Maclure Collection of French Revolutionary Materials
About this Collection
William S. Maclure (1763-1840) was a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, a radical social reformer, and our first scientific geologist. His huge collection of French Revolutionary publications (some 25,000 items) is one of the greatest libraries of its kind to be formed during and shortly after the Revolution itself. Maclure bestowed the collection on the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences in 1821; and the Academy in turn gave the collection to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. For over 130 years the collection gathered dust on the shelves of these two institutions, virtually unknown, and--with a few notable exceptions--used by no one. In 1949 it was acquired by the University of Pennsylvania. It now occupies one entire tier in the Rare Book Room of the Van Pelt Library.
The collection represented a considerable headache for the University of Pennsylvania as well as a notable acquisition. The volumes into which the collection had been bound (1460 of them) had to be rebound, as the original covers were in a deplorable state; the paper and printing, however, have remained remarkably fresh. Our librarians decided they simply could not afford the expense of cataloguing each of the some 22,000 individual items. How, then, to begin exploiting this awesomely large scholarly treasure? Gradually the idea took form that if we could publish a separate catalogue-index this would not only open up the collection for the use of scholars on the spot, but would provide a check-list for libraries and for French Revolutionary scholars everywhere. A generous grant from the Eleutherian Mills Library of Wilmington, Delaware, enabled us to begin work on cataloguing and indexing in 1962.
The Maclure Collection is as useful as it is huge. Almost two-thirds of the volumes had been bound by topic, some by the unknown person who originally formed the collection, and others by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. French Revolutionary materials in libraries usually are arranged alphabetically by author, or chronologically, or simply according to the order in which the item was acquired. (This last is true of other holdings of French Revolutionary materials at the University of Pennsylvania.) But the Maclure Collection is a volume collection, bound according to subject. This means, for example, that when one calls for the speech of Cambon outlining his plan to retire the assignats (volume 1166, item 8) it will come to him in a volume with twenty-six other items on the same subject. This should greatly expedite the browsing that is such an important part of the first phase of every research project. Except for the material in the serials, all the opinions of deputies on the punishment of Louis XVI are bound together; all the plans for educational reform, or projects for new canals are bound together; all the discussions of the émigré problem are bound together, and so on.
If we had known, thirty months ago, how much time and labor this catalogue-index would consume, we would, I trust, have undertaken it anyway--but hardly so blithely. Incredible though it sounds to us now, in the spring of 1962 we were convinced that the end of that summer would find the job largely completed. Under the direction of Professors James D. Hardy, Jr., and John H. Jensen, then the editors of the projected volume, three graduate students did in fact rush through the raw cataloguing of all the items in the Maclure Collection; and by the end of 1962 James D. Hardy had made a good beginning on the indexes. But we found to our horror that the work then completed was only a fraction of the total checking, correcting, typing, and indexing that had to be accomplished. At that point it was decided to make Professor Martin Wolfe a third editor; and it required his part-time labors for two academic years and full-time work for two summers--plus the work of six part-time assistants and four typists, who themselves worked a total of some three thousand hours--for the job to be finished.
"Finished," perhaps, is not the mot juste. Even before the summer of 1962 was over, it became apparent that we could not look forward to having the highest standards of accuracy and uniformity. Much of the work had to be done by graduate students whose knowledge of the French Revolution and of the French language was not all that could be desired. Much of the first cataloguing had to be re-done. But our object, after all, was to turn out a research tool; as scholars working for the benefit of other scholars we felt we were justified in passing on cataloguing and indexing accurate enough to be usable even though it did not conform to the highest standards of library science. To have insisted on these standards would have turned this project into a bottomless pit of time and labor.
Among the many persons who had a hand in furthering this project we should like first to acknowledge gratefully the help of Mrs. Neda Westlake, curator of the Rare Book section of the Van Pelt Library, and her assistants, for their many courtesies and for tolerating our sometimes noisy presence in their own work room. Particularly we should like to thank Mr. Lyman W. Riley, bibliographer of rare books, who had the initial responsibility of finding some way to avoid having this massive collection pass into limbo again. Dr. Rudolf Hirsch, Associate Director of Libraries at the University of Pennsylvania, has encouraged and helped us all along the way. The first cataloguing was expedited by Mr. (now Professor) Richard Du Boff, Mr. Martin Schmidt, and Mr. Ivan Scott. Valuable work in correcting and checking the cataloguing was accomplished by Mrs. Solange Du Boff, Mr. Andrew Chermak, Miss Judith Green, Miss Shelly Rosen, and especially by Miss Mary R. Townsend. Miss Julia Johnson and Mr. (now Lieutenant) Joseph Whitehorne struggled valiantly with the enormous task of preparing our three indexes. We are particularly grateful to Mrs. Dorothy Wolfe, who gave up a summer in order to proofread the entire typed catalogue. We are also very appreciative of the support given by Dr. Richmond Williams, head of the Eleutherian Mills Library, who helped us obtain our first grant. Funds to pay our assistants and our typists during 1963-1964 were obtained from the Committee for the Advancement of Research and from Provost David R. Goddard of the University of Pennsylvania.
French Revolution Collections
By John H. Jensen
Since the Second World War there has been a vigorous and competitive search for Revolutionary library materials, as new institutions vie with rapidly expanding older centers, and as important collections appear for sale on the European markets. Inevitably, cataloguing has lagged behind acquisition. Any attempt to survey the resources of American libraries in this particular branch of knowledge, therefore, is bound to miss many important items or collections. But we hope that this note on the chief American collections of Revolutionary published materials may prove of value to the scholars who have occasion to consult our own catalogue. We also hope that this note may be of value to librarians and teachers interested in building up French Revolutionary collections for their own institutions. Our information is primarily for the eastern United States; however, a brief list of western collections is appended.
(I) Boston-New England
Besides a splendid representation of the standard reference materials, a wealth of primary sources are preserved at Harvard. Besides the official publications, the chief other source materials here may be divided roughly into the following groupings: (a) the library of Alphonse Aulard, including some 3500 volumes and pamphlets, with much information on the clubs, cliques, municipal institutions and assemblies of the Revolutionary era; (b) the library of Count Alfred Boulay de la Meurthe, emphasizing religious history and including about 10,000 volumes, 30,000 pamphlets, and a large number of broadsides and newspapers (these two pamphlet collections are now "reasonably well catalogued," according to a response received from the librarys reference division); (c) the newspaper collection of over 375 titles, including a very large number of provincial ephemeral Parisian titles and of papers published in non-French areas under Revolutionary occupation. Of particular importance among the reference and secondary collections at Harvard are the Fish-Roebling collection of Napoleona (720 volumes), the large group of regimental histories, and the inventories, guides, and monographs for local history. The latter group demands special notice, for it includes a rare complete set of the Inventaires sommaires des Archives Départmentales de la France, an unusually large number of the journals and publications of local academies and historical societies, and the valuable Rudolphe Reuss library on Alsace-Lorraine. Scholars will hardly be surprised to learn that research in local history, political, social, religious, and military history, the history of the Revolutionary press, and of Frances neighbors in the Revolutionary years can all be carried on readily at Harvard.
The Boston Athenaeum Library, also possesses a valuable collection of the major Parisian newspapers. And the Boston Public Library is stronger than most large university libraries in this field. Besides its solid collection of reference materials, secondary works, extensive runs of legislative journals, and contemporary newspapers (which are largely duplicates of the very strong holdings of Harvard), the Boston Public Library has several important collections of rare primary materials. Some 700 contemporary pamphlets collected in France at the beginnings of the 19th century are included in the Barton Collection (this figure illustrates the modesty of estimates by librarians of their own holdings--the present curator of the collection thought that "several hundred" pamphlets were included); these materials are largely political. The Chamberlain Autograph Collection includes an extensive sample of manuscript documents of the period, while the Benjamin P. Hunt collection contains both manuscript and printed materials which cast light on the situation in San Domingo during the Revolution.
Although Dartmouth College emphasizes its role as an undergraduate teaching institution, its group of research materials is impressive. A large number of the main Parisian journals, a complete run of the journal of the Constituant Assembly, a few contemporary pamphlets, and a large collection of manuscripts and printed items on Belgium (especially Antwerp) under French occupation are supported by a strong collection of reference materials and secondary authorities. At Brown Universitys John Hay Library, together with "a better than average" group of basic research tools and a good assortment of Parisian newspapers of the period, are to be found two special collections: these are the Hoffman collection of Napoleonic memorabilia and the Bullard collection of contemporary caricatures.
Potter, A.C., The Library of Harvard University: descriptive and historical notes (Cambridge, 1934, fourth edition).
Harvard Library Notes (1922 and 1925).
Books on the French Revolution and Napoleon (collected by William L. Fish and presented to Harvard College by John A. Roebling, 1932).
Boston Public Library, Catalogue of the miscellaneous portion of the Barton Collection (Boston, 1888).
Dartmouth College Library Bulletin (1947).
Echeverria, D. "Materials for the Study of French history in the John Carter Brown Library of Brown University," French Historical Studies, II (1961), 99-104.
II. Upstate New York
Syracuse University and the Universities of Rochester and Buffalo have good reference collections and some of the contemporary newspapers. However, these groupings are overshadowed by the Cornell University Library, which has built one of the finest American collections in this field on the foundation of the A.D. White Library, acquired in 1891. Over the years, Cornell has acquired the main secondary publications, inventories, and guides to research as they have appeared, while carrying on a policy of purchasing "more or less everything which may be offered by second-hand book dealers within the date scope (from Old Regime through 1815)." Cornell has perhaps our strongest collection of the major Paris newspapers for the revolution, along with several thousand official items which include the proceedings of the various assemblies. Some 10,000 pamphlets complete the collection; the topics emphasized in these pamphlets include politics, administration and elections, the Paris Commune, the problems of San Domingo, insurance, and finance. The most interesting aspect of the Cornell collection, in comparison with most other collections, is its emphasis on the National Convention and the Directory periods; most collections are slanted towards the Estates-General and the Constituant Assembly periods. The cataloguing of the collection is based upon the White Library printed catalogue, but a card catalogue of the pamphlets and manuscript materials is maintained in the Rare Book Department.
The researcher will find another useful collection in the Union College Library at Schenectady. This is the personal library of John Bigelow, U.S. Consul-General and Minister in Paris in the middle years of the last century, and one of the founders of the New York Public Library. Bigelows interests were catholic in the broadest sense; he discovered the original manuscript of Benjamin Franklins autobiography and projected a work on Fénelon; Swedenborgian, Jansenist, and Quietist writings also loom large in his library. The French Revolution material in this collection is only a small percentage of the whole, though individual items by Camus, Simonne, Lafayette, Desmoulins, Anthoine, Barère, Barnave, Dubois-Crancé, Raimond, and Robespierre suggest its variety. Although Union College lacks many of the basic research tools which would supplement the Bigelow collection, researchers in institutions which have the requisite secondary and reference materials for work in this field will find unusual riches available at Union. The library is catalogued on cards in Library of Congress style; a printed catalogue has been prepared from these cards, but items which appear in the Library of Congress catalogue have been excluded.
Catalogue of the Historical Library of A.D. White (Ithaca, 1894), II.
Smith, F.S., with R.A. Evans and H.L. Webb, Catalog of that portion of John Bigelows library not represented by cards in the Library of Congress author catalog (Schenectady, 1959).
III. New York City
Two of the more important American collections of French Revolution source materials are located in the New York City area, at the New York Public Library and in the libraries of Columbia University. These two collections provide almost everything that a research scholar needs for carrying on work in this field.
In 1941, the New York Public Library held over 36,000 volumes on French history, "enriched by thousands of contemporary pamphlets." This remarkable collection has continued to grow over the past twenty years. Its special strengths are: inventories to departmental, municipal, and monastic archives; inventories of manuscript collections in French libraries; complete collections of published documents; long runs of local academy and society journals; reports of the various governments commissions for historical studies; vast stores of secondary materials in municipal (especially Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, and Le Havre) and departmental (especially Marne, Oise, Sarthe, and Seine) history; and primary source collections of printed and manuscript materials. The completeness of the inventories and guides in the New York Publics holdings offer all sorts of opportunities to the researcher who can procure funds for the filming of documents; or who has a relatively brief amount of time at his disposal for a journey to France.
The printed public documents at the New York Public Library are especially strong in long runs of legislative proceedings, decrees, and laws ("in French law, the library is really rich"), including some 15,000 ordinances, decrees, and edicts, most of which are of the eighteenth century; budgetary, statistical, and financial reports are also heavily represented. The Talleyrand collection of approximately 2000 carefully selected contemporary pamphlets form the foundation of the pamphlet collection, with which should be noted some 200 pamphlets about Napoleon and his epoch. Since the Talleyrand collection check list was published in 1945, the Library has added "50,000 or more" items to this section of its holdings; the cataloguing of these materials is only beginning at the present time.
The Columbia University libraries hold a strong collection of necessary research materials--inventories, guides, periodicals, printed documentary selections and secondary works--together with two important groups of primary source materials. In the Department of Special Collections, the well-known E.R.A. Seligman Library of Social Science materials (especially of economic and financial history) includes over 500 items relating to French history during the years 1780-1800. In the general collection, bound by size, are "several hundred" uncatalogued and miscellaneous pamphlets in this area of study. No check-list is available for these materials.
The other university and college libraries in the New York City area, while maintaining the normal collections of reference and secondary works, seem to rely largely upon these two major collections for primary source materials, as well they might. However, the Pierpont Morgan Library on East 36th Street, without the reference and printed source materials necessary for research scholars, holds about 1000 autograph letters and documents for the period 1787-1804. These materials are catalogued in the public catalogue of the library and, in part, in the librarys chronological file. They are a splendid complement to the unusually rich printed collections in the city.
Brown, K. A guide to the reference collections of the New York Public Library (New York, 1941).
Hayden, H. A check-list of the Talleyrand and other collections (New York, 1945).
Bulletin of the New York Public Library (1898, 1921-1922, 1929-1930).
The Delaware Valley region possesses two major research centers in the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton University, as well as several unique collections of important primary materials; smaller schools and libraries (Rutgers-New Brunswick, Swarthmore, Haverford, Bryn Mawr, Delaware, Temple, and the Philadelphia Free Libraries--particularly the Library Company) complement and complete the research tool resources available for the student in this area. Among the interesting grouping of primary source materials which must be included are the library of the American Philosophical Society, the library of the Philadelphia Athenaeum, and the Eleutherian Mills Historical Library at Greenville, (Wilmington), Delaware. The Philosophical Society has an exceptionally useful collection of the major Parisian newspapers of the revolutionary period; its holdings represent the important varieties of political opinion in Paris, and thus complete the University of Pennsylvanias holdings which are deficient in this field. The Athenaeum has a number of plays produced in Paris during the Revolution; the library and many of the publications of Du Pont de Nemours are included in the Dupont family and American economic and technological history collections preserved in the Eleutherian Mills Historical Library.
While in total bulk the University of Pennsylvania collection, including the Maclure Collection, probably surpasses that of Princeton University, the latter institutions policy of intensive research in Revolution studies has led to a more diversified and up-to-date library in this field. This is especially the case, of course, because of R.R. Palmers tenure at Princeton over the past quarter-century. Beside the standard reference and research materials, Princeton has collected extensive manuscript and printed primary sources. Among its manuscript holdings are the John H. Scheide Collection, the Olive du Mesnil family collection (Toulouse), and the André de Coppet collection (including Americans in France, 1787-1804) of American historical manuscripts. Printed sources of several types are included in this library: governmental legislative serials, especially for the Constituant, Convention, and Legislative Assembly; eighty-five newspapers of the period, with substantial runs of fifteen of these; two hundred volumes of French plays, including items from the Revolutionary era; and two large collections of books and pamphlets (Gustave Bord and W.D. Weaver collections) with approximately one thousand pamphlets included. These pamphlets are not concentrated in a single period or on a single subject, but are broadly representative. Finally, C.B. Rogers collection of over five hundred pamphlets, leaflets, and broadsides is held by the Princeton library, but is not yet catalogued.
At the University of Pennsylvania library, several important groups of primary sources supplement the Maclure Collection. Along with major runs of ten newspapers, the librarys Carey collection (economic history materials) includes pamphlets, books, and a journal from this era. In recent years the library has acquired by purchase more than a thousand pamphlets, covering the entire range of Revolutionary study, which are included now in the general catalogue. The papers of the Lingaud family (Limoges) were purchased in 1960; these manuscript sources include several hundred documents from the period 1777-1813, which throw much light upon the relationships between a municipality and its representative at Paris, and upon contacts between local officials and representatives of the Paris government. Limogess location near the Western insurrections made it a sensitive point for these connections. The collection is especially rich for the years 1792, 1793, and 1794. The procès-verbaux of the various assemblies in the period 1789-1802, together with the standard indices to laws and decrees for this period, are included in the general collection; there they are more accessible to the study (especially to the undergraduate) than these same materials in the Maclure Collection. The Journal des débats of the Convention and Directory assemblies are also available in this way, as are some scattered procès-verbaux from the Imperial assemblies and the complete series of Buchez and Rouxs Histoire parlementaire. The University library has made good progress in recent years in acquiring inventories and guides to series of documents in departmental, municipal, and private archives in France.
Princeton Alumni Weekly, XXIV (1923), number 3.
University of Pennsylvania Library Chronicle, XXVI (1960) and XXIX (1963).
R.F. Betts, "The Longwood Library," French Historical Studies, I (1960), 360-362.
The Library of Congress dominates this region, with its comprehensive facilities for researchers. Along with the guides, inventories, and bibliographies necessary for revolutionary studies, the Library is strong in contemporary newspapers, holding significant runs of most of the major or representative titles. While most of its printed source materials are dispersed through the general collection, two special collections should be noticed. The J.B. Thacher collection, brought together to serve as the basis of a history of the Revolution (never published), includes about seven hundred books and several dozen autograph manuscripts. Of greater value, as well as of greater historical interest is the Thomas Jefferson library collection. Although this collection is relatively small in size, the individual pamphlets are each very important. Most of them, however, have been reprinted elsewhere or used frequently by scholars in the field. The strength of the Library of Congress makes superfluous any mention of the other District of Columbia libraries.
In Baltimore, however, the Johns Hopkins University library will reward the researchers interest; some 238 pamphlets about trials in the pre-revolutionary era, six important journals, and basic research tools are available there.
Ashley, F.W. Catalogue of Books relating to the French Revolution (Washington, 1931).
Bourne, H.E. Catalogue of autographs relating to the French Revolution (Washington, 1931).
Sowerby, E.M. Catalogue of the library of Thomas Jefferson (Washington, 1953), III.
(VI) North Carolina
The libraries of Duke University and the University of North Carolina have the strongest holdings of French Revolution source materials in the south-east; they compare in this very favorably with the majority of the university collections which we have considered thus far. For some years these institutions have cooperated informally in their acquisitions programs in this field, so that the two programs have complemented each other.
Duke University Library has a well-chosen collection of twenty-three contemporary newspapers, including several émigré publications. Among its official publications are several unusual series, including the procès-verbaux of the Assembly of Notables and the Bulletin of the Revolutionary Tribunal. Of its three thousand pamphlets, covering especially feudal, land, and financial questions, are included a large number (300) from the Directory and Consulate. However, the collection includes items throughout the revolutionary period.
The University of North Carolina has a reasonably complete set of the procès-verbaux of the assemblies from 1789 to 1805, supplemented by subsequent collections like the Archives parlementaires and Duvergier. Although it possesses fewer journals and pamphlets than its Durham neighbor, North Carolinas holdings of these types are most useful. Barère and Prudhomme are among the editors included, while the writings of Mirabeau hold a large place among the pamphlets. A large printed collection of 18th century French laws, and the Harry Bache Smith collection of Napoleon manuscripts are special features of the librarys holdings. Finally, the W.H. Hoyt collection of approximately five thousand titles on the French Revolution and Napoleon (including non-French areas receiving French influences during these periods) is being catalogued currently. Both North Carolina and Duke, which carry on full-scale programs of research and teaching in this field, are keeping their collections of guides to source materials, bibliographies, and other research tools up-to-date.
A Partial list of Important Collections West of the Alleghenies
Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan
Berkeley, California: University of California. See S.J. Idzerda, "The era of the French Revolution: opportunities for research and writing," Journal of Modern History, XXIX (1957).
Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana. The Lafayette Collection.
Chicago, Illinois: Newberry Library. Very large uncatalogued collection; see the series of check-lists by Miss D.V. Welsh, in progress, and the "Materials for French history in the Newberry Library," French Historical Studies, I (1958), 95-99.
Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago.
Cleveland, Ohio: Western Reserve University. The Bourne Collection. See esp. J.H. Stewart, France, 1715-1815: a guide to materials in Cleveland (Cleveland, 1942).
Cleveland, Ohio: Western Reserve Historical Society. The Norton Napoleon Collection. See J.H. Stewart, "The Norton Napoleon Collection," Journal of Modern History, XXIII (1951), 158-62.
Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri. The Flack Collection. See F.B. Currie, "The Flack Collection of the University of Missouri," Bibliographical Society of America, Papers, 17 (1923), 57-62.
East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University.
Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University. See the JMH article by Idzerda mentioned above.
Iowa City, Iowa: State University of Iowa. See Boyd Shafer, "Bourgeois nationalism in the pamphlets on the eve of the French Revolution," Journal of Modern History, X (1938), 31-50; and also his unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1932, "Pamphlet literature on the eve of the Revolution."
Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas. The Melvin Collection. See A. Saricks, ed., A bibliography of the Frank E. Melvin Collection (Lawrence, 1960).
Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska. The Fling Collection.
Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin. The Wight Collection.
Portland, Oregon: Reed College. Material on Belgium Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh. The DHappart Collection. See L.A. Garloch, "The DHappart papers," Pitt, no. 61 (1957).
Seattle, Washington: University of Washington.
Seattle, Washington: University of Seattle. The Napoleon Collection. See T.J. Curran, "The Napoleonic Collection in the Seattle University Library," unpublished thesis, University of Washington, 1954.
Collector and Collection: A Note
By John H. Jensen
William Maclure, who brought this group of French Revolution source materials to Philadelphia, is a good example of the cosmopolitan merchant and self-taught scientist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Like Benjamin Franklin, he was at home in the salon, the workshop, the counting house, or the scientific society; like Franklin, too, he had acquaintances and correspondents acquired through frequent changes in residence on both sides of the Atlantic. By his own account, Maclure crossed the Atlantic twenty-two times. A brief sketch of his international career will help us to understand why the French Revolution was important to Maclure and the relationship between his interests and the nature of this collection.
Maclure was born in 1763, in Ayrshire, and received a conventional classical education. As one of the young Scots who took the highroad to England as soon as possible, he soon discovered how little his schooling had prepared him for the London business world. In later years, after he met Pestalozzi and observed his methods, recollections of parsing and canings of Ayrshire helped Maclure to strengthen his interests in educational reform. His poor hand-writing, eccentric spelling, and odd store of miscellaneous classical and historical information always reflected his early scholarly difficulties. But Maclure soon picked up the skills required for the export of merchandise to the Continent and the New World. Since he specialized in serving his firms American contacts, he was posted to branch offices in New York and Richmond. From 1782 on he spent much of his time in the United States, giving Richmond as his residence when he became a citizen in the late 1790s. He also made regular trips to England during this period. And we know he was in Paris in 1792-93 and in Belfast in 1793-94. Though it is clear his political and economic views were being formed during these years between 1782 and 1803, our only sources for this period are the casual references to travels and conversations in essays written long after this period.
It is impossible to place Maclure as a member of the English group of reformers and radicals of the times; because of his views the temptation is strong to bracket him with Margarot, Price, Hardy, Godwin, and Cartwright: but direct evidence is lacking. It is probable that he knew most of these men and met them when he was in London. However, he was already cut off, by long residence abroad, from the constitutional struggles which absorbed the attention of these pamphleteers, orators, and agitators.
In 1799, Maclure made what was probably his last business trip to London. A few years later, in 1803, now a U.S. citizen with a large private income, he was appointed by Jefferson to serve on the commission which would handle Franco-American disputes rising out of the undeclared naval war of 1789-99. For the next four years Maclure made his headquarters in Paris.
After the commission failed it was in this period that Maclure developed two additional careers, as geologist and educational reformer. In 1805 and 1806 he travelled across Western Europe, carrying out a series of surveys on which he based a descriptive account of the geology of the continent. He made several stops at Yverdon, in Switzerland, where J.H. Pestalozzi directed his experimental school. Now Maclure found a purpose for his life and his large private fortune--a series of experiments in popular and practical education with emphasis on the natural sciences and especially geology. While he was still working on his European geological surveys, he financed an experiment in Pestalozzian education on a small scale in Philadelphia.
Maclure returned to the United States in 1807 to undertake the first systematic geological survey of the eastern states. The American Philosophical Society, which had elected him to membership in 1799, published his report on this survey in its transactions under the title "Observations on the Geology of the United States, Explanatory of a Geological Map," (1809) and later republished this paper in an enlarged form in the following number of its Transactions. In 1812, Maclure assisted in the formation of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Pennsylvania; many of the geological specimens on which the Academys present collection is based were contributed by him. He was a large contributor, too, to the Academys library. From 1817 until his death in 1840, he served as president of the Academy; in these years, also, he wrote for Sillimans Journal, and, in 1828, was president of the American Geological Society.
While his career in geology would have absorbed all of an ordinary mans energy, Maclure carried forward his interest in social and especially educational reform at the same time. He admired French and American experiments in democracy, attaching himself to the Jeffersonian group in American politics at the turn of the century. As his interest in a more child-centered, practical, and individualistic educational process grew, so his opposition to conventional religious, economic, and political patterns increased. He maintained a residence in Paris, to which he returned in the intervals of his journeys to Spain, the West Indies, and the United States; and during these intervals he became friendly with the opponents of clericalism and royal power. He was interested in the Revue Encyclopédique (founded in 1818), and prepared some articles on social, religious, and economic reform for the Revues editor, Marc-Antoine Jullien de Paris.
Although the French censor rejected Maclures articles (1819), they were eventually published more than a decade later in Maclures only non-geological work, Opinions on various subjects dedicated to the industrious producers (New Harmony, Indiana, 1831, various editions). Here we see his views expressed in confusing detail. He advocated direct taxes on property, national banking under government control, an educational system in which vocational training would have a leading place, the adoption of the Code Napoléon because of its simplicity and clarity for the average man, cooperative publishing and distribution of books, the weakening of clerical authority and the abolition of tithes for church support, freedom for colonies (especially Spanish colonies), the end of standing armies, and international federalism on the American model. He placed his faith in the simple goodness of the ordinary man and believed that proper education would make all men good. One logical but surprising (for the times) conclusion which he reached on the basis of his eighteenth century faith was his enthusiastic expectation of inevitable triumph for the Indian population of newly-independent Mexico over the Spanish and Creole townsmen and ranchers.
Again and again in these essays he returned enthusiastically to the French Revolution; he was especially impressed by the fact that the French people had made enormous advances toward equality in those years. The Terror cleansed an Augean stable of reaction and corruption; the revolutionary leaders, with their simple lives and friendly conduct, set examples for all men. Though he was enamored of the simplicity and clarity of the Code Napoléon, he lamented that the reactionary educational policy of Bonaparte had prevented the masses of Frenchmen from taking up their inheritance of equality from the wise laws of the Revolution. What was good in France after 1815 was the result of her Revolution; revolutions at infrequent intervals were good for all societies, provided that their cleansing and levelling forces were preserved through proper education.
But Maclure was a man of action rather than a thinker or propagandist. Although many of his political ideas were probably not original with him (they were apparently borrowed from his friend M.A. Jullien de Paris), he was unique in his capacity to give substance to some of them. So we find him taking advantage of the temporary success of liberalism in Spain by purchasing a large estate near Alicante (1821-23) on which he began developing an agricultural and technical school for young Spaniards on Pestalozzian principles. When the Spanish constitutional regime collapsed, and French occupation gave way to the vengeance of Ferdinand VII, his land was confiscated and then restored to his original monastic proprietors.
This heavy financial loss seemed to have had little effect on Maclure; soon after, he joined forces with Robert Owen, and prepared to collaborate in the New Harmony community. In 1826 he led an important group of educators and scientists from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, and then down the Ohio River to a rendezvous with Owen at New Harmony. Again Maclure contributed his money generously, joining with Owen in the large investments required for the purchase of land and the f oundation of the new community. Maclure, however, insisted on restricting his responsibility in the community to its intellectual development. He established several Pestalozzian schools, founded a newspaper, and helped to organize the New Harmony Workingmens Institute. The scientific library of the Institute now benefitted from his life-long book-buying habits, as had the library of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia in the preceding decade.
In New Harmony, Maclure began to suffer severely from the harsh mid-western climate; at sixty-three years of age, he also began to be querulous and even somewhat confused and forgetful. He argued bitterly with Owen (most people did) as the New Harmony community splintered around them and as their noble dreams degenerated into mortgages and mutual law-suits. He began to lose faith in the future of equality and Pestalozzian education in the United States; Americas bright promise was clouding over as French and Spanish disappointments seemed to repeat themselves here. His search for the sun and for fresh minds and soil now took him to Mexico, where he spent the last years of his life.
We do not know who formed the great collection of materials we call the Maclure Collection; nor do we know why this collection was formed or precisely how and when Maclure acquired it. Only one scholar, Frederick Nussbaum, has tried to explain why Maclure had gathered it. Nussbaum, who worked with the collection when he was writing his dissertation on the commercial history of the Revolutionary period (Commercial policy in the French Revolution, a study of the career of G.J.A. Ducher. Durham, NC, 1923), suggested that Maclure may have planned to write a history of Frances Revolution in which economic factors would be given a large place (pp. 317-318). As we have catalogued, indexed, and analyzed the collection, and as we have considered Maclures career and writings, this preliminary view has proved inadequate in several ways. The collection does indeed include a high percentage of materials which cast light upon commercial, fiscal, agricultural, colonial, and technological questions; but it is even stronger in electoral, judicial, educational, and administrative writings. The large groupings of serials, both unofficial and governmental, show no particular concentration of interest; rather they cover all aspects of the Revolutionary period and parties. Nussbaums rather narrow estimation of Maclures interests does not fit the collection. Furthermore, while an examination of Maclures published views reveals a broad understanding of the experiences of his times, his efforts to popularize advanced social reforms show little evidence that he understood or used our collection in the preparation of his own writings. Moreover, the collection includes much material which presumably would have interested him scarcely at all and which he could not have purchased easily because of the time or places of publication (e.g., on assemblies of the clergy and petitions of local parlements in the 1770s and 1780s). In fact, we must question not only the motive that Nussbaum assigned to Maclure, but also his assumption that Maclure was responsible for gathering this collection which bears his name.
Can we deduce from its composition the type of person who brought this collection into being? Our collector would have had to be a Frenchman (or Frenchmen), a politician or journalist, a student of the Revolutions prologue as well as its course, a Jacobin of the Robespierrist variety, and with access (through position or wealth) to most of the private and governmental press productions of the 1780s. This person must also have had special interests in the south and west of France, in the colonies, in military organization and discipline, and economic and educational reform, and in the legal codification achieved during the Directory period. Finally, he should have had continued access to governmental publications during a period (July 1794-November 1795) when he showed little interest in private publications. The notations of cataloguing symbols found written on many of the individual items support such a theory, for they are formed in a French style and not in Maclures illegible scrawl. It is possible that these notes are the work of a book-seller, or of one of Maclures friends or clerks; however, it is possible, on the basis of a hand-written dedication on one of the items (volume 1387, item 10) to suggest a different origin.
The author of this item, Marc-Antoine Jullien de Paris, offers it to Maclure with his homage. There is a marked resemblance between this hand and the style of the notations which appear throughout the collection.
Further support for the view that Jullien de Paris was the original owner of these materials can be drawn from his public career, from the closeness of his contacts with Maclure, from the period when the collection could have changed hands, and from Maclures handling of the collection after he acquired it. We will take these points in order.
Julliens father came to Paris in 1762 from a sleepy southern backwater--Dauphinés Drôme valley. His quickness of mind and tongue had earned immediate recognition; this led him to well paid tutorial posts in noble households. The fathers most influential Paris friend was the Abbé Mably; the critical spirit of the anti-mercantilist philosophe came down in the National Convention through the elder Jullien. The Julliens (father and son) provide an interesting link between the academic socialism of the Mably-Helvetius-Morelly group, the Babouvienne "Equals", and the St. Simonians, between the scholars of the 18th century and the dreamers of the 19th. The younger Jullien (born 1775) was earning a valuable literary reputation as poet and journalist (Mercer de France, Journal de Soir, Anti-Fédéraliste, and Bulletin Politique) even before he graduated laureate from the Lycée Montaigu into the Jacobin Society in 1791. The Julliens lined up with Robespierre from the start, opposing the war in 1792. After a brief stint as diplomate élève at the French legation in London, Jullien de Paris returned to service as a commissioner of the Committee of Public Safety to the armies in the Pyrenees. In the summer of 1793, this eighteen-year-old lad was entrusted with a mission to the Atlantic ports, where he did his best to moderate Carriers terror at Nantes. Robespierre recalled him to Paris in the autumn for service on the Committee of Public Instruction. Although he was implicated with Danton and Desmoulins in the party struggle of the late winter 1794, he still held enough of Robespierres esteem to gain a new exile as commissar in Bordeaux, rather than a victims role in the last stages of the Terror at Paris.
After Thermidor, the anti-Robespierrists Tallien and Carrier struck out at young Jullien de Paris; but the elder Jullien still had enough influence in the Convention to save his sons life, though the young man did not regain his freedom until the autumn of 1795. Jullien de Pariss career never again reached such heights of influence and command as he had held in 1793. He served on the law and decree bureau of the Directory in 1795-96, founded the journal lOrateur plébéien, went into hiding for six months after the Babeuf conspiracy was exposed, and next appeared as Bonapartes publicity agent during the Italian campaign. He served with Bonaparte in Egypt and again in Italy at the time of Marengo. In the years which followed, he helped to set up the military school at Fontainebleau, and the camp of Boulogne; then, after Austerlitz, he took a leading role in the indemnity negotiations with the German states. Next, four quiet years were passed at the War Ministry in Paris; during this period Jullien wrote a good deal about educational reform, for he had visited Yverdon after Austerlitz and acquired an enthusiastic interest in the Pestalozzian system. Like Talleyrand, Jullien was out of favor when Napoleon fell, so that he could return to his old post at the War Ministry in 1814. When Napoleon returned from Elba, the one-time imperial publicist took up his journalistic interests again with LIndépendant, but his independence embroiled him with the returning ultra-royalists. A renewed exile in Switzerland was the price of this episode, but the relaxation of tension in 1817 allowed his return to Paris with plans now for a learned yet popular journal which he called the Revue Encyclopédique. In it he covered the cosmopolitan affairs of science and education; according to Lévy-Schneider, "Jullien, en pleine Restauration, nous apparait comme de dernier en date des disciples de dAlembert et Diderot." (Lévy-Schneider, L. "LEtat desprit de Jullien de Paris sous la Restauration et sous Louis-Philippe," La Révolution Français LXII (1912), p. 56; see also pp. 39-57 and 97-117.) Jullien gave up his revue in 1831 and devoted the last years of his life to revising his earlier work, to his correspondence, and to refurbishing for posterity the image of the young revolutionary of 1793-94.
In reviewing Julliens career, we find a number of close points of contact between this real revolutionary and the imaginary Frenchman who apparently gathered our Maclure Collection. The elder Jullien had the background and connections to explain the pre-1789 items; Jullien-fils can be related to many of the other peculiarities of this collection. For example, his activities in the port cities from Le Havre to Bordeaux would explain much of the maritime and colonial material. His educational role in 1793-94, his service in the laws and decrees bureau in 1795-96, and his military functions in 1793-94 and again in 1797-1810 would explain other important segments. He was imprisoned between August 1794 and October 1795; the collection is weaker in private materials for this period. One of the oldest items in the collection is the anti-Robespierrist journal Courrier Républicain, which pursued a vendetta against figures like Jullien de Paris; it is present only for the period in 1794 when he and his father were most anxious about his enemies. Again, a strong group of pamphlets on Babouvienne questions gives way to another relatively blank period of coverage; the collection is strong again for the period 1799-1802 when Jullien had returned from Egypt and was active in the new government. Another odd item in this setting is the Restoration journal Le Censeur, with its St. Simon articles (1814-15); Julliens presence in Paris and his interest in such causes fits this incongruity very well. On the basis of these correlations, it is far easier to see Jullien de Paris as the gatherer of these materials than it is to cast Maclure in this role.
The views and careers of these men do come together at several important points. The young Jullien returned from London to Paris in 1792 at a time when Maclure was making the trip. They were both in Paris in 1803, and in Germany and Switzerland in 1805-06; if they failed to meet at Yverdon, the time between their visits could not have been very great. They were both in Paris again in 1815, and in 1817. Maclure planned a series of articles for the early issues of the Revue Encyclopédique. Owenism attracted both of them in the early 1820s, and in 1824, Jullien in his Revue deplored the use of French troops to restore monastic lands to Spanish congregations, land in which, we have seen, Maclure had an important stake. As we have suggested earlier, the ideas of Maclure seem very closely allied, even in the use of terms like "industrious producers," to the views of Jullien. However, Julliens views were developed so much more clearly and completely, and from such a more comprehensive preparation and understanding, that it is very difficult to assign their origin to Maclure. Lévy-Schneider (pp. 52-57) found it easy to trace their development from the philosophe friends of Jullien-père and from the Jacobin companions of Jullien de Paris youth. While we need not accept all of Lévy-Schneiders reasoning, the general lines of his argument are quite convincing.
The movements of the collection in the period 1815-20, as far as we can reconstruct them, can be considered in our argument. Some items were added to the collection in 1814 and 1816; but, from this point on, the additions are unimportant and difficult to associate with the bulk of the collection. By 1819-20 these items were in Maclures hands, for he turned them over to the library of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia by 1821.
A reasonable explanation can be advanced for a transfer of these materials from Jullien to Maclure at some time during the years 1815-16 to 1819. In 1815-17 Jullien may have been in some financial embarrassment; he needed money to flee the country and to maintain himself in Switzerland; and, in 1817, he needed money to begin his new journal. What would have been more natural than for the wealthy Maclure to have offered an advance and for the proud Jullien to have insisted on a business arrangement involving his library? Perhaps, Jullien turned these materials over to Maclure in 1818, when the American was planning his articles for the Revue Encyclopédique, with the idea that they could provide the factual background for these writings. However, Maclure did not draw upon these materials in his social and economic critiques, and he got rid of them as quickly as he decently could, apparently without any effort to use them at all. The Academys printed catalogue of the Collection in 1837 seems to be based upon a hand-written catalogue, obviously not from the pen of Maclure. This last point suggests that the collection was not at all re-arranged or even used in the period when it was in Maclures hands.
We believe that this evidence in support of the theory that Jullien de Paris was the original owner of the University of Pennsylvanias Maclure Collection is strong though obviously far from conclusive. Maclure may have bought at random whenever he was in Paris; he may have had a standing order with Paris booksellers; or he may have purchased a collection or collections which were completely unrelated to the Jullien family. One way of tightening the chain of reasoning in favor of Julliens original ownership would be through a close analysis of his journalistic work, especially in 1791-92 and again in 1795-96. The internal organization in the Maclure Collection may well have counterparts in Julliens early writing.
The value of the Maclure Collection is not diminished by the question which is raised in this essay. Obviously, if it is Jullien de Paris collection, the interest (if not the value) of the collection will be considerably enhanced. In the meantime, it may be enough to say, in explaining the value and usefulness of these source materials, that they reflect the varied facets of a revolutionary as versatile and active as Jullien de Paris, and that is not unreasonable to see him and his conventional father as the collectors. At the same time, we may honor the memory of the pioneer geologist, William Maclure, whose meagre academic training limited the use he could make of such pamphlets, though it could not limit the generous spirit and faith in humanity which inspired his attacks upon the inhumanity of the old order and his sacrifices for the birth of the new.
A Summary of the Catalogue by Volume*
*Vols. 1-643 contain legislative proceedings, private journals, and other serials. For additional serials see vols. 648-653; 703-705, 752; 879-957; 1222; 1406-1409; 1421-1422. There is a useful introduction to the serials in the article by James D. Hardy and John H. Jensen, "Maclure Collection Serials: A Descriptive Catalogue" The Library Chronicle, XXIX, no. 1 (Winter 1963), 30-42. In our catalogue all publishers are given except official publishers (Imprimerie Nationale and Baudouin)
Almanach Royal, 1779, 1783, 1791, 1792.
Révolutions de France et de Brabant. A journal published by Desmoulins. Nov. 1789-Feb. 1790.
Procès-verbalde lAssemblée Générale des électeurs de Paris(1789).
Révolutions de Paris. A journal, published by Prudhomme. July 12 1789-Feb. 28, 1794.
Le Courrier de Départemens. A journal, published by Gorsas. July 5, 1789-May 31, 1793.
The Journal des Etats-Généraux et Assemblée Nationale Permanente, by Devaux.
The Journal des Etats-Généraux et Assemblée Nationale Permanente, published by Le Hodey de Saultchevreuil.
The Procès-Verbal of the National Constituent Assembly (official).
The Journal des Débats et des Décrets of the National Constituent Assembly (official).
A listing (with indexes) of the decrees of the National Constituent Assembly (official).
Index and chronological table for vols. 180-192B (official).
Extrait alphabétique de tous les décrets de lAssemblée Nationale, by Yves-Claude Jourdain.
The Procès-Verbal of the Legislative Assembly (official).
Index (names and places) for vols. 195-210 (official).
Journal de lAssemblée Nationale. The "Journal logographique" of Le Hodey de Saultchevreuil.
Le Point du Jour, ou Résultat de Ce Qui Sest Passé la Veille à lAssemblée Nationale. A journal, published by Barère de Vieuzac.
The Journal des Débats et des Décrets of the Legislative Assembly (official).
A collection of the decrees of the Legislative Assembly (official).
A collection of the decrees of the National Convention (official).
The Procès-Verbal of the National Convention (official).
The Journal des Débats et des Décrets of the National Convention (official).
The Courier Républicain. A journal, published by Durand-Molard. Covers 14 Thermidor II to 23 Frimaire III.
The Bulletin de la Convention Nationale. Nivôse III-Brumaire IV (official). News bulletins, reports from deputies on mission, reports of the Committee of Public Safety, addresses.
Edicts of the National Convention, 1794-1795. Work of committees and various administrative bodies (official).
Laws, administrative orders, reports, and other materials on the émigrés (official).
The Procès-Verbal of the Council of Five Hundred, Legislative Body (Directory era). Covers Brumaire IV-Nivôse VIII (official).
The Procès-Verbal of the Council of Elders, Legislative Body (Directory era). Covers Brumaire IV-Nivôse VIII (official).
Index of names and places in the Procès-Verbal of the Legislative Body (Directory era). (official).
The Journal des Débats et des Décrets of Legislative Body, Brumaire IV-Pluviôse VIII (Directory era). (official).
Resolutions of the Legislative Body, Brumaire IV-Brumaire VIII (Directory era). (official).
Bulletin Décadaire, Vendémiaire VII-Brumaire VIII (official). News letters, patriotic exhortations, and technical advice, sent to local officials.
Almanach National, Years VIII-XI.
The Procès-Verbal of the Tribunate (Consulate era). Covers Nivôse VIII-Frimaire XII.
The Procès-Verbal for the Legislative Body (Consulate era). Covers Nivôse VIII-Germinal XII.
Index of names and places in the Procès-Verbal of the Legislative Body and the Tribunate (Consulate era). Covers Nivôse VIII-Fructidor XI.
Almanach Impérial, 1806-1811.
Extracts ("Feuilletons") from the transactions of the Consulate Legislative Body and Tribunate, Nivôse VIII-Brumaire IX.
Le Censeur. A journal, by Comte and Dunoyer, 1814-1815.
Private works on the clergy, 1750-1785.
Procès-Verbal of the Provincial Estates of Corsica, 1770-1781. In French and Italian.
Private works on the parlements and the problems of the Estates-General, 1770-1788.
Private works on the Estates-General and government affairs, 1789.
Mixed private pamphlets and government edicts, reports, and addresses to legislatures, 1790-1795.
Procès-Verbal of the provincial Estates of Berri, 1780-1786.
Works on finance, 1787-1792 (vols. 706-738) and 1795-1804 (vols. 739-744); private pamphlets and government edicts, committee reports, and addresses.
A miscellaneous series, 1776-year VI. Private and official works on political and military affairs, commerce and manufacturing, colonies, public instruction, and finance.
Political affairs, 1788-1792 (a few items for the years 1777-1787). Mostly private pamphlets and cahiers de doléances, on the questions facing the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly. Pamphlets from Paris and some twelve provinces. Addresses and responses to the crown by individuals, by local assemblies, separate orders, and individual delegates. Vols. 791-795 are on or by the clergy. Vols. 803-811 are cahiers de doléances; several other volumes in this series also contain some cahiers.
A topical series, mostly bound by subject. Period of the National Constituent Assembly and the Legislative Assembly. Reports of the legislative committees and governmental agencies. The chief subjects are: local administration; rights and obligations of nobles and clerics; the constitution; judicial organization and procedure; public assistance; public instruction; science and engineering; commerce; army and navy; colonies and foreign affairs.
The Procès-Verbal of the Third Estate (May-June 1789) and the National Constituent Assembly, June 1789-Sept. 1791. (Published by Bauduoin.) Each vol. Has a summary table; the final volume is an index for the series. Vols. 951-957 are additional reports and are not in chronological order.
A topical series, in part; some miscellaneous volumes. Both private and official works at times in the same volume, 1789-1800. The chief subjects are: tracts published in London, 1789; religious affairs; public education; colonies, military affairs; agriculture, commerce and manufacturing; foreign affairs; treason of the royal court; work of the Comité des pensions.
A topical series, bound mostly by subject. Period of the Legislative Assembly, 1791-1792 (official). The chief subjects are: conspiracies and insurrections; the revolution of Aug. 10, 1792; religious affairs; the work of the Comité de Division (administrative units); military affairs; colonies (esp. San Domingo); finances; petitions and addresses by the sections of Paris.
Works on public finances, 1791-1800. Pamphlets on taxes, assignats, bonds, treasury affairs, national domain, the postal system.
J. Money, History of the Campaign of 1792, (London 1794).
Topical series, bound mostly by subject. Period of the National Convention (official). Addresses to the Convention and reports of legislative committee and individual delegates. The chief subjects are: The work of the Committee of Public Safety; the constitution of the year III; émigrés and suspects; public instruction (vols. 1113-1120); economic affairs; military affairs (vols. 1127-1133); marine and colonies (vols. 1134-1149); foreign affairs; finance (vols. 1152-1166); legal reform; conspiracies and insurrections; denunciations; reports of delegates on mission (vols. 1175-1186).
Miscellaneous works of the National Convention era. Private pamphlets and official works. Vols. 1202-1208 are on the trial and execution of Louis XVI.
Miscellaneous works of the Directory era. Private pamphlets and official works on constitutional affairs; military and foreign affairs; anti-government tracts and histories; vol. 1222 is Le Mémorial (year V); vols. 1224 and 1225 are Le Conservateur (year VIII).
A topical series. The work of the Legislative Body (Council of Five Hundred and Council of Elders, Directory era). A small number of private pamphlets. The chief subjects are: enemies of the state; internal order; émigrés (years IV-VII); refractory priests; election procedures; judicial affairs; municipal affairs; political societies; public assistance; patriotic institutions; public instruction; science; agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing; canals and drainage projects; military and naval affairs; colonies and foreign relations; public finance; the civil code; the criminal code; patriotic addresses; reports of delegates mission; the trial of Babeuf and others; coup dEtat of 19 Brumaire.
Additional miscellaneous works of the Directory era. Mixed private and official works. Some volumes are more or less by topic: the constitution; national administration; the judicial system; military affairs; émigrés; public finances; organization of the legislature; national holidays. Also reports to the Legislative Body, to the Directors.
Reports to the Tribunate (Consulate era) year VIII.
Arthur OConnor, Etat actual de la Grande-Bretagne, Paris, 1804.
Dictionnaire de Législation, ou Table alphabétique des lois rendues depuis lan 1789 (vieux style) jusquà lan 6 inclusivement
Miscellaneous works of the Consulate and Empire era. Mixed private and official works, 1800-1815. Among the topics are items on colonies; the Louisiana Purchase; the work of the "Conservative Senate"; the conspiracy of Pluviôse, year IX; the civil and criminal codes; public works; the hereditary Empire; the work of the Council of State; the elections of 1809 and 1810; foreign affairs; reports to the Tribunate, years XII-XIII. Also includes a few items from the Restoration era, 1815-1830.
This is not a series, but a mixture of some volumes from the Maclure Collection, a few given by the Pennsylvania Historical Society at the time the Maclure Collection was acquired, and a few items from the general collection of the Van Pelt Library. Contains both public and private works, pre-Revolution through the Empire. Vols. 1416, 1417, 1420, 1423-1439, 1456, and 1457 are unbound pamphlets. Vol. 1422 is the Bulletin (Nouvelles) de Versailles to August 14, 1789, later the Courier National. Vols. 1440-1453 are Abbé Balestriers Bibliothèque de lhomme public, Paris, 1790-1792.