Music Manuscripts: Series 1: Part 2: Bodleian Library, Oxford: Court Odes of William Boyce
About this Collection
Thisis the first programme in an entirely new Harvester series of microfilmpublications in music. The aim is to make available, for the first time, toscholars and practical musicians large collections of rich manuscript materialin the great British Libraries. The series is under the general direction ofDr. Roger Bray of the University of Manchester.
Thefirst programme (Part 1) consists of sixteenth and seventeenth centurymanuscripts of the Oxford Music School, housed at the Bodleian Library of theUniversity of Oxford. From the early seventeenth century the Oxford MusicSchool was one of Europes leading centres of music scholarship and itscollection of original compositions represented the finest working-library ofmusic in England. The manuscripts illustrate the development of English musicover these crucial centuries and remain of the highest historical interest. Asecond selection from the Oxford Music School Collection is in preparation.
MargaretCrum, with her intimate knowledge of the collection, has given quiteindispensable help in the selection of this programme. We owe to her theIntroduction which appears in this Guide and also the detailed Index ofComposers and their Works which gives references not only to the relevant pageof the Catalogue but also to the reel on which particular works or composersappear. The Catalogue, also compiled by Margaret Crum, has been filmed in itsentirety on the first reel and relevant sections have been reproduced on eachreel.
TheOxford Music School collection of manuscripts, of which a selection is nowpublished on microfilm, was formed with the purpose of William Heather, thefounder of the Professorship, in mind. In 1627 he had presented a nucleus ofbooks, instruments and furniture, to enable the Professor or Master of Musickto give encouragement and perhaps instruction to such company as will practiseMusick under his direction, every week, on Thursday in the afternoon,afternoons in Lent excepted. In case nobody else came, the Professor was tobring with him two boys so that three-part music could be performed.1
Earlier,music had been represented in the university by the theoretical study required,as part of the quadrivium, for the degree of M.A., and by the performance ofservices in the Cathedral and in certain college chapels. In contrast, Heatheraimed to answer the needs of comparatively informal meetings of singers andinstrumentalists. The collection shows how those needs were seen by thepractising musicians who occupied his Chair. The existence of much of theirmusic in copies elsewhere argues for the soundness of their judgment, thoughthe very clean condition of many of the printed books and manuscripts may be asign that sometimes parts were obtained only when the wish to perform them waspassing. But perhaps Heathers stipulation that no books were to be lentabroad upon any pretence whatsoever, nor removed out of the Schools and placeappointed,1 is responsible not only for their nearly complete survival,but also for the good condition in which they long remained. In recent yearsthe combined effects of age and of increased use have begun to give cause forconcern.
Theselection here has been partly guided by the known needs of musicians during thelast twenty-five years. It is approaching a hundred years since ArnoldDolmetsch found that the 16th and 17th century musical manuscripts in theBritish Museum were to be valued at least as much for their content as fortheir appearance, and his discovery led to a growing wish to perform and tohear such music. Scholarly investigation for which alone the manuscripts hadheld interest for perhaps two centuries, took on new life.
Thepresent selection of manuscripts aims to reflect the activity of the OxfordMusic School in its period of growth. The emphasis is on instrumental music,because that was the primary concern of the Professors. There was much betterprovision for singers in books printed at home and abroad, but instrumentalistshad to depend largely on manuscripts. It is for the most part music which wasreally played or sung, not manuscripts kept for any other reason, which havebeen chosen.
Inthe earlier years of the foundation little was added to Heathers gift, whichconsisted of 42 sets of madrigals and motets printed in England, Holland,Belgium and Italy between 1575 and 1624, together with the Forrest-Heather partbooks of Tudor church music.2 Nearly all are present still. The onlyevidence of the earliest additions - canons, evidently of great ingenuity, byElway Bevin, and Fancies and In nomines by Alfonso Ferrabosco - is theirpresence in the first library list. After those accessions, but probably stillcomparatively early, came the set MSS.Mus.Sch.D 212-216, which contains In nomines,mostly composed during the sixteenth century: in these books anthems, includingthree by the first Professor, Richard Nicholson, were added, and when room hadto be found for extra parts, the copyist wrote them, as it now seems with acertain lack of reverence, in the end of the Forrest-Heather books. In 1657 thethird Professor, John Wilson, paid Mr. Jackson for pricking (i.e., copying) ofaires in a sett of Bookes of 3. 4. 5. And 6 parts,3 no doubtMSS.Mus.Sch.E 431-436, which his successor Edward Lowe labelled Ayres andcalled the old Consort Bookes with Green Stringes. Other manuscripts copiedduring the middle years of the century probably reached the collection onlyduring and after the time of Edward Lowe, as we shall see later.
Notvery much is known about the first Professor, Richard Nicholson and hissuccessor Arthur Phillips, though a small number of compositions by each is inthe collection. Of John Wilson, who came in 1656, much more has survived,though not in the Music School. His great book of lute compositions and lutesongs was presented to the Bodleian in 1656 on condition that nobody should seeit till after his death.4 But he was a court musician, a prolificcomposer and skilled performer, and he was in touch with other composers, andparticularly with the brothers Henry and William Lawes. His successor EdwardLowe (Professor from 1661-1682) brought the same enlivening contact withpractising musicians from outside Oxford.
Thereis no way of telling what use was made, in the early years, of the opportunitydevised by Heather. At least from the middle of the seventeenth century therewas activity outside the music school among Oxford scholars and citizens(shared for a time and fortunately recorded by Anthony Wood) which owed somethingto the assistance of the Heather Professors. As to the music school, Lowescollection of 3-part music, included in a portfolio now bound together asMS.Mus.Sch.C 44, reflects his anxiety to carry out the founders provision forThursdays when nobody came, but it seems that at times music for as many as sixperformers was needed. Sometimes at least there were visitors as on twoThursdays in November, 1665, when Matthew Locke took part in the meeting,writing music to be performed then and there: on the first occasion, a Gloriawas made prickt and sungebetween the Houers of 12 and 3 afternoone, and onthe second he composed a songe and Phantasyeto carry on the meetinge.5
Thebest evidence of Lowes assiduity is the library itself, which grew rapidlyunder his care. Money was raised by a collection organized in 1665 from membersand friends of the University, and with this Heathers foundation was not onlyrestored but was improved. Much was needed for an organ and for stringedinstruments, but the librarys share included the valuable part-books from theNorths household at Kirtling. Henry Lawes gave the magnificent set of hisbrother Williams compositions.6 Atother times, John Hingeston, Valentine Oldys, Thomas Baltzar, and probably alsoChristopher Gibbons and Sylvanus Taylor, gave their own, either to Lowe himselfor to the Music School. Dr. Matthew Hutton,7 Fellow of Brasenose,and Francis Withy,8 a Christ Church singing man, gave manuscriptsthey had copied. William Iles gave ten books to Dr. Fell in 1673 for theschool, but of these only four remain.9 Richard Rhodes of ChristChurch gave Lowe his set of part-books. John Lilly10 was paid for acopy of Simpsons Months and Seasons. And Lowe himself transcribed a greatdeal of music, including a set of New Consort Books (MSS.Mus.E 443-6, F 570)in imitation of Wilsons set, bound in the same style, beginning in 1677.Lowes hand is to be seen in a large proportion of the books, labelling,indexing, annotating, as well as copying. The impetus he had given did notimmediately subside when he died. He was succeeded by Richard Goodson, whosefirst act was to have a list written,11 and who continued to addbooks. The present selection includes manuscripts acquired down to about theyear 1700. Two books of different provenance have been included: TheDivision Violist, 1659, belonging to Matthew Huttons friend, Dr. JohnCovel (Mus.184 c.8) had manuscript divisions added at the end, among whichAndrew Ashbee recognized the hand of John Jenkins; and Ms.Mus.c.39 alsocontains bass viol divisions dated 1679. It seemed that both of these, havingbeen used by the Viola da Gamba Society for their indexes in Chelys,would be wanted, with the similar volumes belonging to the Music School.
Severalkinds of manuscript are reproduced here. The rarest are composers own scores,either working papers or fair copies. All the rest are playing parts, eitherfor accompanying keyboard, or for voices or instruments. There are systematicpart-books, like Wilsons and Lowes Consort Books, where each piece occupiesthe same position in all the books: the pieces were numbered, a new seriesgenerally being started when there was a change in the number of parts.Naturally there are also disorderly part-books, such as John Merros set,MSS.Mus.Sch.D 245-7. Some books were copied over a long period, by one owner orby several, so that different strata of music are present and have to bedistinguished. One sensible habit, of working from both ends of a book,sometimes causes difficulty in using photocopy. Another kind of manuscript(MS.Mus.Sch.C 44 is an example) originated as loose papers: when several partsneeded to be kept together, one (usually the bass) might be folded round therest. When these papers were bound for protection, such pieces were stitched asif they had been intended as quires, causing some trouble to users of the bookitself, and more to users of photocopy. To disentangle these various problems,a careful look at the manuscripts physical make-up was necessary. The relevantdetail is lost on microfilm, and it has seemed best to give these observationsin full at the end of each description.
Themain catalogue consists of a general account of the nature, contents, date andownership of each manuscript, taken in order of shelf-mark, followed by adetailed list from which the pieces can be located. To the Viola da GambaSociety (and in particular, to Commander Gordon Dodd) and to other users of themanuscripts, help in identifying unascribed pieces is gratefully acknowledged.Groups of manuscripts, such as the Lawes or the North books, which belongtogether, have been dealt with together, even if their various sizes separatedthem on the shelves. For part-books, the different parts are named at the endof the preliminary description, and are given small roman numbers for reference(e.g., i, first violin or cantus, iv, organ, etc.). The location of each partis given by roman number and folio or page number. The contents are numbered,whenever possible using original numbering, for the sake of the index.Reference to earlier lists and catalogues is included after the bibliographicaldescription: to the 1682 list; to the shelf-marks of the Music School, wherethe volumes were arranged according to size, A3 (small) to A6 (big) and B3-6;and to the numbers given by Robert Hake for his catalogue of ca.1850-5. Theshelf-marks by which they are now known date from their arrival in the Bodleianin 1885.
B.L.R.- Bodleian Library Record
B.M.Q. - British Museum Quarterly
Heawood. - Watermarks, Monumenta Chartae Papyraccae I, 1950
L. - William Lawes, M. Lefkowitz, 1960
M. - Die mehrstimmige Spielmusik des 17 Jahrh. E.H. Mayer, 1934
M. and L. - Music and Letters.
V. da G. Soc. - Viola da Gamba Society.
1 Anthony Wood, History and Antiquities of theUniversity of Oxford, ed. John Gutch, 1796, ii. 358-9.
2 The first catalogue is MS.Mus.Sch.C.103*. It isprinted in Early Lists of the Oxford Music School Collection, Margaret Crum, Musicand Letters vol. 48, 1967, pp. 23-34.
3 Oxford University Archives, N.W. 3. 4, fol.204.
4 Anthony Wood, Fasti Oxonienses, ed.Bliss, ii, 1820, 71-2.
5 MS.Mus.Sch.C.44, fols. 46 and 1.
6 cf. P.J. Willetts, Autograph Music byJohn Jenkins, M. and L. 48, 1967, p. 125 n.8; Early Lists of theOxford Music School Collection, cited above; and The Consort Music fromKirtling, brought for the Oxford Music School from Anthony Wood, 1667, Chelys,4, 1972, pp. 3-10.
7 See P.J. Willetts, Music for the circle ofAnthony Wood at Oxford, B.M.Q. XXIV, 1961, pp. 71-75. Huttonsunascribed additions to MSS.Mus.Sch.D.241-4 were discovered to be movementsfrom the Royal Consort Suite of William Lawes. Chelys, 6, 1975-6, p. 4.
8 Francis Withy first appears in Christ Church accountbooks as a clerk in 1670. His father was John Withy of Worcester, a friend ofThomas Tomkins.
9 MSS.Mus.Sch.D.245-7, F.575.
10 See P.J. Willetts, John Lilly, Musician andMusic Copyist, B.L.R. VII, 1962-7, 307-11.
11 MS.Mus.Sch.C.204*. Printed in Early Lists ofthe Oxford Music School Collection, cited above.
HarvesterMicroform (now an imprint of Thomson/Gale) are proud to continue theirpublication of music manuscript collections with Parts Two to Five of SeriesOne, which presents the outstanding collection of the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Alreadypublished is Part One, consisting of sixteenth and seventeenth centurymanuscripts from the Oxford Music School Collection. This guide gives adetailed listing of manuscripts as well as the contents of reels in Parts Two,Three, Four and Five of the series. An index of names and composers appears atthe end. The series is under the editorial direction of Professor Roger Bray ofthe University of Lancaster.
SeriesTwo of the Harvester music programme contains the magnificent Music Collection ofSt. Michael's College, Tenbury, which is also housed at the Bodleian Library,Oxford; Series Three contains the extensive collection of Christ Church,Oxford; Series Four contains that of the British Library, London; and SeriesFive that of the Royal College of Music, London.
PartTwo of the Bodleian Collection presents the entire collection of Court Odescomposed by William Boyce during his term as Master of the King's Musick. PartThree gives further Boyce manuscripts presented in combination with the worksof Maurice Greene, who held the post of Master of the King's Musick prior toBoyce. Parts Four and Five comprise sections A and B of English MusicManuscripts before c.1850, and include both religious and secular works by suchdistinguished composers as Blow, Child, Croft, Philip and William Hayes,Purcell and Weldon.
Onthe first reel of each part there is a listing of manuscripts and areproduction of the relevant entries from the Bodleian Summary Catalogue andthe unpublished Bodleian typescript catalogue.
Underthe watchful eye of Roger Bray we must again acknowledge the care and attentionof Mavis Thomas at all stages in the preparation of this Listing and Guide.
This booklet covers the microfilms we published as Parts 2to 5 of our Bodleian Library coverage.
InParts 2 and 3 we give the remarkable sequence of Court Odes by Greene andBoyce, together with the other music of theirs in the Bodleians collection.Indeed, it will be found that there is also a good deal of material on theEnglish ceremonial, or occasional, ode in parts 4 and 5, and it may well bethat there is here more than enough information on which to base a study ofthis genre (as a complement, or perhaps in distinction to the Court Odeitself). The Oxford Act songs, dating from the 1670s, should find a place insuch a history and it is notable that Oxford (which is known to have hadexcellent composers at its service in the Commonwealth period, as we have seenfrom Part 1 of our microfilm series) continued to draw music from first-ratecomposers, such as Blow and Christopher Gibbons. The tradition of composingodes for various occasions persisted until well into the 19th century. TheBodleian has an extensive range of such work from the 18th century, notablyexamples by William Hayes and Philip Hayes (father and son, and HeatherProfessor of Music respectively 1741-1777 and 1777-1797), and a few laterexamples, by William Crotch (Heather Professor 1797-1848) Sir Henry Bishop(Heather Professor 1848-1854) and Sir Frederick Ouseley (Heather Professor1854-1889).
Inaddition to these works, there are several manuscripts which transmit anthemsand services, the earliest post-Reformation example being the Wanleypart-books (MSS.Mus.Sch.e. 420-422). The only pre-Reformation source includedhere is the Forrest-Heather part-books, but we hope to visit the Bodleiansmedieval archives at a future date. Of particular interest are autograph scoresby Alcock, Arnold, Boyce, Crotch, Christopher Gibbons, Greene, Philip Hayes, WilliamHayes, Locke, Purcell and Samuel Wesley.
Thehistory of the development of the Music School collection has been fullydescribed by Margaret Crum in the introduction accompanying Part 1 of theHarvester Bodleian microfilm (and in greater detail in her article Early Listsof the Oxford Music School Collection, Music and Letters, 48 (1967),23-34). It is a monument to the founder of the Chair of Music, William Heather,and to the early Professors, notably Wilson, Lowe and Richard Goodson senior.
Theother major Bodleian collection, the Music Collection (Mus.), was formed atfirst by the bequest of Rev. Osborne Wight (d.1800) in 1801, and it is stillbeing extended.
Thebasis of this listing is the Summary Catalogue (F. Madan, Summary Catalogueof Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1895-1953) to whichsome additional information has been added. As usual, I have attempted todirect users of the films towards the major forms and types of work in eachmanuscript, and to include the names of all the composers whose works are foundtherein. My thanks are again due to Rosalie Warburton for keeping the Lancasterend of the operation running smoothly.
University of Lancaster
HarvesterMicroform are proud to continue their publication of music manuscriptcollections with Part Six of Series One, which presents the outstandingcollection of the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Alreadypublished are Parts One to Five of Series One, which contains four centuries ofEnglish music manuscripts. Series Two contains the collection of St. Michael'sCollege, Tenbury, which is also housed at the Bodleian Library, and SeriesThree contains the collection of Christ Church, Oxford. Series Four comes fromthe British Library, London, and Series Five from the Royal College of Music,London. Series Six consists of the collections in Cambridge libraries andmuseums.
PartSix of the Bodleian Collection consists of Continental music manuscripts of the16th, 17th and 18th centuries. There is some German music, but it is mainlyItalian and French. Not only is the music important in its own right, but thenature of the material reflects the changing musical tastes and preoccupationsin England from around 1600 to 1800.
ThisGuide gives the Reel Contents, a Detailed Listing of Manuscripts and an Indexof Names and Composers included in Part Six. On the first reel of this partthere is a listing of manuscripts and a reproduction of the relevant entriesfrom the Bodleian Summary Catalogue and the unpublished Bodleian TypescriptCatalogue.
Alsoincluded is a Complete Index of Names and Composers as well as a Listing of theManuscripts appearing in all six parts of the series.
Theseries is under the editorial direction of Professor Roger Bray of theUniversity of Lancaster. Under his watchful eye we must also acknowledge thecare and attention of Mavis Thomas at all stages in the preparation of thisListing and Guide.
PartSix of our series of microfilms of manuscripts in the Bodleian Library consistsof those manuscripts which contain Continental Music (mainly Italian andFrench, with a little German), and completes our visit to the remarkableBodleian collection. The only manuscripts which we have not included are theirmedieval manuscripts, many of which are published in facsimile already (J.Stainer, Early Bodleian Music). In addition, a very small number of manuscriptshave been excluded owing to their being rather late sources for the music theycontain.
Thepresent selection, especially those manuscripts from the Music Schoolcollection (Mus.Sch.), shows how quickly the Italian style spread to Englandaround 1700, and how wholeheartedly English musicians embraced it. MargaretCrum in her Introduction to the first Guide to our Harvester Bodleian seriesrelated the early history of the Music School collection. One or twoobservations may be added now that we have completed its filming. WilliamHeathers original bequest consisted of the Forrest-Heather partbooks(Mus.Sch.E. 376-381, in part 4 of our films) and a very large number of printedbooks, including not only what would have been regarded at the time (1627) asthe standard printed English repertoire, such as the madrigal and consort songcollections of Byrd (1588, 1589, and 1591), East (Books 1, 2, 3 and 6), Gibbons(1612), Ward (1613), Weelkes (1598), the Transalpine anthologies (1588 andWatson 1590), and Tomkins (1622), to name only a few, but also printed sacredmusic by Byrd and Tallis, Italian madrigals, and some books which must havebeen rare in this country, such as Viadanas Sinfonie Musicale (1610).Although his intention seems to have been that instrumental as well as vocalmusic should be practised, the books he presented are almost exclusively vocal(or at least those that survive are; we shall see later that some must havebecome lost). For this reason the choice of the first Professor, RichardNicolson, was appropriate, for Nicolson was Master of the Choristers atMagdalen. Indeed there is strong circumstantial evidence that Nicolson was thesecond choice, and that the original candidate was an even more appropriateperson, Orlando Gibbons. When in 1622 William Camden instituted a Chair ofHistory the occasion was further celebrated by the award of the degree ofDoctor of Music to Heather (a friend of Camdens) and Gibbons. Camden washimself an amateur musician, having been a chorister at Magdalen, Heather was aGentleman of the Chapel Royal, and Gibbons was of course organist of the ChapelRoyal. The exercise to accompany the award of both the doctorates of Music(Heather being no composer himself) is thought by many scholars to have beenGibbonss O clap your hands, a suitably brilliant piece of eight-partcounterpoint. It seems that Gibbons was being prepared for greater things, buthis sudden death in 1625 made it necessary to look elsewhere. Gibbons was ofcourse an excellent organist (the best finger of that age, according to anear-contemporary) and a composer of consort music as well as vocal, and wouldhave filled the post with great distinction. Nicolson is not in the same class,but he was at least of the same type.
Overthe next 30 years or so the collection of consort music which we filmed as Part1 of our series was compiled, as related by Miss Crum, and the Professors(especially John Wilson) accumulated extra sources, mainly of English consortmusic suitable for the carrying out of Heathers intention. We find very soonthat there is evidence of the spread of Italian music, and in this sixth partwe find many such sources the majority of which were collected by Edward Lowe(Professor, 1661-1682).
Wefind sources copied in England and collected in Oxford (e.g. Mus.Sch.c. 24-27)from the earlier period, while in Part 6 we find several manuscripts of Italianand French music copied in England (e.g. Mus.Sch.c.10, c.63, c.76 perhaps,c.94, c.203, and d.232) and several which seem to have found their way verysoon to England (e.g. Mus.Sch.c.51, c.62, d.255, e.405, and e.425-426). Theneed for Lowes efforts arose because all the old instruments and bookes leftby the founder [had been] either lost, broken, or imbeasled in the time ofrebellion and usurpation. (This quotation from a document of 1675 still stuckto the Musick School door in the 1770s was recorded by Hawkins in his Historyof the Science and Practice of Music (1776), who also gives a great deal ofdetail, quoted from Anthony Wood, of the musical activities in Oxford in theCommonwealth and early Restoration periods. Fortunately it is a slightexaggeration, although it is certain that some of Heathers books were lost).
Itseems that around the middle of the 18th century the collection took on theextra function of being a collection of record and not merely a performingcollection, with the acquisition of the Boyce Court Odes, and it had alreadypreserved the Oxford Act songs dating from the 1670s. The gradual growth of thecollection shows, therefore, the taste and musical preoccupations of the periodfrom about 1600 (when Heather must have started his own collection) to about1800 in this important musical centre. Some of the Act songs had been writtenas the equivalent of the exercise required of candidates for the degrees ofB.Mus. or D.Mus., but from about 1750 they began to be collected in a differentcategory (Music School Exercises, Mus.Sch.Ex.) and we have not tapped thissource in our films. Most of the exercises are for B.Mus., and may be taken asrelatively youthful works of an appropriately formal academic nature, though itshould be stated that students of the period after 1750 will find interest inthis category (the composers include Alcock, Norris, Burney, Dupuis, Ayleward,Crotch, Callcott, Pring, Elvey, Ouseley, Stainer, Parry, Varley, Roberts, Mann,Parratt, and Harwood).
Thebasis of this listing is the Summary Catalogue (F. Madan, Summary Catalogueof Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1785-1953) whichis, however, rather sketchy in its detail of some of these Continentalmanuscripts. It is particularly hoped therefore that the availability onmicrofilm will permit further study. As usual, I have attempted to direct usersof the films towards the major forms and types of work in each manuscript andto include the names of all the composers whose works are found therein. Inaddition to the Index of composers found in this part we add an Index ofcomposers found in the whole of the collection and also an Index of Manuscriptswhich indicates in which part of our microfilm series each manuscript falls.
Mythanks are due to Julie, my wife, for her patience and tolerance of the time Ihave spent incommunicado whilepreparing these Guides, and to Rosalie Warburton for keeping the Lancaster endof the operation working smoothly.
University of Lancaster