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Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Periodicals and Academy Publications


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Seventeenth & Eighteenth Century Periodicals & Academy Publications

Introduction: 17th and 18th Century Periodicals and Academy Publications

Books commonly record the more reflective considerations of an age. But since the advent of printing, periodical literature has had a chance to stand closer to the actual immediacy of the life and thought of a given era. It can do this because of its ability to give a more fine-grained, almost day by day map of all aspects of history and culture. This is especially true of the periodical literature and academy publications of the 17th and 18th centuries. These centuries witnessed the consolidation of the enormous political, religious, and scientific upheavals which had begun in the previous two centuries with the breakdown of the medieval synthesis. All of these developments are chronicled in almost inexhaustible detail in the periodical and academy literature of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Despite its undisputed importance, this literature has not always received the in-depth and extended attention it deserves. This is owing to no lack of interest on the part of scholars but rather to the relative scarcity of much of the material, especially in the New World. With the co-operation of the Yale University Libraries and several other repositories, Research Publications (now Primary Source Microfilm, an imprint of the Gale Group) is pleased to offer at this time in microfilm a balanced list of over six hundred and thirty periodicals and academy publications of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Scope Of The Project:

This collection is made up largely of items which were either originally begun in the 17th century or were issued by or about an Academy or Learned Society which was founded prior to 1701.

All non-current titles are filmed in their entirety so far as this could be determined from the standard bibliographic resources. In some cases this brings them beyond the 18th century.

Where a title is still current, the filming has been terminated at a logical place in the periodicals history.

In general, translations and adaptations have been avoided. A few important translations, however, have been included where these were deemed necessary for reasons of historical value or linguistic convenience.

First editions have been used where available. The one significant exception to this is Acta Sanctorum. The 19th century edition was picked in preference to the 1643+ edition.

In the case of monographs or small periodicals, important variant editions have been included.

Subject Organization

To add value to the microfilm program, periodicals have been published according to the following subject classes:

I -- Academy and Learned Society Publications
II -- Scientific, Medical, and Related Periodicals
III -- Literary, Learned, and Bibliographical Periodicals
IV -- Historical and Political Periodicals
V -- Theological and Ecclesiastical Periodicals

Some remarks are in order on these subject classes.

In the first place, many of the periodicals overlap classes. Many early periodicals of the 17th century tended to be encyclopedic in scope. Acta Eruditorum, for example, touches on almost every subject of concern to intellectual historians. It has been included in class II because it contains a good deal of material of first importance in the history of science. Leibniz, for example, first published his theory of the differential calculus in this journal, thus sparking the major quarrel between his and Newtons adherents as to who had first discovered the calculus. (cf. Royal Society, items RS-38 - RS-40).

Secondly, in the case of the Academies and Learned Societies, some non-serial publications have been included. There are two sorts of these: a) monographs issued separately by the Academy or Society itself; b) independently issued monographs about the Academy or Society. Most of these were issued in the 17th and 18th centuries though some appeared later. These items are generally individual monographs on special topics, early histories of the Academy, manuscript and library catalogues, separate indexes of the publications of the Academy, contemporary appraisals, etc. These miscellaneous publications, though not strictly periodicals, will be invaluable in giving a more complete picture of the workings of an Academy or Society for the scholar who wishes to approach them as institutional units.

Thirdly, subject classes I and II have an additional unity of special interest to historians of science. Leaving aside the Académie des Inscriptions, the combined serial titles of classes I and II together make up the majority of the items listed in the two 17th century sections of Fielding H. Garrisons comprehensive bibliography, The Medical and Scientific Periodicals of the 17th and 18th Centuries.

Medium Used:

All titles are available on 35 mm microfilm.

Indexing:

Each title included in the project has been assigned a number. The identification frames at the start of each title filmed in the series include the assigned number and also include a microfilm image of a catalog card giving bibliographic description of the publication.

The items included in this collection are described in the list that follows.

I. ACADEMY AND LEARNED SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS.
Academie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres, Paris.
Al-1 - AI-17

The Académie des Inscriptions was originally a spin-off of the Académie Francaise. It was founded in 1663 for the crass political purpose of adding to the honor and glory of Louis XIV by furnishing inscriptions and legends for medals to commemorate the high points of his reign. It was also supposed to help decide the most appropriate inscriptions, decorations, and statues to ornament Louis palace at Versailles. Thus it is not surprising that one of the Académies first publications was Médailles sur les principaux événements du règne de Louis le Grand (AI-11a, 11b), published first in 1702 when the Académie still went under its original name of Académie Royale des Médailles et des Inscriptions.

But right from its informal inception, at a time when it used to meet in Colberts library, the members of the Académie had already turned to the study of manuscripts and antiquities in general. Thus, in 1717 (the year after it formally changed its name to its present form), the Académie was already firmly established in the study of antiquities, with many of its members passionately siding with the Ancients against the Moderns in the great cultural battle that was then shaking the learned world.

At the same time, however, the Académie had a very broad understanding of antiquities and included among these the collection and study of the historical and literary heritage of France. As a result one can find side by side in its Histoire et Mémoires (Al-1) articles on Homer and Christine de Pisan. This emphasis on literary and philological criticism was continued in two of the Académies most famous serial publications, the Histoire littéraire de la France (Al-4) and the Notices et extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Al-3). The former was begun by the Benedictine monks of St. Maur and later taken over by the Académie; it is still being published up to the present day. The latter began with a description of the contents of the Royal library, which was later used as the basis for the present Bibliothèque Nationale. An English translation (Al-9) of this first volume of the Notices appeared in 1789, indicating the esteem in which the treasures in the Royal library were held. It should be mentioned that the Notices is an excellent source for Oriental as well as Western inscriptions and texts. In the 19th century, for example, it published many editions and translations of texts and inscriptions from such ancient Oriental cultural centers as Angkor Wat and other parts of the area the French had colonized from the 18th century on as French Indo-China.

Reflecting its interests in political as well as literary history, the Académie supervised the compilation of two major collections of Laws, Charters, etc. (Al-6a, 6b, 6c, and Al-7) and also the collection of texts of early histories and chronicles of France, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France (Al-5).

Rounding out the microfilm collection of Académie des Inscriptions publications are a number of small but important reports and histories (Al-12 - Al-17). Noteworthy in this regard is Al-13, one of the early studies of that epochal archaeological find, the Rosetta stone.

Academie Des Sciences, Paris.
AS-1 - AS-40

The roots of the Paris Académie des Sciences go back to the 1630s when Descartes, Gassendi, and, later, Pascal and others were meeting informally to discuss the forms and implications of the new science, philosophy, and mathematics (cf. AS-14). These informal sessions were eventually structured by Colbert into the Académie Royale des Sciences, which held its first session in the Royal Library of Louis XIV on December 22, 1666. The work of the Académie from this time until its reorganization in 1699 by Pontchartrain and Fontenelle was represented in a number of important but scattered publications from that period (cf. AS-11, 12, 13, 15).

In 1729-1734 most of the work from this early period was brought together systematically in two volumes of Histoire, eight volumes of Mémoires, and an additional index volume (AS-1). Meanwhile beginning in 1699/1702, the Académie had begun issuing its major serial publication, the Histoireavec les Mémoires (AS-2). This publication, covering the work of the Académie from 1699 to 1789, is one of the most important repositories of information for charting the development of science in the 18th Century.

The Histoire et Mémoires is fully indexed in the ten volume Table Alphabétfique des Matières (AS-3a) and the Nouvelle Table des Articles (AS-3b).

In addition to AS-2, the Académie published several other early serial publications. Some were concentrated in special areas, like the Machines et Inventions (AS-5) and the Mémoires de Mathématique et de Physique (AS-6). Others were wider in scope like the Recueil des Pièces qui out Remporté les Prix (AS-7) and the 19 volumes of Suppléments to the Histoire et Mémoires known as the Suite des Mémoires (AS-4). Many of the volumes in the AS-4 series are especially rare and the microfilm edition probably represents the only complete set in North America.

The old Académie Royale des Sciences met for the last time on December 21, 1792 and was dissolved by a decree of the Revolutionary National Convention of April 8, 1793. In October 1795 the Institut National des Sciences et Arts (known later as the Institut de France) was established to bring together, under one parent organization, all of the old Académies regardless of their area of study. The Institut was initially divided into three classes (reorganized in 1803 into four classes) with the first class being given over to the Sciences Physiques et Mathématiques. The Académie Royale des Sciences was reborn as this first class of the Institut and published its Mémoires under its new name from 1796-1815. In 1816, after the restoration of Louis XVIII, it regained its old name and continues today as the third section of the Institut de France. The present microfilm collection has included these later Mémoires (AS-9a) through 1878, which is the period up to which they are indexed in the Tables Générales (AS-9b).

Perhaps the single most interesting item offered in the microfilm collection is the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers (AS-8). Published by the Académie Royale des Sciences of Paris between 1761 and 1788, the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers attempted to present a systematic, scientific picture of all eighteenth century French industrial processes. Because no corresponding survey was underway at this time, and because the authors of the Descriptions did not anticipate the changes associated with a true industrial revolution, these volumes are particularly noteworthy. They captured and preserved the essence of an historic period: the age of the artisan. In their time, these volumes were received with great enthusiasm, and had significant influence. Nowhere else could one find such complete descriptions of 18th century arts and handicrafts--always illustrated with sketches of the tools used and the workshops themselves. However, the publication of Diderots Encyclopédie, the French Revolution, and the development of many new techniques in the late 18th and early 19th century pushed this effort into undeserved oblivion.

The title, Descriptions des Arts et Métiers, was a highly appropriate one since the monographs in the series were quite literally descriptions of the arts and handicrafts. The program of the Académie was a simple one. Members were to observe and describe the methods of production for the more important manufactured goods. It had been hoped that the Académies efforts would aid in the solution of technical difficulties which were blocking industrial progress, and that they would communicate improvements from one branch of manufacturing to another. However, the main emphasis was always on describing rather than improving procedures.

Each monograph consisted of a section explaining the types of raw materials used, a section describing tools and other equipment used, and a third section portraying in minute detail the steps a workman had to go through to produce a finished good. The authors made every effort to make their descriptions realistic and practical. However, no indication of the economic significance of the industries with which many of the handicrafts were associated was given, nor were government policies toward manufacturers discussed.

By the late 1770s, the project had lost its impetus after publishing four to six new items each year for nearly two decades. Between 1780 and 1788 only five new titles were added to the collection. Although no official explanation for the cessation of publication was ever given, one may infer a number of possible reasons. The Académie members may well have become tired of the project; the greater success of Diderots Encyclopédie may have been discouraging. Perhaps they realized that their publications were too expensive to be sold widely, and too cumbersome to be used easily by the very artisans they were intended to benefit. Undoubtedly, the approach of the French Revolution made the times more troubled and the future more uncertain. For whatever reasons, the collection was terminated in 1788.

An assessment of the quality of the volumes is handicapped by the difficulty of evaluating techniques which have long since disappeared. In terms of quantity, the Académies output exceeded that of any contemporary source. If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, then the Descriptions were highly regarded since much of the material they contained was "borrowed" or flagrantly plagiarized. Also, many items from the collection were translated and republished abroad. The volumes are a lasting memorial to the Académie members and to an age in which handicrafts were well regarded and the skills involved in their production remained essentially the same long enough for a project describing them to be designed and executed.

For the modern scholar, the Descriptions are an unparalleled source of information on 18th century French industry and the background of contemporary manufacturing techniques. Nowhere else can such extensive descriptions of the technical processes involved in the production of goods be found. This microfilm edition of the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers rescues this unique collection from undeserved obscurity and makes it easily available to scholars and students working in specialized industrial fields as well as in 18th century French history.

With the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution we are privileged to be able to offer the only absolutely complete set of the original Paris edition of this work known to exist in the United States. In addition, the value of the microfilm edition has been enhanced even further by the inclusion of material from J.E. Bertrands 1771-1783 Neufchâtel edition of the Descriptions. This material was either not in the Paris edition at all or else varied significantly in its republished form.

Completing the collection of Académie des Sciences publications are a number of monograph reports and studies issued by the Académie or its members as well as some of the most significant histories and compilations of biographical data about members of the Académie.

Academies Miscellaneous.
AM-1 - AM-6

The Academy publications included in this section are small but not inconsequential. Taken together with the works of the major Academies and the Scientific, Medical, and Related periodicals, they round out the group of publications which are included under the bibliographical coverage of the 17th century sections of Fielding H. Garrisons list, "The Medical and Scientific Periodicals of the 17th and 18th Centuries." Of particular interest is the output (AM-4 - AM-6) of the Collegium Curiosum sive Experimentale, founded, operated, and sustained by the writings of the German polymath, Johann Christoph Sturm.

Accademia Del Cimento, Florence.
AC-1a - AC-5

The Accademia del Cimento, founded in 1657 under the patronage of Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Florence, was one of the first Italian scientific academies of note. Ferdinands brother, Leopold, was its moving force throughout its existence. When he became a cardinal in 1667, the Accademia unfortunately had to cease its activities of making Essayes of Natural Experiments (AC-2). This is the title of Richard Wallers 1684 translation of the Accademias Saggi di Naturali Esperienze (AC-1a). Both the first and critical (third, 1841, AC-1b) editions of this publication are contained in the microfilm collection.

Other publications concerning the Accademia that are included in the microfilm edition are the 1780 collection, in four volumes, of its Atti e Memorie Inedite e Notzie (AC-5), and Musschenbroeks augmented Latin edition of the Saggi which appeared as Tentamina Experimentorum (AC-3). This latter translation and Wallers English translation (which was made for the benefit of the members of the Royal Society) testify to the importance of this short-lived academy in the history of the new science.

Included in this section also is the Fasti Consolari (AC-4) of Salvino Salvini. This is a chronology of the activities from 1541-1717 of the Accademia fiorentina, founded by Cosimo di Medici.

Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Berlin.
AW-1 - AW-8

The great German philosopher-mathematician Leibniz was the moving force behind the founding of the then Königlich Preussiche Akademie der Wissenschaften. In wishing to establish such a center of research, Leibniz was emulating the example of the Paris Académie des Sciences and the London Royal Society. When the Akademie was finally opened in 1712 (having been founded by Frederick I in 1700) Leibniz was established as its first president. He was succeeded in this capacity by Maupertuis, and the German Akademie at Berlin has been a monumental tower of scholarship in all fields of inquiry ever since.

The Akademie began its serial publications with its Miscellanea Berolinensia (AW-1a, 1b), followed by its Histoire avec les Mémoires (AW-2), its Nouveaux Mémoires (AW-3), and its Mémoires (AW-4). These early serial publications reflect the Akademies wide range of interests in most aspects of science, medicine, and the humanities. Other publications such as AW-5, AW-6, AW-9, AW-10, and AW-11 represent its more specific interests in philosophy and philology.

The microfilm collection is especially rich in histories of the Akademie, from one published in 1750 (AW-14a) and re-issued in 1752 (AW-14b) to the great ecclesiastical historian Harnacks history published in 1900 (AW-17).

Deutsche Akademie Der Naturforscher, Halle.
DAN-1 - DAN-12

Founded in 1652 in Schweinfurt Bavaria by J.L. Bausch the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher was a clearinghouse for communications about strange medical phenomena and freaks of nature. Hence the Akademies first: Academia naturae curiosorum. Originally these observations on abnormal pathology were published separately, but, in 1670, an arrangement was made to bring them together in an annual volume published by the Academia. This was the origin of the Akademies first serial publication, Misceallanea Curiosa Medico-physica, sive Ephemeridum Medico-physicarum Germanicarum Curiosarum (DAN-1a), which covered the observations for the years 1670-1706. The importance of the Miscellanea is underscored by the fact that it was later reissued in a German translation (DAN-3).

In 1687 the Emperor Leopold took the Akademie under his protection and it was after this that it acquired the name by which it was best known in the 18th century, Academia Caesarea-Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum. Its serial publication of case observations picked up again with its Ephemerides sive Observationum Medico-physicarum (DAN-2a) which covered the observations for 1712-22. This series was followed by Acta Physico-medica (DAN-6), which in turn was continued as Nova Acta Physico-Medica (DAN-7). This latter publication is still current under the title Nova Acta Leopoldina.

Other serial publications of the Akademie are included as DAN-4a, 4b, and 5. Most of these publications are covered by the indexes included in the microfilm collection as DAN-1b, 2b, 4c, and 8. DAN-9 - DAN-12 are monographical publications, some of which will be of interest to bibliographers as well as historians of science and medicine.

Royal College of Physicians, London.
RC-1 - RC-93

The Royal College of Physicians of London was first chartered by Henry VIII in 1518. It continues in existence to this day and its influence on the development of Anglo-American medicine can hardly be exaggerated. The list of publications offered below attempts to do justice to its importance for the history of medicine and science.

A good deal of original bibliographical research went into the preparation of this list of microfilm titles. The Pharmacopoeia Londinensis (RC-2) series, for example, contains approximately seventy different titles which textually chart and critically comment on the development of the London Pharmacopoeia from its beginning in 1618 until its last issuance in 1851. Studied in chronological sequence, this series epitomizes the historical development of a major segment of modern medicine.

Many of the remaining parts of the development of modern medicine are similarly epitomized in the series represented by the Croonian (RC-3), Gulstonian (RC-4), and Lumleian (RC-6) lectures. Each of these series contains between twenty-five to forty-five separate titles with important variant editions of some of these included. The list of separately published lectures that forms the basis of the microfilm edition for each of these series has been compiled on the basis of lists of these lectures which appear in the 1912 Catalogue of the Royal College Library, and various other medical historical subject bibliographies.

A comprehensive list in the Yale Medical Historical Library served as the bibliographic basis for the microfilm edition of the Harveian Orations (RC-5). Over 110 Orations are included. Originally encomiastic in nature, these Orations gradually evolved to the point where, in the second half of the 19th century, they had become regular occasions for some of the first sophisticated excursions into the history of medicine.

The non-serial publications pertaining to the Royal College have been organized into subject and chronological groups as indicated by the headings in the list. Many of these publications concern the multifarious political and scientific controversies which surrounded the Royal College in the early centuries of its existence. Taken together with the similar controversial literature for the Royal Society (See, RS-19 - RS-48), they afford a unique insight into the turbulent invasion of Western culture by the modern scientific attitude. Other monographs included provide various kinds of historical background material necessary for gaining a complete picture of the work of the College.

Royal Society, London.
RS-1 - RS-61

It was Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis (1627) who first provided an image of the role of the scientific research center as the cerebrum of an ideally organized society. Much the same idea was reiterated in The Advice of W.P. to Samuel Hartlib (RS-10). This image of the benefits to be reaped from the organization of the new learning gripped the imaginations of the new breed of scientific intellectuals of 17th century England and finally bore fruit with the establishment of the Royal Society of London in 1660. With charter members such as Robert Boyle, Sir Kenelm Digby, and Henry Oldenburg, and subsequent electees such as Sir Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke, and Edmond Halley, this Society was from the outset one of the major centers of the "new learning" in general and the new science in particular.

It displayed the claims and accomplishments of the "new learning" most prominently in its Philosophical Transactions (RS-1) and, for a brief period, while the former was suspended, in its Philosophical Collections (RS-2). (See RS-3 - RS-5 for indexes.)

Right from the start the "new learning" had its opponents, and thus was focalized the English version of the quarrel between the ancients and moderns. The early principals were Joseph Glanvill, Thomas Sprat, and that ubiquitous polemicist Henry Stubbe. The history of this stage of the quarrel is comprehensively reflected, in chronological sequence, in publications RS-19 - RS-33. In later years the Royal Society was, of course, to become the target for the satirical shafts of the likes of Jonathan Swift and, in a less well known work, of Henry Fielding (RS-14). Other satirical attacks on the Royal Society are included in RS-15 - RS-18, and RS-45 and RS-46.

The latter two thrusts form the literary eye of the hurricane of controversy which swirled around the actions of Sir Joseph Banks as president of the Royal Society in the latter part of the 18th century (cf. RS-41 - RS-48).

Representatives of the new learning, however, reserved some of their fiercer moments for each other, as witnessed in the Holder-Wallis controversy (RS-34 - RS-37) and, in a different fashion, in the controversy over whether Newton or Leibniz had first discovered the infinitessimal calculus (RS-38 - RS-40).

Also included in the microfilm collection are a number of scientific studies edited or written by or addressed to members of the Royal Society (RS-6 - RS-9, RS-11 - RS-13). In addition the most important histories (RS-49, RS-53 - RS-54, RS-56), lists of members and statutes (RS-50 - RS-52), and catalogues of books, manuscripts, and related items (RS-55, RS-57 - RS-61) have been included. All of these items will be of special help to the scholar who is trying to reconstruct in accurate detail the 17th and 18th century history of the Royal Society.

II. SCIENTIFIC, MEDICAL, AND RELATED PERIODICALS.
SM-1 - SM-21

The Scientific, Medical, and Related periodicals contained in the microfilm collection comprise the bulk of the non-Academy publications listed by Fielding H. Garrison in the 17th century sections (I and II) of his comprehensive bibliography, "The Medical and Scientific Periodicals of the 17th and 18th centuries," Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, Vol. II (1934). Account has also been taken of David Kronicks "Addenda et Corrigenda" to this bibliography (Ibid, Vol. XXXII [1958]).

Some exceptionally important items are contained in this section. There is, for example, the whole series of publications centered around Acta Eruditorum (SM-1, SM-2) and its various offspring (SM-3 - SM-8). These journals were the intellectual meeting ground for most of the luminaries of the Enlightenment and it is inconceivable that one could attempt to write the intellectual history of the period without having recourse to them.

Also included in this particular list are a number of items of extreme importance for the early history of medicine (SM-9 - SM-11, SM-15, SM-16, SM-21).

Conspectus oriented publications include SM-12, SM-13, and SM-18. SM-19 gives a good account of the sort of discussions that took place among early French men of science which eventually served as the model for the establishment of the Paris Académie des Sciences.

Parallel in importance to Acta Eruditorum and its children is the Mémoires pour lhistoire des sciences et des beaux-arts (SM-17a, SM-17b), popularly known as the Journal de Trévoux. The debt of the later French Enlightenment to this Jesuit publication was immense, if not always acknowledged. As with Acta Eruditorum, it is indispensable for an understanding of the intellectual history of the period.

III. LITERARY, LEARNED, AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PERIODICALS.
LLB-1 - LLB-20

As with the Historical and Political periodicals, the Literary, Learned, and Bibliographical periodicals are divided into English (LLB-1 - LLB-14) and Continental (LLB-15 - LLB-20) publications.

These periodicals are important for charting the cultural geography of the 17th and early 18th centuries in areas other than that of the new science--though this aspect of culture and learning is by no means neglected in most of these publications.

Of especial note in this grouping is the journal edited for some time by the learned worlds most famous gadfly, Pierre Bayle (LLB-16). Also of importance are the various journals (LLB-17 - LLB-20) which reflected the effect of the world of letters in Germany.

IV. HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL PERIODICALS.
HP-1 - HP-57

The Historical and Political periodicals segment of the microfilm collection is especially rich in important and otherwise scarce publications. The broad division of the material is into English language (HP-1 - HP-52) and Continental (HP-53 - HP-57) periodicals.

In the English language group the material is further divided into the more substantial (HP-1 - HP-5) and the more ephemeral (HP-6 - HP-44) newsbooks on the one hand, and the Parliamentary Diaries and Journals on the other (HP-45 - HP-52).

The ephemera collection is especially valuable, being made up of thirty-nine different titles, with twenty-two of these coming in the politically important years 1641-1660. Two of the most important items in the "substantial" group are Mercurius Politicus (HP-2, a newsbook for which Milton was an editor) and the Publick Intelligencer (HP-4). These latter two publications were the semi-official and official organs of the Commonwealth government and are among the most valuable sources for the events of that period. For the post-Glorious Revolution period items like HP-5, HP-42, and HP-44 are important. This latter item is especially interesting, since some of its issues from which the microfilm edition was made were originally in John Locke's library and bear his signature.

The second group of English language publications (HP-45 - HP-52) are exceedingly important. These are the various accounts of happenings in Parliament. Some of them are more detailed and longer-lived than others (e.g., HP-50, HP-52), but all of them are indispensable resources for British political historians of this period.

Among the continental periodicals HP-56 is very important, being one of the most widely read of such publications of its day. HP-55 is an exceptionally important source for the Henry IV-Richelieu period of French history. The latter has been complemented by HP-53 and HP-54, which, while not formally periodicals, are the immediate predecessors of Mercure françois and supplement its coverage of those turbulent years of French history.

Finally there is HP-57, Europäische staats-cantzeley, an invaluable source of information about diplomatic and political comings-and-goings for the period.

V. THEOLOGICAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL.
TE-1 - TE-3

Four publications are offered in the category of Theological and Ecclesiastical. The most important of these is Acta Sanctorum. This is a scholarly compendium of all the sources relevant to a determination of the lives of the saints of the Christian Churches. Originally begun in 1643, it was partially reprinted beginning in 1863 and continued publishing up until 1940. The reprint volumes have been chosen for the microfilm edition because they embody some valuable changes and supplements and it would have been impractical to microfilm both editions. All of the volumes are individually indexed and the whole series is arranged according to the calendar of saints for the Christian year. Narbeys Supplément (TE-2) has also been included in the microfilm edition.

The Acta Sanctorum was initially conceived as a work of historical scholarship and it will always remain valuable for this sort of research. Students of comparative religion, however, especially those of a structuralist bent, can find vast resources for this type of analysis in Acta Sanctorum.

Bibliography

The chief bibliographic sources employed in selecting the items for this project are listed below, with an explanation of how items in the list are cited from these bibliographies.

Crane, R.S. and Kaye, F.B. A Census of British Newspapers and Periodicals, 1620-1800. Studies in Philology, Vol. XXIV, No. 1, January, 1927; e.g., [CK 798] = No. 798 in this bibliography.

Faber du Fauer, Curt von. German Baroque Literature: A Catalogue of the Collection in the Yale University Library. New Haven, 1858; e.g., [F 1556] = No. 1556 in this bibliography.

Garrison, Fielding H. "The Medical and Scientific Periodicals of the 17th and 18th Centuries," Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, Vol. II, No. 5. July, 1934, 285-343; e.g., [G II 176] = No. 176 in the second Roman numeral section of this bibliography.

Kirchner, Joachim. Die Zeitschriften des Deutschen Sprachgebietes von den Anfängen bis 1830. Stuttgart, 1969; e.g., [K 3176] = No. 3176 in this bibliography.

Kronick, David A. "The Fielding H. Garrison List of Medical and Scientific Periodicals of the 17th and 18th Centuries: Addenda et Corrigenda," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. XXXII. No. 5, Sept.-Oct., 1958, 456-474; e.g., [Kr p. 466] = Page 466 in this bibliography.

Lasteyrie du Saillant, Robert de. Bibliographie Générale des Travaux Historiques et Archéologiques publiés par les Sociétés Savantes de la France, Tome III: Seine--Première Partie. Paris, 1901; e.g., [L 53724] = No. 53724 in this bibliography; [L p. 477] = Page 477 in Lasteyrie.

New York Academy of Medicine. Author Catalogue of the Library. Boston, 1969; e.g., [NA 34 p. 192] = Volume 34, page 192 in this bibliography.

New York Academy of Medicine. Subject Catalogue of the Library. Boston, 1969; e.g., [NS 13 pp. 38 f.] = Volume 13, pages 38 f. in this bibliography.

Royal College of Physicians of London. Catalogue of the Library. London, 1912; e.g., [R p. 304] = Page 304 in this bibliography.

United States. Surgeon General. Library. Index Catalogue of the Surgeon Generals Library. Washington, 1880-1895. 2nd series, Washington. 1896-1916. 3rd series, Washington. 1918-32. 4th series, Washington. 1936-48; e.g., [SG I 12 p. 358] = Series I, Vol. 12, page 358 in this bibliography.