Introduction: The Papers of Andrew Jackson
The years of Andrew Jackson’s life spanned more than seven crucial decades in the history of the American nation, from the early days of the revolutionary era to the eve of Texas annexation. During these years the British colonies won their independence, established a republic, and expanded across the continent to the Oregon country. Large increases in population and rapid expansion altered the character of the nation, provoking sectional tensions, Indian conflicts, and social disharmony. Revolutions in industry and transportation transformed business, labor, and professional organizations and structures. The economic life of the country advanced through unsettling cycles of expansion and contraction, affecting varied interests in different ways. Money, banking, internal improvements, the tariff, public land disposition, and moral questions, including slavery and Indian removal, became commonplace subjects of politics. Party structure, practices, and procedures changed drastically, a new style of electioneering emerged, and voter participation rose as the first American party system succumbed to the second.
Following the War of 1812, nationalism emerged as a dominant mood, but sectionalism and slavery soon reached crisis proportions, threatening the young republic. It was an age when such leaders as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Andrew Jackson guided the nation through revolutionary economic, political, social, and cultural changes that tested the mettle of men and the organic nature of the Union. The same period marked the origin of the modern American state and the modern American presidency and the entry of the young republic as a full-fledged member in the international family of nations.
Andrew Jackson was one of a handful of Americans who dominated the first half of the nineteenth century. He had made his political debut as delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention in 1796. Subsequently he served as congressman and senator, state superior court judge, state militia officer, and territorial governor of Florida. He rose to national fame, however, as a military officer, defeating the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend and the British at New Orleans. Jackson’s popularity carried him to Washington in 1829, where as seventh president of the United States he made his mark, lending his name both to a movement, Jacksonian Democracy, and to an era, the Age of Jackson. He was the only occupant of the White House between James Monroe and Abraham Lincoln returned to office. As president, Jackson redefined and strengthened the office, he altered the role of the federal government in the nation’s development, and he championed the concept of a united nation in the face of rising threats of disunion. In retirement he remained the figurehead and spokesman for the coalition and party that had elected him to office.
By all accounts, Andrew Jackson was one of this nation’s strongest presidents, but he was also one of its most controversial. Though a beloved hero and leader to many, opponents denounced him as a ruffian and tyrant who violated accepted political norms and arrogantly asserted his own will. His controversial character revealed itself in his private as well as his public life. Strong-willed and ever sensitive to honor, Jackson punctuated his entire life with quarrels and disputes. His duels have become the stuff of legend. And yet, Jackson revealed another side, filled with generosity, tenderness, paternal care, and a courtly manner. Loyal to friends, unyielding to foes, Jackson was both honored and despised, loved and hated. Self-styled spokesman of the “common” man, he was nevertheless a most uncommon man.
The documents in this microfilm edition of the papers of Andrew Jackson portray both the man and the period. The personal, public, and official letters, speeches, memoranda, legal papers and opinions, receipts, accounts, and deeds collected here and published for the first time chronicle his life as he reacted to people, issues, and events. They document every phase in his complex life and the course of a nation in transition. With the publication of this microfilm, a supplement to the microfilms of Jackson papers in the Library of Congress and the National Archives, the complete body of Jackson papers is now available for the study and reevaluation of Jackson and the period which bears his name.
The objective of the Papers of Andrew Jackson - to conduct an exhaustive worldwide search for extant Jackson documents and to publish them on complementary microfilm and letterpress editions - is far beyond the ability of any single individual to accomplish; and in achieving its goal, the staff of the Jackson Papers has been most fortunate in having the assistance of thousands of individuals and institutions. The list would be too long to name each separately, but to all who responded to our requests for documents, to those archivists and curators who made available and searched collections, and to those who provided funds and moral support, we are indeed grateful.
Chief among those organizations which have provided financial and moral support has been the Ladies’ Hermitage Association. More than fifteen years ago there was wide interest in founding a scholarly enterprise to collect, edit, and publish the papers of Andrew Jackson, but it was the creative leadership of the Ladies’ Hermitage Association that translated interest into accomplished deed. With the strong support of the Association’s regent, Mrs. Fred Russell; executive board member, Mrs. Harry A.J. Joyce; and its trustees, the Association undertook in 1971 to support the project with an annual stipend and housing on the Hermitage grounds. General encouragement and support of the project has continued under the succeeding regents, Mrs. Cawthorn A. Bowen, Jr., Mrs. Allen Steele, Mrs. Robert W. Sturdivant, Mrs. Walter Morgan, Jr., Mrs. James H. Reed III, and Mrs. Charles E. Wells. For their continued nurturing over the years, indispensable to our success, we are and will remain deeply indebted to the LHA’s trustees, regents, board, and membership.
Several institutions deserve special mention, mainly for the magnitude of their contributions. Chief among these are the Library of Congress, the National Archives, and the Tennessee State Library and Archives. At the Library of Congress, John McDonough, Manuscript Historian, has assisted the project at every turn: he has made the Library’s extensive Jackson collection readily available, he has answered innumerable questions, and he continues to share with us his broad knowledge. At the National Archives, the research staff of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, and particularly Mary A. Giunta, now Assistant Director of the Commission’s Publications Program, Sara Dunlap Jackson and Timothy Connelly, Archivists, have been indefatigable in unearthing documents and answering difficult questions. Our demands at the Tennessee State Library and Archives have been incessant, but Jean Waggener, State Archivist, and her staff, Marylin Bell Hughes, John Thweatt, and Ann Alley; and Fran Schell, Reference Librarian, have cheerfully made their collections available and serviced our research requests. The staffs of the Vanderbilt University and the University of Tennessee libraries, like those of Houghton Library at Harvard University, the Chicago Historical Society, the Historic New Orleans Collection, the New York Public Library, Perkins Library at Duke University, Alderman Library at the University of Virginia, and Baker Library at Dartmouth College have far exceeded our expectations with their cooperation and assistance. The hundreds of other institutions and individuals who have answered our queries and provided us with documents and information are noted in the Repository Symbols list and in the provenance notes appended to each document. We sincerely appreciate their assistance.
We are also deeply obligated to several individuals who have assisted us far beyond any normal expectations: Debbie Cooney, research assistant; Leland Johnson, freelance historian; Kenneth C. Thomson, Jr., a Donelson descendant; Fletch Coke and Angie C.M. Donelson, members of the Board of the Ladies’ Hermitage Association; Robert V. Remini, Chairman of the project’s Advisory Board, who shared with us his knowledge of Jackson and assisted in our search for documents; Col. James S. Corbitt, who shared his collection and gave moral support; and Mary-Jo Kline, who gave us the benefit of her experience in documentary editing. To each of them, we offer our sincere thanks.
Among those to whom we are most indebted are Harriet Chappell Owsley and Sam. B. Smith, former editors. They bequeathed to the project they guided from 1971 until 1979 a strong base from which the search for documents and their editing for microfilm and letterpress publications might proceed.
Our sponsors have seen to it that the work continued, and our indebtedness to them is great and our appreciation sincere: to John Cooney, former Resident Director of The Hermitage, and particularly to Ann Harwell Wells, now Regent of the LHA and liaison to the project, for more than seven years of continuous support and encouragement; to the National Historical Publications and Records Commission and its staff, Frank G. Burke, Acting Archivist of the United States, and Richard A. Jacobs, Acting Executive Director, Richard N. Sheldon, Assistant to the Director, Roger A. Burns, Director of the Publications Program, and George L. Vogt, Director of the Records Program; to the National Endowment of the Humanities, Research Programs, for funding which made this microfilm publication possible, and especially to Richard Ekman, Director, and to staff associates Margot Backas, Kathy Fuller, David Nichols, and Helen Aguere, who have monitored our grant applications and our progress, and advised us when asked; to the Tennessee Historical Commission: Herbert L. Harper, Executive Director, Russell H. Hippe, Chairman, and Linda T. Wynn, Administrative Assistant; and finally, to our fiscal agent and sponsor, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. At the University, we are fortunate to have the encouragement and support of Edward J. Boling, President, John W. Prados, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Jack E. Reese, Chancellor, and George W. Wheeler, Provost; but we are particularly appreciative of the Office of the Dean, College of Liberal Arts - Deans Lorman A. Ratner, Charles O. Jackson, and Mary P. Richards, and Phyllis Cole, Administrative Services Assistant - for their patience, understanding, and guidance in the day-to-day administration of the project.
The supporting staff of the Jackson papers has made the work easier and more pleasant. Volunteers Elizabeth King Folger, Mary Hathcock, and Maria Kieltyka helped us when there was no one else, and they have continued to help as the staff and work increased. Charles F. Bryan, Jr., former Assistant Editor and now Director of the Mercantile Library, St. Louis, helped us get the work started; and Linda Keeton, Susan Doughty, and Rosemarie Stinemetz not only assisted with the microfilm editing but also relieved the editors of other duties which would have fallen to them.
My own greatest appreciation and thanks is to those staff members listed on the title page. They, more than any others, are responsible for making available, finally, a comprehensive edition of the papers of Andrew Jackson and this Guide and Index to the Microfilm Editions.
Harold D. Moser
March 15 - Andrew Jackson, third son of Andrew Jackson and Elizabeth Hutchinson, born in the Waxhaws of South Carolina
Andrew Jackson, Sr., died
Sept 5 - First Continental Congress convened in Carpenter’s Hall, Philadelphia
May 20 - Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence reputedly adopted
Attended schools conducted by William Humphries and James White Stephenson
July 4 - Continental Congress approved Declaration of Independence
June 20 - Battle of Stono Ferry
cJune 22 - Hugh Jackson, Andrew’s oldest brother, died
Feb - Charleston occupied by British army
Aug 6 - Participated in Battle of Hanging Rock
Aug 16 - Battle of Camden
Oct 7 - Battle of King’s Mountain
April - Captured and wounded by British; imprisoned along with brother Robert at Camden; contracted smallpox
cMay - Released from Camden jail; Robert died shortly thereafter
Fall - Elizabeth Jackson contracted cholera and died in Charleston
Resumed education and visited Charleston
Studied law under Spruce McCay in Salisbury, N.C.
Continued study of law under John Stokes
May 25 - Constitutional Convention formally organized in Philadelphia
July 13 - Northwest Ordinance adopted
Sept 26 - Licensed to practice law in North Carolina
May 12 - Licensed to practice law in Washington County
Oct - Settled in Nashville; appointed North Carolina attorney in Mero District
Nov 3 - Licensed to practice law in Davidson County
Feb 4 - Electoral college selected George Washington as president under the new Constitution
March 4 - First meeting of Congress
May 26 - Territory South of the River Ohio created
July 8 - William Blount confirmed as governor
Dec 15 - Licensed to practice law in territory
Feb 15 - Commissioned Mero District attorney under territorial government
cAug - Married Rachel Donelson Robards for the first time
Dec 15 - Bill of Rights ratified
Feb 23 - Bought Poplar Grove farm in Davidson County; sold October 18, 1797
Sept 10 - Commissioned judge advocate for the Davidson County militia
Jan 18 - Remarried Rachel
May 12 - Formed land partnership with John Overton
Nov 19 - Jay’s Treaty signed; ratified on June 24, 1795
May-June - Made first trip to Philadelphia and commenced general merchandising in Nashville in partnership with Samuel Donelson
Dec 19 - Elected a delegate to Tennessee constitutional convention
Jan 11 - Took seat in constitutional convention; served until February 6
March 10 - Purchased Hunter’s Hill farm
June 1 - Tennessee admitted as a state
July 5 - Licensed to practice law in Tennessee
Sept 19 - Washington’s Farewell Address published
Oct 22 - Elected to United States House of Representatives from Tennessee
Dec 5 - Took seat in Congress
Dec 7 - John Adams and Thomas Jefferson elected president and vice president
Dec 29 - Delivered first speech before the House of Representatives in Philadelphia
May - Quarreled with John McNairy and John Sevier
Sept 26 - Elected to United States Senate from Tennessee
Nov 22 - Took Senate seat
Dec 6 - Exposed Glasgow land frauds
April 7 - Mississippi Territory created
April 16 - Took leave of absence from Senate; probably resigned in June
Sept 20 - Commissioned interim Tennessee Superior Court judge
Dec 20 - Elected judge of the Superior Court of Tennessee by joint houses of the legislature
Rode circuit as judge of the Superior Court through April 1804
Dec 14 - Washington died
May 7 - Indiana Territory created
March 4 - Thomas Jefferson inaugurated as president; Aaron Burr, vice president
Sept 29 - Endorsed William Dickson as Republican candidate for Congress
cNov 17 - Rachel Stockley Donelson, Rachel Jackson’s mother, died
Feb 5 - Elected major general of the Tennessee militia
Feb 16 - Formed mercantile partnership with Thomas A. Watson and John Hutchings
May - Purchased goods in Philadelphia for Jackson, Watson & Hutchings
May 2 - Treaty of cession signed for the purchase of Louisiana
July 19 - Accused John Sevier of land fraud
Aug 6 - Dissolved partnership of Jackson, Watson & Hutchings, effective July 10
Aug 7 - Petitioned Thomas Jefferson re arrest of Thomas Butler
Aug 23 - Formed partnership with John Hutchings
Oct 2 - Challenged Sevier to a duel
March 26 - Orleans Territory created; Jackson sought governorship
April 19 - Received license for the operation of a retail store, Andrew Jackson & Co.
cJune - Took John Coffee into the Jackson & Hutchings partnership
July 6 - Sold Hunter’s Hill farm
July 11 - Aaron Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in duel in New Jersey
July 23 - Resigned Superior Court judgeship
Aug 23 - Purchased Hermitage property
Dec 5 - Thomas Jefferson reelected president; George Clinton, vice president
Jan 11 - Michigan Territory created
March 3 - Louisiana-Missouri Territory created
May 11 - Purchased stud horse Truxton
May 29 - Aaron Burr made first visit to the Hermitage
July 26 - Served as Thomas J. Overton’s second in Overton’s duel with John Dickinson
Nov 28 - Race between Ploughboy and Truxton cancelled
Jan 13 - Caned Thomas Swann in Nashville
cMarch 3 - Duel between Jackson and Nathaniel McNairy aborted
April 3 - Race between Ploughboy and Truxton
May 23 - Challenged Charles Dickinson to duel
May 30 - Killed Dickinson in duel; Jackson wounded
Sept 24 - Burr again visited Nashville and the Hermitage
Oct 4 - Ordered militia to state of readiness in event of war with Spain
Nov 10 - Captain John A. Fort visited Jackson at the Hermitage and revealed nature of Burr’s plans
Nov 15 - First non-importation act took effect
Nov 27 - Jefferson issued proclamation re conspiracy against Spanish possessions
Dec 13 - Burr returned to Nashville; departed December 22
Jan 2 - Placed militia on alert to counteract Burr expedition
May 12 - Departed for Richmond to testify before grand jury in Burr hearing
June 22 - British ship Leopard fired upon the Chesapeake
June 25 - Testified before Burr grand jury in Richmond
Dec - Sold Clover Bottom store to Samuel Pryor
April - Campaigned in behalf of James Monroe
Dec 4 - Andrew Jackson Donelson, son of Severn and Elizabeth Rucker Donelson, born; “adopted” by the Jacksons
Dec 7 - James Madison elected president; George Clinton, vice president
Jan 16 - Addressed citizens of Nashville on administration policy and relations with Great Britain
Feb 3 - Illinois Territory created
Sept 20 - Willie Blount succeeded John Sevier as governor of Tennessee
Jan - Sought judgeship in Mississippi Territory
Fall - Formed partnership with Joseph Coleman and Horace Green
Nov 7 - General William Henry Harrison engaged Indians at Tippecanoe
Nov 29 - Departed for Natchez to salvage investment in slaves of Coleman, Green & Jackson
Dec 16 - Severe earthquakes, centered about New Madrid, began along the Mississippi Valley
Feb 6 - President authorized to accept twelve-month volunteers to a maximum of 50,000 men
March 7 - Issued call for volunteers
April 8 - Louisiana admitted to the Union
April 10 - Congress authorized the president to call up 100,000 detached militia for six months’ service
June 18 - United States declared war on Great Britain
June 25 - Tendered service of Tennessee volunteers to Governor Blount and the president
Nov 1 - Ordered by Governor Blount to mobilize 1,500 men for a southern expedition
Dec 10 - James Madison reelected president; Elbridge Gerry elected vice president
Dec 10 - Second Division troops mustered in Nashville for expedition to New Orleans
Jan 8 - Troops under Jackson departed Nashville
Feb 6 - Secretary of war ordered Jackson’s troops dismissed
Feb 16 - Troops arrived in Natchez
March 15 - Received the secretary of war’s orders of February 6
March 24 - Jackson’s volunteers began return march to Tennessee
June 14 - Served as William Carroll’s second in Carroll’s duel with Jesse Benton
Aug 30 - Creek Indians massacred settlers at Fort Mims
Sept 4 - Wounded in fight with Jesse and Thomas Hart Benton in Nashville
Sept 24 - Second Division troops mustered in Nashville for departure to the Creek country
Oct 5 - Tecumseh killed in the Battle of the Thames
Oct 24 - Joined troops at Fort Deposit
Nov 3 - General John Coffee destroyed Creek town of Tallushatchee; Lyncoya found and later sent to the Hermitage
Nov 7 - Major General Thomas Pinckney ordered to take command of the Creek campaign
Nov 9 - Defeated Creeks at Talladega
Nov 18 - James White’s brigade of East Tennessee Volunteers destroyed Hillabee towns
Nov 29 - Georgia militia under John Floyd attacked Creeks at Autosse
Dec 13 - Ordered 1st Brigade, West Tennessee Volunteers, to return home for discharge
Jan 22 - Battle of Emuckfaw
Jan 24 - Battle of Enotochapco
March 14 - Ordered execution of John Woods for mutiny
March 27 - Battle of Horseshoe Bend
May 28 - Commissioned major general of the United States Army by President Madison
Aug 9 - Treaty of Fort Jackson sealed Creek capitulation
Aug 22 - Occupied Mobile and garrisoned Fort Bowyer
Nov 7 - Seized Pensacola
Dec 1 - Arrived in New Orleans
Dec 16 - Imposed martial law on New Orleans
Dec 23 - Attacked advance force of the invading British army
Dec 24 - Treaty of Ghent signed
Jan 8 - Battle of New Orleans
Jan 22 - Approved decision of court martial condemning six militiamen to death for mutiny
March 5 - Arrested Judge Dominick A. Hall
March 31 - Fined for contempt of U.S. District Court, New Orleans
April 6 - Left New Orleans for Nashville
May 22 - Attended banquet in his honor in Nashville
May 22 - Informed of appointment as major general, Division of the South, in the reduced peacetime army
Sept 5 - John Reid’s proposed Life of Andrew Jackson announced
cOct 13 - Left Nashville for Washington accompanied by Rachel Jackson and John Reid
Jan 18 - John Reid died
Feb 1 - Arrived in Nashville on return trip from Washington
Aug 14 - Ordered William O. Butler to survey the route for a military road from Nashville to New Orleans
Sept 20 - Concluded Chickasaw treaty
Oct 4 - Concluded Cherokee treaty
Dec 11 - Indiana admitted as a state
cFeb 22 - Ralph E.W. Earl painted his first portrait of Jackson
March 3 - Alabama Territory created
July 8 - Concluded Cherokee treaty
Dec 10 - Mississippi admitted as a state
Dec 26 - Issued orders to suppress the Seminoles
Jan 1 - Copyright notice for Reid’s Life of Andrew Jackson, completed and revised by John Henry Eaton, registered
April 7 - Seized St. Marks in Spanish Florida
April 29 - Ordered execution of Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot
May 24 - Occupied Pensacola
Oct 19 - Concluded Chickasaw treaty
Dec 3 - Illinois admitted as a state
Jan 23 - Arrived in Washington to defend his action in the Seminole campaign
Feb - Toured Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York
Feb 8 - Censure of Seminole campaign defeated in House of Representatives
Feb 22 - Adams-Onis Treaty ceding Florida to the United States signed; Senate ratified treaty on February 24
Feb 24 - Senate committee condemned AJ’s conduct of Seminole campaign
March 2 - Arkansas Territory created
Summer - Began construction of new house on the Hermitage property
Dec 14 - Alabama admitted as a state
Feb 23 - Defense of Seminole campaign presented to the Senate
Oct 18 - Concluded Choctaw treaty
Oct 24 - Spain ratified Adams-Onis Treaty
Feb 19 - Senate ratified Adams-Onis Treaty
March 10 - Commissioned governor of Florida
June 1 - Resigned commission as major general
July 17 - Received Florida for the United States from Spanish authorities
Aug 10 - Missouri admitted as a state
Nov 13 - Resigned as governor of Florida
March 30 - Florida Territory created
July 20 - Nominated for president by the Tennessee legislature
March 4 - Declined appointment as minister to Mexico
Oct 1 - Elected to the United States Senate
March 4 - Nominated for president by Pennsylvania convention
March 16 - Received medal voted by Congress for victory at New Orleans
July 4 - Attended Independence Day celebration in Nashville
Nov - Received popular and electoral plurality in presidential election
Feb 9 - House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams president
Feb 11 - Adams offered State Department to Henry Clay
Feb 14 - Denounced Adams-Clay “corrupt bargain”
May 5 - Entertained the Marquis de Lafayette at the Hermitage
Oct 12 - Resigned Senate seat
Oct 14 - Renominated for president by the Tennessee legislature
Feb 6 - United States Telegraph, edited by Duff Green, commenced publication in Washington
March 3 - Wrote John Branch of his opposition to the Panama mission
July 4 - Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died
July 4-6 - Attended Independence Day celebrations in Pulaski, Fayetteville, and Shelbyville, Tenn.
Nov 18 - Henry Lee announced his intention to write biography of Jackson
Nov 23 - Went to Florence, Ala., to oversee the affairs of Andrew Jackson Hutchings, his ward
Dec - Nashville Central Committee began collecting affidavits concerning Jackson’s marriage
Jan 5 - Opened correspondence and quarrel with Samuel L. Southard
March - Nashville Central Committee replied to John Binns’s “Coffin Handbill”
June - Nashville Central Committee completed report on Jackson’s marriage
Aug 22 - Amos Kendall joined the Jackson campaign forces
May - Henry Lee arrived at the Hermitage to work on biography
Jan 8 - Attended New Orleans anniversary celebration
June 1 - Lyncoya died
Nov - Elected president; John C. Calhoun, vice president
Dec 22 - Rachel Jackson died
Jan 19 - Departed Nashville for Washington
Feb 11 - Arrived in Washington
Feb 26 - Cabinet appointees announced in the United States Telegraph
March 4 - Inaugurated as seventh president
March - Controversy over Peggy Eaton began
Oct 10 - Instructed Anthony Butler to purchase Texas from Mexico
Dec 8 - Sent first annual message to Congress
Jan - Cabinet confrontation over the Eaton affair
April 13 - Offered toast “Our Federal Union” at Jefferson Birthday dinner
May 13 - Letter to Calhoun initiated Seminole campaign correspondence and resulted in break with the vice president
May 27 - Vetoed Maysville Road bill
May 28 - Signed Indian removal bill
June 17 - Left Washington for Tennessee; returned September 25
Aug - Oversaw Indian removal negotiations in Tennessee
Oct 5 - Proclaimed opening of the British West Indian trade
Dec 7 - Washington Globe commenced publication
Dec 7 - Sent second annual message to Congress
Feb 17 - Calhoun published Seminole correspondence
April - Cabinet secretaries John Henry Eaton, Martin Van Buren, John Branch, and Samuel D. Ingham resigned
July 4 - Signed treaty with France settling American spoliation claims
Aug 1 - Appointed Martin Van Buren minister to Great Britain
Nov 24 - Andrew Jackson, Jr., and Sarah Yorke married in Philadelphia
Jan 9 - Bank of the United States memorialized Congress for recharter
Jan 25 - Senate rejected nomination of Van Buren as minister to Great Britain
March 3 - Supreme Court ruled in Worcester v. Georgia
July 10 - Vetoed Bank recharter bill
July 14 - Signed tariff act of 1832
July 23 - Left Washington for the Hermitage; returned October 19
Nov - Defeated Henry Clay in presidential election
Nov 1 - Rachel Jackson, granddaughter, born
Nov 24 - South Carolina nullified tariff of 1832
Dec 4 - Sent fourth annual message to Congress
Dec 10 - Issued proclamation against nullification
Jan 16 - Requested tariff enforcement legislation from Congress
March 2 - Signed force bill and compromise tariff
March 4 - Pocket-vetoed distribution bill
March 4 - Inaugurated for second term
March 15 - South Carolina rescinded nullification ordinance
April 12 - John Overton died
May 6 - Assaulted by Robert B. Randolph
June 6 - Left on northeastern tour; returned July 4
June 26 - Ordered preparations for removing federal deposits from the Bank of the United States
July 7 - John Coffee died
July 10 - Treasury Secretary William J. Duane declined to order removal of the deposits
Sept 18 - Announced to the Cabinet his decision to remove the deposits
Sept 23 - Dismissed Duane and appointed Roger B. Taney secretary of the treasury
Sept 26 - Taney ordered removal of federal deposits from the bank of the United States
Dec 3 - Sent fifth annual message to Congress
Dec 12 - Refused Senate call for the Cabinet paper of September 18
Dec 31 - Andrew Jackson, Jr., purchased Hunter’s Hill farm
March 28 - Censured by the Senate for conduct in removing the deposits
April 4 - Andrew Jackson III, grandson, born
April 17 - Sent to the Senate his protest of censure
June 16 - Louis McLane resigned as secretary of state
June 24 - Senate rejected nomination of Taney as treasury secretary
June 24 - Appointed John Forsyth and Mahlon Dickerson as secretaries of state and navy
July 8 - Departed Washington for the Hermitage; returned September 30
Oct 13 - Hermitage partially destroyed by fire
Dec 1 - Recommended reprisals for French failure to fulfill claims treaty of 1831
Jan 1 - National debt extinguished
Jan 30 - Thwarted assassination attempt by Richard Lawrence
May 1 - Appointed Amos Kendall postmaster general
May 22 - Democratic convention at Baltimore nominated Martin Van Buren for president
Oct 17 - Tennessee legislature nominated Hugh Lawson White for president
Dec 7 - Recommended, in seventh annual message, prohibiting circulation of abolitionist literature through Southern mails
Dec 18 - Second Seminole War began
Dec 28 - Nominated Roger B. Taney for Chief Justice of the United States
Dec 29 - Cherokee removal treaty signed at New Echota, Ga.
Jan 15 - Announced diplomatic rupture with France and recommended reprisals and military preparations
Feb 3 - Accepted British offer of mediation in French dispute
Feb 22 - Announced resolution of French dispute
March 2 - Texas declared independence
March 3 - Federal charter of the Bank of the United States expired
April 20 - Territory of Wisconsin created
April 21 - Battle of San Jacinto
May 23 - Proclaimed Cherokee removal treaty in force
June 15 - Arkansas admitted as a state
June 23 - Signed Deposit Act
July 2 - Signed Post Office Act
July 8 - Ordered the issuance of the Specie Circular
July 10 - Departed Washington for the Hermitage; returned October 1
July 11 - Specie Circular issued by the Treasury Department
Aug 23 - Traveled to Alabama
Nov - Martin Van Buren defeated Whig candidates in presidential election
Dec 21 - Sent message on Texas to Congress
Jan 16 - Censure of AJ expunged from Senate journal
Jan 26 - Michigan admitted as a state
March 3 - Recognized independence of Texas
March 3 - Pocket-vetoed bill rescinding the Specie Circular
March 4 - Martin Van Buren inaugurated as eighth president
March 7 - Left Washington
March 25 - Arrived at Hermitage
May - Panic of 1837 began
June 9 - Grandson, Samuel Jackson, born
Aug 16 - Madisonian, newspaper established by the Conservative Democrats, commenced publication in Washington
Sept 4 - President Van Buren recommended Independent Treasury
May 31 - Congress rescinded Specie Circular
July 15 - Joined Presbyterian church
Sept 16 - Ralph E.W. Earl died
Oct 19 - Amos Kendall arrived for visit at the Hermitage
Nov 20 - Andrew Jackson, Jr., purchased Halcyon plantation in Mississippi
Oct 14 - James K. Polk inaugurated as governor of Tennessee
Jan 8 - Attended Battle of New Orleans 25th anniversary celebration
March 5 - Democratic convention in Baltimore renominated Martin Van Buren for president
July 4 - Independent Treasury bill signed into law
July 14 - Sold Hunter’s Hill plantation to pay family debts
Oct 8 - Delivered speech in Jackson, Tenn., on behalf of the Democratic candidates
Nov - William Henry Harrison defeated Van Buren in presidential contest
Jan 15 - Andrew Jackson Hutchings died
April 4 - Death of Harrison and accession of John Tyler as president
Aug 13 - Independent Treasury Act repealed
Aug 18 - Thomas J. Jackson, grandson, died
Aug - Polk defeated in gubernatorial election
Sept 11 - Tyler’s Cabinet, with the exception of Daniel Webster, resigned
Dec 21 - Received loan of $7,000 from Jean B. Plauche of New Orleans
April 25 - Van Buren arrived at the Hermitage for a visit
May 23 - Received loan of $10,000 from Francis P. Blair
Oct - Injured in carriage accident
cDec 12 - James A. McLaughlin, nephew of Amos Kendall, arrived at Hermitage to examine papers for Kendall’s proposed biography of Jackson
Feb 12 - Espoused annexation of Texas in subsequently published letter to Aaron V. Brown
Feb 22 - Kendall announced that his biography of Jackson would be issued in fifteen or more numbers
June 7 - Revised last will and testament
Aug - Polk again defeated in bid for governor
Oct 21 - Kendall forwarded to Jackson the first number of his biography; only seven numbers published
Nov 11 - Robert Armstrong Jackson, grandson, died
Feb 16 - Congress refunded AJ’s New Orleans fine of 1815
April 27 - Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren’s letters opposing annexation of Texas published in Washington newspapers
May 16 - Published letter in the Nashville Union
May 29 - News of Polk’s nomination for president by the Democratic convention in Baltimore reached Washington via telegraph
Nov - Polk defeated Henry Clay in the presidential contest
Jan 30 - Conferred with Polk at the Hermitage on the selection of his cabinet
March 27 - Declined Commodore Jesse Duncan Elliott’s offer of a sarcophagus
May 20 - Wrote Blair that his papers, including those in Kendall’s hands, were to go to Blair for safekeeping
June 8 - Died at the Hermitage at seventy-eight years of age
June 10 - Buried in the Hermitage garden
Andrew Jackson felt a deep obligation to history and, over the four decades he spent in public life, took particular care to preserve his papers so that his legacy to the American republic might be justly appraised. There were, however, unfortunate gaps in his collection. Jackson did not always keep copies of his extensive outgoing correspondence and much of that had been lost. The Hermitage fire in 1834 had also consumed some of his personal letters and, more important for posterity, he had ordered the private and confidential letters and memoranda of his two presidential terms destroyed in 1836. Yet, there remained a massive archives; and on August 7, 1842, and again on April 9, 1845, Jackson specifically entrusted all his papers to the custody of his longtime friend and adviser, Francis P. Blair, to be used at his discretion.
When Jackson died in 1845, Andrew Jackson, Jr., and Amos Kendall, a former member of Jackson’s “Kitchen Cabinet,” had possession of the papers. The larger body was housed at the Hermitage, Jackson’s home. Kendall’s collection, however, consisted of the more important documents, having been carefully selected by Jackson and his son, and by Kendall’s nephew, James A. McLaughlin, in 1842 and 1843 and sent to Kendall for his use in a proposed serial biography of Jackson. Although projected for fifteen numbers, only seven subsequently appeared, beginning with the first in October 1843 and ending with the last in mid-1844. By July 1845, Jackson’s closest friends conceded that Kendall would not likely complete his study.
After Jackson’s death, Blair sought to claim the papers Jackson had promised him. Pursuant to Blair’s request, in July 1845, Andrew, Jr., immediately forwarded the papers at the Hermitage, as Blair acknowledged in October. At the same time, Jackson fulfilled the second of Blair’s requests and urged Kendall to turn over his papers to Blair. Kendall initially refused, however, and it was not until mid-1849 that he finally relinquished the bulk of the papers. According to the best available evidence, Kendall delivered part of the papers to Blair personally and part to Jackson Hall, the old Globe offices on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington. But he withheld his personal correspondence with Jackson. Thus, within four years, Jackson’s stated wishes for the disposition of his papers had been fulfilled. Blair had both the Kendall and Hermitage collections, the latter stored at his country residence in Silver Springs, Maryland. (For a more detailed discussion of the Blairs and the Jackson papers, see John McDonough’s excellent essay in Index to the Andrew Jackson Papers, Washington, 1967.)
The Jackson papers attracted little public attention in the 1850s and 1860s, and the collection became somewhat reduced. Occasionally, Blair or his sons published an important Jackson document relating to a campaign issue, and they sometimes honored solicitations for Jackson autographs. In 1850 they extracted a large portion of Martin Van Buren’s letters and sent them to him, at his request. They also destroyed a number of what they regarded as unimportant papers. They allowed Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton access to both sets of papers for his Thirty Years’ View (1854-56), but denied James Parton the use of the collection for his three-volume Life of Jackson (1859-60).
Parton’s study preempted the field and produced a hiatus in the efforts of Jackson’s friends to commission a new biography of the “sage of the Hermitage.” George Bancroft, whom many favored for the task, had never shown any real commitment to it, and even Francis P. Blair abandoned his fleeting notions of writing one. With Kendall’s death in 1869, all hopes for a new and complete study vanished; and, upon Francis P. Blair’s death in 1875, custody of the papers passed to his son Montgomery.
The last quarter of the nineteenth century marked a rekindling of interest in the Jackson archives. This change, which had a lasting impact on the Blair collection, grew out of the efforts of William Goodson Terrell (1829-1900), an Indiana-born, Kentucky-based newspaper editor, publisher, and correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial, to collect materials for a proposed history of Kentucky. In the course of his research, he became interested in Amos Kendall as an early Kentucky journalist and Kendall’s relationships with Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson.
In the late 1870s, Terrell sought out in Washington Kendall’s son-in-law William Stickney, who in 1872 had published the Autobiography of Amos Kendall. Stickney loaned Terrell a copy of the work and at the same time produced for Terrell’s examination a large bundle of Kendall-Jackson papers and correspondence. Terrell immediately requested and received permission to publish the documents in the Cincinnati Commercial.
While transcribing the papers, Terrell’s interests switched altogether from the Kentucky history to Jackson. According to his own account, he had long admired Jackson and, as a lad of twelve, had read Kendall’s serialized Life. With his discovery of the Kendall-Jackson papers, he developed a preliminary outline for a late nineteenth-century life and letters and began to search for the remainder of Jackson’s correspondence. Through Stickney he located the long-forgotten Kendall portion at the Globe office and through Montgomery Blair he gained access to the Blairs’ collection, which they brought to Washington for his examination.
Once he resolved his personal affairs in Kentucky, Terrell settled in Washington and began to devote his free time to the Jackson papers, which in his initial publication he described as a “mass of Jacksonia never before published.” Over the next five years, until 1883, he published documents and articles dealing with virtually every controversial subject in Jackson’s long life. At the same time, he contacted and consolidated his friendship with the Jackson descendants. He also gained the confidence of descendants of several of Jackson’s associates, who loaned him their collections for research and publication.
Terrell’s publications in the Cincinnati Commercial and elsewhere established beyond doubt the significance and value of the Jackson collection. They also induced the Jackson descendants to claim the papers, arguing that President Jackson had loaned the documents to Kendall and to Blair for the limited purpose of writing biographies. Whereas Kendall had partially fulfilled the agreement, Blair had not. The papers, they therefore argued, were rightfully theirs. Terrell supported these contentions and represented the Jacksons before the Senate Committee on the Library in March and April 1884. Although the Committee examined the Jackson papers and heard the evidence, it did not concur. A year later, the Jackson family sought to prove their ownership in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, but this effort also failed and the Jackson descendants allowed the case to drop in 1890.
Terrell, meanwhile, had amassed a large collection of Jackson papers, including copies and originals from the Kendall and Blair collections, from the collections of some of Jackson’s contemporaries, and perhaps from the Jackson descendants themselves. Though he was authorized only to make copies from the Blair holdings and had been requested to return borrowed collections, he apparently violated these arrangements. At his death in 1900, he still had the large group of papers he had accumulated over a quarter century.
Terrell’s destruction of the integrity of the Blair collection has made the history of the Jackson papers in the twentieth century much more difficult to trace. Jackson scholars and editors of Jackson have long expressed concern that a significant portion of the Jackson archives has not been found. Those documents published by Terrell, for which manuscripts were missing, led some to conclude that Kendall retained his portion and that it was consumed in the Washington fire of 1894 that purportedly claimed his papers. Others have suggested that significant documents may have been intentionally destroyed, or perhaps retained by Jackson descendants. This concern has been heightened by increased autograph market activity and intermittent transfers of Jackson items to repositories and private collectors around the country in recent decades.
The first major breakthrough in public access to the Jackson papers came in 1903, when the Blairs donated their holdings to the Library of Congress. Almost immediately, the Jackson descendants renewed their claim to ownership, assisted by John Wesley Gaines, congressman from Tennessee. Their efforts again came to nothing, but, in 1909, in the course of his investigation and negotiations for the return of the Jackson papers, Gaines located a Terrell collection, then held by a Washingtonian who had received it in payment for a debt Terrell owed. According to Gaines, he purchased the collection and returned it to Rachel Jackson Lawrence, Jackson’s granddaughter. Conflicting reports of the transaction make it difficult to establish the size of the purchase, but the selection of documents printed in the Nashville Tennessean in April and May 1909 confirm that the documents were indeed from the Terrell holdings. While the Lawrences retained these documents for some time, the descendants of Andrew Jackson III, Rachel Lawrence’s brother, sold a portion of their collection, approximately 2,000 manuscripts, to the Library of Congress in 1911.
These acquisitions by the Library led to efforts in 1919 to publish an edition of the writings and correspondence of Andrew Jackson. Jackson was one of the few prominent figures in America for whom there was no printed collection beyond the official papers in James D. Richardson’s Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1787-1897 (10 vols., Washington, 1899). The Carnegie Institution of Washington agreed to sponsor the work and J. Franklin Jameson persuaded John Spencer Bassett, who had published his Life of Andrew Jackson in 1911, to undertake it. Bassett labored at the task for eight years, editing the six volumes of the Correspondence of Andrew Jackson but publishing only three before his death in 1928.
For its time, Bassett’s Correspondence set a high standard for documentary publications. His search for documents was thorough and exhaustive. Though forced by financial constraints to conduct his search mainly by mail and to rely upon the assistance of others to identify and often to transcribe documents, he managed to acquire copies of most of the Jackson papers then in the major repositories. His selection of documents, sometimes excerpted and generally emphasizing Jackson’s military career, was on the whole sound, and his transcriptions, fairly accurate. Annotations and explanations, however, were sparse.
Shortly before the publication of the last of the edited volumes of the Correspondence in 1933, new discoveries diminished the completeness of the edition. While working on his biography of Andrew Jackson in 1931, Marquis James located a large collection of Jackson papers not previously available. This collection of almost 1,200 letters passed to the Library of Congress in late 1931; and from it, Jameson, Bassett’s successor, selected approximately 100 items for inclusion in Volume 6. About the same time, roughly 600 items in the Charles F. Gunther Collection at the Chicago Historical Society became available, and one was included in the final volume of the Bassett series.
Over the next three decades, additional significant collections of Jackson correspondence and other papers surfaced in scattered repositories. The Jackson descendants’ residual collection went on the market in the early 1920s and began to filter into repositories in the late 1930s. The Tennessee Historical Society and the State Library and Archives acquired through purchase and gifts a significant body of documents. The Library of Congress acquired, in 1943, approximately 600 fragments, and in 1964, from the Kendall descendants, the small but important group of Jackson-Kendall letters that Terrell had published in the Cincinnati Commercial. Other institutions - Princeton University, the Cincinnati Historical Society, Duke University, the University of Virginia, and Morristown National Historical Park - also accessioned important Jackson materials.
This explosion in the number of Jackson papers known to be held in widely scattered repositories prompted the establishment of the Papers of Andrew Jackson at the Hermitage in 1971 with the objective of searching for and publishing the Jackson papers in complementary microfilm and letterpress series. The microfilm edition, in conjunction with earlier microfilm series, is comprehensive, including all documents found in an exhaustive search. The printed-volume series, of which two have been published, is intended to be a highly selective and carefully annotated edition of fifteen volumes of papers, one volume of legal papers, and a comprehensive index.
This current search for Jackson papers has been the most thorough to date. It has been conducted by dozens of staff members and hundreds of cooperative archivists, curators, and librarians. The search has been carried into barns, attics, jails, and banks, as well as libraries, and has required an untold number of letters and telephone calls, and miles of travel in the United States, France, England, Scotland, and Spain. Staff members have visited and searched Jackson collections and those of Jackson’s contemporaries in every major repository in the country. In the absence of evidence to warrant a visit, the staff contacted either by letter or telephone most other institutions that might conceivably hold Jackson papers: state and county archives; state and local historical societies; county, municipal, and private libraries; and historic sites. In one manner or another, the staff has contacted worldwide in excess of 6,000 institutions and 600 individuals - private collectors, autograph dealers, Jackson and Donelson descendants, and descendants of many of Jackson’s contemporaries - seeking copies of their materials. The staff and its consultants have also searched the massive collections of autograph dealer catalogs at the American Antiquarian Society, Yale University, the Grolier Club, and the Huntington Library; and have scanned great numbers of published works: newspapers of Washington, New York, Cincinnati, and Nashville; nineteenth- and twentieth-century popular and scholarly periodicals; historical journals; diaries; reminiscences; printed collections of letters, monographs, and biographies; the Congressional Serial Set and American State Papers. And finally, the staff has searched dozens of unfilmed record groups in the National Archives and hundreds of rolls of film issued by the National Archives and Records Service. The results of this search are now made available on the accompanying thirty-nine rolls of microfilm.
This microfilm is a supplement to the 1967 Library of Congress microfilm publication of the Andrew Jackson Papers and to the NARS microfilm series. The collection, about half the size of that in the Library of Congress, consists of 14,000 new documents from approximately 335 repositories. A large portion of the Jackson papers published here was originally a part of the Kendall collection, retained by Terrell, and since dispersed through the country. This Microfilm Supplement, in bringing together all these documents, restores in large measure the integrity of the Blair collection and makes readily available - and in many instances for the first time - literally thousands of other items which illuminate the life and times of Andrew Jackson.
This Microfilm Supplement to the Library of Congress Andrew Jackson Papers and the National Archives microfilm series comprises all Jackson documents found in the project’s search not included on those two publications. It includes all additional copies of Jackson documents; variant copies or drafts; a typewritten or printed copy in the absence of a manuscript; documents from the Library of Congress Andrew Jackson Papers, Series 10 and 12, which have not been filmed; documents from the Library of Congress and National Archives films incorrectly dated or identified; and all Jackson documents in collections other than the Jackson Papers in the Library of Congress, whether previously filmed or not, Spurious documents, in so far as they could be identified, have not been filmed.
In an effort to assist readers and researchers, targets have been filmed with each document. The target at the top of each document, beginning with that document’s first page, carries the date of the letter and the full name of the writer, recipient, or subject of the item; and if the document is an enclosure or a cover letter, the target will so state. Square brackets around names and dates on these targets indicate information supplied by the editors. Targets filmed at the bottom of the first page of each document identify the type of document and the location of the original. Frame numbers appear below the documents.
With two exceptions - a series of early account books and addenda (acquisitions too late to interfile) appearing on Rolls 38 and 39 - the documents have been filmed in chronological sequence. In those instances where there is more than one item on a particular date, the documents have been filmed in alphabetical order according to the last name of the addressee or recipient. Undated documents for which only an approximate date could be established precede dated items, but documents with ascribed dates are filed sequentially with dated ones. Accounts have been placed at the earliest date in the document rather than when rendered; undated Jackson endorsements on correspondence between other parties have been filmed according to the date of the letter; and treaties, pardons, and other such official documents have been arranged according to the date on which Jackson affixed his signature.
Abstract - Summary of document contents
AD - Autograph document
AD draft - Autograph document, draft
ADS - Autograph document signed
ADS copy - Autograph document signed, copied by author
ADS craft - Autograph document signed, draft
AL - Autograph letter
Al copy - Autograph letter, copied by author
AL draft - Autograph letter, draft
ALS - Autograph letter signed
ALS copy - Autograph letter signed, copied by author
ALS draft - Autograph letter signed, draft
AN - Autograph note
ANS - Autograph note signed
Copy - Copy, not in author’s hand
DS - Document signed
Draft - Draft, not in author’s hand
Extract - Copy of a portion of a document
Facsimile - Photographic or engraved exact copy
LC - Letterbook copy
LS - Letter signed
Note - Note in third person, not in author’s hand
The symbols below are those designed by the Library of Congress and published in Symbols of American Libraries, 11th Edition (Washington, D.C., 1976).
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In addition to the highly selective list of monographs and primary sources below, the following journals carry a number of articles on or related to Andrew Jackson: American Historical Magazine (AHM), American Historical Review (AHR), East Tennessee Historical Society’s Publications (ETHSP), Journal of Southern History (JSH), Louisiana Historical Quarterly (LHQ), Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (PMHB), Tennessee Historical Magazine (THM), and Tennessee Historical Quarterly (THQ).
Abernethy, Thomas P. From Frontier to Plantation in Tennessee. University, Ala., 1967.
Aderman, Ralph M., ed. The Letters of James Kirke Paulding. Madison, 1962.
Bassett, John Spencer. The Life of Andrew Jackson. Hamden, Conn., 1967.
Bassett, John Spencer, ed. Correspondence of Andrew Jackson. 7 vols. Washington, 1926-35.
Belohlavek, John M. Let the Eagle Soar: The Foreign Policy of Andrew Jackson. Lincoln, Nebr., 1985.
Bond, Octavia Louise Zollicoffer. The Family Chronicle and Kinship Book. Nashville, 1928.
Brady, Cyrus Townsend. The True Andrew Jackson. Philadelphia, 1906.
Brown, William G. Andrew Jackson. Boston, 1900.
Buell, Augustus C. History of Andrew Jackson, Pioneer, Patriot, Soldier, Politician, President. 2 vols. New York, 1904.
Burke, Pauline Wilcox. Emily Donelson of Tennessee. 2 vols. Richmond, 1941.
Caldwell, Mary French. General Jackson’s Lady. Nashville, 1936.
Campbell, Tom W. Two Fighters and Two Fines: Sketches of the Lives of Matthew Lyon and Andrew Jackson. Little Rock, 1941.
Carter, Clarence Edwin, et al., eds. Territorial Papers of the United States. 28 vols. Washington, 1934-75.
Cobbett, William. Life of Andrew Jackson, President of the United States. New York, 1837.
Colyar, Arthur St. Clair. Life and Times of Andrew Jackson. 2 vols. Nashville, 1904.
Curtis, James C. Andrew Jackson and the Search for Vindication. Boston, 1976.
Davis, Burke. Old Hickory: A Life of Andrew Jackson. New York, 1977.
Doherty, Herbert J., Jr. Richard Keith Call: Southern Unionist. Gainesville, 1961.
Drury, Clifford Merrill. William Anderson Scott, “No Ordinary Man”. Glendale, Calif., 1967.
Duane, William John. Narrative and Correspondence Concerning the Removal of the Deposits. Philadelphia, 1838.
Dusenbery, Benjamin M. Monument to the Memory of General Andrew Jackson. Philadelphia, 1846.
Ely, Ezra Stiles. The Duty of Christian Freemen to Elect Christian Rulers. Philadelphia, 1828.
Fitzpatrick, John C., ed. The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren. New York, 1969.
Galloway, Linda Bennett. Andrew Jackson, Jr., Son of a President: A Biographical Study. New York, 1966.
Goodwin, Philo A. Biography of Andrew Jackson, President of the United States. Hartford, 1832.
Green, Michael D. The Politics of Indian Removal: Creek Government and Society in Crisis. Lincoln, Nebr., 1982.
Hamilton, James A. Reminiscences of James A. Hamilton. New York, 1869.
Hamilton, Stanislaus M., ed. Writings of James Monroe. 7 vols. New York, 1898-1903.
Heiskell, Samuel Gordon. Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History. 2 vols. Nashville, 1918.
______. Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History. 3 vols. Nashville, 1921.
Herd, Elmer Don, Jr. Andrew Jackson, South Carolinian: A Study of the Enigma of His Birth. Lancaster, S.C., 1963.
Horn, Stanley F. The Hermitage, Home of Old Hickory. Nashville, 1950.
Hunt, Charles Havens. Life of Edward Livingston. New York, 1864.
Jackson, Andrew IV. Andrew Jackson, President of the United States of America. Los Angeles, c1926.
Jackson, Joseph Abram. Masonry in Alabama: A Sesquicentennial History, 1831-1971. Montgomery, 1970.
James, Marquis. Andrew Jackson: The Border Captain. Indianapolis, 1933.
______. Andrew Jackson: Portrait of a President. Indianapolis, 1937.
Jenkins, John Stilwell. The Life and Public Services of Andrew Jackson. Philadelphia, 1880.
Johnson, Gerald W. Andrew Jackson, an Epic In Homespun. New York, 1927.
Jordan, Weymouth T. George Washington Campbell of Tennessee, Western Statesman. Tallahassee, 1955.
Kendall, Amos. Life of Andrew Jackson, Private, Military and Civil. New York, 1843-44.
Klingberg, Frank J., and Andrew Jackson IV. “The Americanism of Andrew Jackson,” South Atlantic Quarterly, 21 (April 1922): 127-143.
______. “Personal Traits of President Andrew Jackson,” Historical Outlook, 14 (January 1923): 10-14.
Latner, Richard B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics, 1829-1837. Athens, Ga., 1979.
Linn, Elizabeth A., and Nathan Sargent. The Life and Public Services of Dr. Lewis F. Linn. New York, 1857.
Manning, William R., ed. Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, 1831-1860. 12 vols. Washington, 1932-39.
Mayo, Robert. Political Sketches of Eight Years in Washington. Baltimore, 1839.
______. The Affidavit of Andrew Jackson Taken by the Defendants in the Suit of Robert Mayo vs. Blair and Rives, for a Libel. Washington, 1840.
McGovern, James R., ed. Andrew Jackson and Pensacola. Pensacola, 1974.
Meriwether, Robert L., et al., eds. The Papers of John C. Calhoun. 16 vols. to date. Columbia, S.C., 1959- .
Moser, Harold D., et al., eds. The Papers of Andrew Jackson. 2 vols. to date. Knoxville, Tenn., 1980- .
Nicolay, Helen. Andrew Jackson, the Fighting President. New York, 1929.
Ogg, Frederic A. The Reign of Andrew Jackson: A Chronicle of the Frontier in Politics. New Haven, 1919.
Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr. Struggle for the Gulf Borderlands: The Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812-1815. Gainesville, 1981.
Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson. 3 vols. New York, 1860.
Reid, John, and John Henry Eaton. The Life of Andrew Jackson. Edited by Frank Lawrence Owsley, Jr. University, Ala., 1974.
Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson. New York, 1966.
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