).

4 Sir David Hunter Blair John Patrick, Third Marquess of Bute, K.T. (1847-1900) a Memoir (London, 1921) p. 125-6. Such characterizations (or disclaimers) need not be taken too literally. The Earl of Crawford, whose acquisitions included a Gutenberg Bible, also proclaimed, "My object in collecting is utility. I don’t search after Editiones principes, black letter and rarities." (Cited in A.R.A. Hobson’s review of Nicholas Barker’s Bibliotheca Lindesiana (1978), TLS 23 June 1978, p. 719).

5 Lot 148; Jackson’s letter of 3 November, 1950 (above, n.1).

6 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, s.t. Bute.

7 Blair, p. 40.

8 Blair, p. 27 & 195-6. I have tried and failed to confirm the historicity of this figure, and his connection (through the Hastings family) with Bute. He does not appear in the Diarium Antonii Petri, in Muratori, Rerum italicarum scriptores, ed. G. Carducci & V. Fiorini, v. 24, pt. 4 (1913) the main primary source for Roman events; nor is a number of works on the Great Schism and the Hastings family that I have consulted.

9 Blair, p. 151.

10 Blair, p. 222.

11 Blair, p. 157.

12 "Recollections by Sir R. Rowand Anderson" in Blair, p. 241.

13 "Obituary Notice by Mr. F.W.H. Myers" in Blair, p. 246.

14 Blair, p. 142.

15 See Susi Jeans, "The Easter Psalms of Christ’s Hospital," Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 1961-62, p. 45-60. This article came to my attention too late to correct and supplement the cataloguing, but the composer of the Easter psalm from 1664 to 1675 was Richard Price, from 1676 to 1687, John Curtis, and from 1688 to 1697, Richard Brown; the composer’s name is sometimes used as a main entry (e.g., in Wing).

 

INDEX

This index is primarily a subject index, but also includes form entries (e.g. caricatures and cartoons) and minor added entries (e.g. joint authors, illustrators, translators, etc.)

Abell, William, fl. 1640. A 30.
Abgarus, king of Edessa. B 118.
Academic dissertations. A 10, A 13, A 68, A 78, A 135, A 147, B 10.
Adultery. C 6 (1).
Albemarle, George Monk, 1st duke of, 1608-1670. See Monk, George, 1st duke of Albemarle, 1608-1670.
Alexander, Mary (Vanlore), countess of Stirling. See Stirling, Mary (Vanlore) Alexander, countess of.
Almanacs. A 8, A 35, A 142, B 82, C 48, C 63-64, C 66.
Almshouses and workhouses. A 77.
Anglo-Dutch war, 1652-1654. A 52.
Anne, queen of Great Britain, 1665-1714. B 101 (2), C 21.
Apprentices. B 33.
Army, Great Britain. See England - Other institutions - Army.
Army, Netherlands, See Netherlands. Army.
Askew, James, fl. 1661. A 148.
Astrology. A 7.
Astronomical instruments. B 87.
Ath, Belgium, Siege of, 1697. B 121.
Auctions. A 171, B 89.
Bacon, Francis, viscount St. Albans, 1561-1626. A 126.
Balance of trade. A 124.
Baptism. A 105.
Barbary corsairs and captives. B 2.
Barcelona, Siege of, 1706. C 44.
Barebone, Praisegod, 1596?-1679. Mr. Praise-God Barebone his petition [1660]. A. 129.
Bartholomew fair, London. A 99 (2)
Bath, Eng. B 63*.
Baxter, Richard, 1615-1691. The crucifying of the world. A 160.
Beard, Thomas, d. 1632. B 3.
Bellmen’s verse. See New Year addresses; Carriers’ addresses.
Berwick, John, fl. 1660. A 132.
Bible. Outlines, syllabi, etc. A 136. Revelation. A 114-115. Song of Solomon i: 2-3. B 48.
Bickham, George, 1706?-1771, engr. C 92.
Blackmore, Sir Richard, d. 1729. C 13.
Blank forms. A 67, A 90, A 98, B 95 (1).
Blenheim, Battle of, 1704. C 31.
Board games. B 73.
Book industries and trade. A 189.
Book proposals. A 189, B 5, B 11, B 18-19, B 21-24, B 27.
Bookbinding. A 182.
Books. Prices. A 162, B 11, B 13, B 18-19, B 21-22, C 61. Subscription trade. B 23-24.
Booth, Henry, 1652-1694. See Warrington, Henry Booth, 1st earl of, 1652-1694.
Bowen, Emanuel, d. 1767, engr. C 86.
Brereton, Sir William, bart., 1604-1661. A 98.
Brown, John, fl. 1648. A 39.
Buckworths lozenges. A 198.
Burdett, Robert, fl. 1690. B 75 (1).
Business ethics. A 96.
Cadiz. C 19.
Calamy, Benjamin, 1642-1686. B 35.
Calendar (Roman). A 4.
Cards. A 2.
Caricatures and cartoons. A 38.
Carriers’ addresses. B 42, B 46, B 51, B 59, B 69, B 81, B 94, B 100, B 107, B 117, B 130, B 135-53.
Cartwright, Thomas, 1535-1603, tr. A 1.
Catalogues, Booksellers’. A 149-50, B 27, C 61.
Catechisms and creeds. A 5, A 22, A 24-25, A 113.
Catholics. A 180.
Characters and characteristics. A 93, A 159, B 123 (1)-(2), C 56, C 89.
Charities. A 43-44, A 175-76.
Charity schools. A 164, A 175-6, B 8, B 17, B 43, B 56, C95.
Charles V, duke of Lorraine, 1643-1690. B 72.
Charles I, king of Great Britain, 1600-1649. A 12a, C 24, C 48, C 51-2, C 68, C 78.
Charles II, king of Great Britain, 1630-1685. A 12c, A 144. A proclamation for discovering and preventing the many fraudulent practises…in…His Majesties customs. A 145.
Children - Charities, protection, etc. A 65, A 76.
Chocolate. A 194.
Christian art and symbolism. C 2.
Christ’s hospital, West Horsham, Eng. (for boys). A 164, B 8, B 17, B 33, B 43, B 56, C 95.
Church of England. Book of common prayer. A 111. Ceremonies and practices. A 174. Constitutions and canons. B 4. Doctrinal and controversial works. A 1.
Churchill, John, 1650-1722. See Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st duke of, 1650-1722.
Cleveland, Barbara (Villiers) Palmer, duchess of, 1641-1709. A 180.
Coffee. A 194.
Coinage. B 115 (2).
Coke, Sir Edward, 1552-1634. B 23. A book of entries. B 24.
College of doctors of laws exercent in the ecclesiastical and admiralty courts, London. A 31.
Commandments, Ten. B 120.
Commissioners of sewers, Great Britain. See England - Other institutions - Commissioners of sewers.
Conduct of life. B 41, C 60.
Congregationalism. A 113.
Conscience. B 31.
Coronations. B 62, B 66.
Cost and standard of living. B 88.
Creeds. See Catechisms and creeds.
Crocket, captain, fl. 1692. B 96.
Cromwell, Oliver, 1599-1658. A 60, A 62-3, A 79.
Cross, Thomas, fl. 1632-1682, engr. C 67.
Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. A 197.
Culpeppers lozenges & pills. A 197.
Customs house, Great Britain. See England - Other institutions - Customs establishment.
Dangerfield, Thomas, 1650?-1685. B 39.
Dankerman, Cornelius, fl. 1694. An elegy from Holland … B 109.
Death. B 44, B 49-50.
December 2, 1661. By the corporation of Trinity-house, London. A 148.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661-1731. C 56. The memorial. C 14. The true-born Englishman. C 9.
Dey, Richard, fl. 1641-1643, tr. A 100.
A dialogue against playing at cardes and tables. A 2.
Dissenters. A 41, A 112, A 159, B 52, C 33.
Dissertations. See Academic dissertations.
Doctors’ commons, London. See College of doctors of laws exercent in the ecclesiastical and admiralty courts.
Domestic economy. B 41.
Donauwörth, Battle of, 1704. C 31.
Dorislaus, Isaac, 1595-1649. A 52.
Drapers’ company, London. See London - Institutions - Drapers’ company.
Drogheda, Ireland. B 68 (2)
Dryden, John, 1631-1700. C 5.
Dueling. A 82.
Duns Scotus, Joannes, 1265?-1308. A 78.
Earthquakes. Italy, 1693. B 101 (1); 1703. C 23; Jamaica, 1692. B 96, B 99.
East India company. B 64.
Eclipses. Lunar, 1736. C 87; Solar, 1699. B 133; 1715. C 80; 1724. C85; 1737. C 88.
Eikön basilikë. B 132.
Elections. B 77.
Elephants. A 28.
The eleven members justification. A 99 (1).
Elyot, Thomas, fl. 1665. A 169.
Emblems. B 112, C 75.
England, GENERAL: Commerce. A 124, A 171; Defenses. B 95 (2); Foreign relations. B 85-86; Government. A 70, A 81, A 89; History, 1642-1660. A 133, A 139; 1649-1660. A 80, A 119, A 130. PARLIAMENT: 1640. A 16a-16b; 1647. A 37; 1650. A 46; 1659. A 42, A 116, A 134, A 140-141; 1660. A 29, A 129, A 84-85, A 141; 1701. C 15, 1710. C 72; House of lords. B 74; Laws, statutes, etc. (Commonwealth) An act for indempnity and free pardon (1659). A 117. OTHER INSTITUTIONS: Army. A 98, A 116, A 123. Military life. B 22, Pay, Allowances, etc. A 55, A 123, C 39. Commissioners of sewers. A 118. Courts. Les reports de Edward Coke. B 23. Customs establishment. A 47, A 145. Navy. B 104 (2). Post Office. A 16a-16b, A 32. Sovereigns and princes (see also under the names of individual sovereigns). B 92, B 114, C 22, C 74.
English language. B 25
Ephemerides (Astronomical). A 161.
Episcopacy. A 83.
Epson, Eng. B 20.
Europe, B 85-6.
Examination questions. A 147.
Fairfax, Thomas Fairfax, 3d baron, 1612-1671. A 40.
Fairs. A 99 (2), C 63.
Faith. A 165.
Fasting. C 6 (2).
Fasts and feasts. C 64, C 66.
Fell, John, bp. of Oxford. 1625-1686. B 45.
Fens, England. A 51.
Fido, George, fl. 1689-1707, joint author. A copy of verses. B 117, B 130, B 135-40.
Fifth monarchy men. A 132.
Finch, John Finch, 1st baron. 1584-1660. A 27.
Fletcher, Joan, fl. 1699. B 134.
Flies. C 57.
Floods. A 118.
Food. England. A 122. London. B 88.
For the bill against clandestine trade. C 1.
Forests. A 61.
Forgiveness of sin. B 30.
Forms (Blank). See Blank forms.
The fortunate lawyer. B 113 (2).
Fourdrinier, Paul, d. 1758, ascribed engr. C 87.
Frederick, Louis, prince of Wales, 1707-1751. C 83.
Freedom of teaching. A 135.
Friends, Society of. A 146, A 183-4, C 10.
Fuller, William, 1670-1717?. C 18.
Funeral rites. B 110.
Gadbury, John, 1627-1704. B 71.
Gambling. A 2.
Games. B 73.
George I. king of Great Britain, 1660-1727. C 77 (1), C 84.
Glasgow - Fires. A 62.
Glass. A 97.
Glenshiel Pass, Battle of, 1719. C 82.
Goddard, John, fl. 1645-1671, engr. A 49.
Gout. C 46.
Grand Alliance, War of the, 1689-1697. B 104 (2).
Great Britain. See England.
Gucht, Michiel van dev, 1660-1725. See Van der Gucht, Michiel, 1660-1725.
Hampstead, Eng. C 47 (1)-(2).
Harbors, C 36.
Hell Fire club, 1721. C 84.
Helmont, Jan Baptista van, 1577-1644. A 190.
Henrietta Maria, queen consort of Charles I, 1609-1669. A 12b.
Hicks, Thomas, fl. 1657-1674. B 16, B 26.
Hobry, Denis, d. 1688 - Poetry. B 54-55.
Hobry, Mrs. Marie, d. 1688 - Poetry. B 54-55.
Holland. See Netherlands.
Holles, Denzil Holles, 1st baron, 1599-1680. A 99 (1).
Horology. B 87.
Horse-racing. C 50.
Hospitals. A 44.
How, Samuel, d. 1640. The sufficiencie of the spirits teaching. A 21.
Jacobite rebellion, 1745-1746. C 92.
Jacobites. B 63 (1), B 65, B 95 (2), B 124 (1)-(2), B 125, C 16.
James II, king of Great Britain, 1633-1701. A 12d, B 34, B 61.
James, prince of Wales, the Old Pretender, 1688-1766. B 53, B 57, B 84.
Jesuits. A 22.
Jesus Christ. B 118, C 8, C 12.
Jews. A 48, A 131.
Joseph, Hebrew patriarch. C 26.
Jupiter (Planet). C 86.
Jurisdiction. B 74.
Justices of the peace. A 73.
Kilmore, Ireland. B 68 (1).
Kirke, Percy, 1646? - 1691. B 68 (1).
Landau, Germany. C 19.
Laud, William, abp. of Canterbury, 1573-1645. A thankesgiuing for the safe deliuery of the Queene. A 12c.
Law - Language. A 54, A 59.
Lawyers. B 113 (1)-(2).
Lee, Edward, fl. 1656. A 67.
Liberty of the press - Gt. Brit. B 102.
Limerick, Ireland (city). B 75 (1), B 90.
Lincolnshire (Inhabitants). A 51.
Lists (see also Indexes and tables; Catalogues): A 32, A 142, C 92; African imports. A 171; Apprentices. B 33; Blasphemers. A 64, C 84; Captives. B 2; Horse races. C 50; Members of Parliament. C 72; Mortality. A 172; Prices. A 182, C 61; Regicides. C 52, C 78; Royal Society. A 181; Stationers. A 9; Stockholders. A 69. Whores. B 89, C 43.
London. GENERAL: Brewers. A 117; Celebrations and festivals. B 126-128; Charities. B 8, B 17, B 43, B 56, C 95; Citizens. A 119; Cost and standard of living. B 88; Elections. B 77; Fairs. A 99 (2); Fire, 1666. A 173; Floods. A 118; Hospitals. A 44; Lighting. B 91; Moral conditions. C 43; Plague, 1636. A 163; 1665. A 166-170, A 172; Planning. A 173, A 179; Poor. A 43; Prisons and reformatories. C 25; Prostitution. B 89, C 43; Sewers. A 118; Statistics. A 170, A 172; Water. A 17. INSTITUTIONS: Christ’s hospital (see Christ’s hospital, West Horsham, Eng. (for boys); Court of common council. A 29, A 120,. B 126; Doctors’ commons (see College of doctors of laws exercent in the ecclesiastical and admiralty courts); Drapers’ company. B 29; Parish clerks’ company. A 172; St. Paul’s cathedral. A 121; Stock exchange. C 90; Woodmongers’ company. A 120.
Lotteries. A 17, A 151-2, A 162, B 11, B 13, B 21-2, B 105 (1)-(2).
Louis XIV, king of France, 1638-1715 - Poetry. C 29.
Lowndes, Richard, fl. 1640-1675. An advertisement of concern to this city. A 198.
Mainwaring, Everard, fl. 1635. A 17.
Manners, John, 1638-1711. See Rutland, John Manners, 1st duke of, 1638-1711.
Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st duke of, 1650-1722. C 32, C 38, C 40 (1)-(2), C 53.
Marriage. B 134.
Marriage (Canon Law). B 4.
Marshall, William, fl. 1630-1650, engr. A 100.
Mary II, queen of Great Britain, 1662-1694: B 101 (2), B 110, B 112; Poetry. B 109, B 111; Portraits. B 78, B 82, B 114.
Maxims, A 110, A 177.
May, Thomas, fl. 1664. A 156.
Medical ethics. A 169.
Medicines - Patent, etc. A 101, A 158, A 168, A 190, A 192, A 197, A 198, B 32.
Merchants. B 29.
Mineral waters. B 20.
Mining engineering. A 126.
Mr. Prynnes letter to the Generall the third of January 1648 [1649]. A 40.
Money. C 67.
Monk, George, 1st duke of Albemarle. 1608-1670. A 89.
Monmouth, James Scott, duke of, 1649-1685. B 40.
Monsters. B 104 (1).
Montagu, Edward, 1625-1672. See Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of, 1625-1672.
Mourning. B 108.
Musical intervals and scales. B 9.
Namur (City), Belgium, Siege of, 1692. B 97.
Naval ordnance. See Ordnance, Naval.
Navy, Great Britain. See England - Other institutions - Navy.
Netherlands. Army. B 131.
New Year addresses. B 42, B 46, B 51, B 59, B 69, B 81, B 94, B 100, B 107, B 117, B 130, B 135-153.
Oates, Titus, 1649-1705: Poetry. B 37-38; Portraits. B 36.
Oaths. A 92, A 122, A 138.
The Observator. C 17, C 28.
Ogilby, John, 1600-1676. Britannia. B 5, B 11, B 21.
Ordnance, Naval. A 90.
Orford, Robert Walpole, 1st earl of, 1676-1745. See Walpole, Robert, 1st earl of Orford, 1676-1745.
Palmer, Barbara (Villiers), 1641-1709. See Cleveland, Barbara (Villiers) Palmer, duchess of, 1641-1709.
Paris, John, b. 1863? Ramillies. A poem. C 49.
Parish clerks’ company, London. See London - Institutions - Parish clerks’ company.
Parker, Michael, fl. 1635. A 17.
Partridge, John, 1644-1715. C 65.
Peddlers and peddling. B 29.
Penn, William, 1644-1718. B 16, B 26.
Periodicals. A 65, A 76, A 164, A 175-6, B 8, B 17, B 43, B 56, B 63 (1), C 95.
The picture of the Observator. C 30.
Plague: London, 1636. A 163; 1665. A 166-170, A 172.
Player, Sir Thomas, d. 1686. B 7.
Poor. A 43.
Post office, Great Britain. See England - Other Institutions - Post office.
Preaching. A 45.
Presbyterians. A 38, A 106, A 109, A 143.
Prisons. B 80 (2)
Prodigies. B 118, C 57.
Proofs and manuscript corrections. A 103, C 1.
Prophecies. A 125, B 83, C 40 (1), C 54-55.
Prostitution. B 89, C 43.
Puritans. A 1.
Puzzles. A 187.
Pyrenees, Peace of, 1659. A 185.
Quakers. See Friends, Society of.
The Quakers last shift found out. B 14.
The Quakers pedigree. A 188.
Rastell, William, 1508?-1565. A collection of entries. B 24.
Reclamation of land. A 6.
Regicides. A 130.
Religion and law. A 153.
Rich, Christopher, d. 1714. C 5.
Robins, John, fl. 1650-1652. A 64.
Rudyard, Thomas, fl. 1670-1674. The Anabaptists printed proposals. A 196.
Rutland, John Manners, 1st duke of. 1638-1711. A 82.
Sacheverell, Henry, 1674?-1724: C 69, C 70, C 72: Poetry. C 74, C 76 (1)-(2); Portraits. C 71.
Sailors. A 148.
St. Paul’s cathedral, London. See London - Institutions - St. Paul’s cathedral.
Salmon, William, 1644-1713. A 191.
Salt industry and trade. A 18.
Salvation. B 93.
Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of, 1625-1672. B 6.
Savery, Robert, fl. 1653-1657. A 74.
Saving and thrift. B 12.
Scotland-Union with England. C 58.
Scott, James, 1649-1685. See Monmouth, James Scott, duke of, 1649-1685.
Sells, Andrew, fl. 1657. A 74.
Seneffe, Battle of, 1674. B 15.
Senex, John, d. 1740, engr. C 80, C 81 (2), C 85, C 88.
Shanks, Joshua, fl. 1690. B 75 (1).
Sheldon, Gilbert, abp. of Canterbury, 1598-1677. An admonition to all such as shall intend hereafter to enter the state of matrimony… B 4.
Smuggling. C 1.
Society of Friends. See Friends, Society of.
Soldiers, B 131.
Solemn league and covenant, 1643. A 34, C 37.
Spanish succession, War of, 1701-1714. C 27.
Stanhope, James Stanhope, 1st earl, 1673-1721. C 77 (2).
Stirling, Mary (Vanlore) Alexander, countess of, plaintiff. A 94.
Stock exchange. C 90.
Sunday observance. A 57, A 128, B 3.
A table or short view off all ecclesiasticall discipline. A 1.
Tables. See Indexes and tables.
Talbot, Richard, 1630-1691. See Tyrconnel, Richard Talbot, 3d earl of, 1630-1691.
Tany, Thomas, fl. 1649-1655. A 64.
Taxation. A 141, B 95 (1).
Tea. A 194.
Temple, John, d. 1689. B 63 (2).
Ten Commandments. See Commandments, Ten.
Theology - Study and teaching. A 68.
Thompson, George, fl. 1650. A 46.
Toland, John, 1670-1722. Amyntor. B 132.
The Tories great doubts and difficulties. C 15.
Tory party. B 75 (2).
Treason. B 102.
Turtall, J ,fl. 1708-1709, joint author. A copy of verses. B 142-43.
Tutchin, John, 1661?-1707. C 17, C 30, C 56.
Tyrconnel, Richard Talbot, 3rd earl of, 1630-1691. B 60.
Van der Gucht, Michiel, 1660-1725, engr. C 71, C 81 (1).
Vanlore, Mary. See Stirling, Mary (Vanlore) Alexander, countess of.
Vertue, George, 1684-1756, engr. C 83.
Villiers, Barbara, 1641-1709. See Cleveland, Barbara (Villiers) Palmer, duchess of, 1641-1709.
Walker, George, 1618-1690. B 67.
Walker, John, fl. 1650. A 46.
Walpole, Robert, 1st earl of Orford, 1676-1745. C 93.
Warrington, Henry Booth, 1st earl of, 1652-1694. B 70.
Welsh, C 4, C 11.
Welsh language. C 4.
Westminster assembly of divines. A 34.
Weyland, William, 1656?-1675. A call to sinners to sin no more. B 30.
Weyland, William, fl. 1675, joint author. A call to sinners to sin no more. B 30.
Wharton, Philip Wharton, duke of, 1698-1731. C 84.
Whig party (Gt. Brit.) B 80 (1), C 16, C 28, C 56, C 79.
Whitsand Bay (Land’s End), England, C 36.
Wild, George, bp. of Derry, 1610-1665. A 75.
William III, king of Great Britain, 1650-1702: B 85, B 115 (1), B 126, C 20; Coronation. B 62, B 66: Poetry. B 58, B 76, B 79, B 98, B 119, B 127-129; Portraits. B 78-79, B 82, B 86, B 114.
Windebank, Sir Francis, 1582-1646. A 27.
Wine and wine making. A 30.
Witherings, Thomas, d. 1651. A 16a-16b.
Women in politics. C 94.
Woodmongers’ company, London. See London - Institutions - Woodmongers’ company.
Wool trade and industry. A 37.
Workhouses. See Almhouses and workhouses.
Wright, Joseph, fl. 1700. C 6 (2).