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Colonial Latin American Manuscripts and Transcripts from the Obadiah Rich Collection

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Introduction: Colonial Latin American Manuscripts and Transcripts in the Obadiah Rich

Introduction: Colonial Latin American Manuscripts and Transcripts in the Obadiah Rich

Collection: An Inventory and Index

By Edwin Blake Brownrigg

For the last century and a quarter, there has been preserved in the city of New York a most valuable and faithful manuscript copy of Spanish and Portuguese documents pertinent to the discovery and conquest of America, as well as of parts of Asia. The collections title bears the name of its previous owner, Obadiah Rich, who was both diplomat and book collector, and since 1848 it has remained with the collections of James Lenox, first as part of Lenoxs private holdings, then as part of the Lenox Library, and, since 1897, as part of The New York Public Library. It is now housed in the Librarys Manuscripts and Archives Division.

The materials in the Rich Collection are mainly transcriptions, but there are some original manuscripts which are usually signed by their respective authors. These documents correspond to that period of Spanish colonial history from 1492 to the nineteenth century, concentrating first on the mid-sixteenth century, and then on the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Though the documents deal more with the conquest than with the discovery and colonization of the New World, the periods of discovery and colonization are still well represented by relatively unknown and revealing documents, such as, for example, accounts of early explorers and unpublished reports of viceroys. The value of the collection as a whole lies primarily in its unity of subject matter, and secondarily in its enrichment from its several owners. Its original structure reflects the labors of Juan Bautista Muñoz, who was appointed by Carlos III, king of Spain, to write a history of the Indies and who was thereby enfranchised to search out all relevant documentation in the archives and libraries of Spain. Muñoz traveled and worked with at least two full-time scriveners in the late 1700s, and thus many of the papers in the Rich Collection are in his hand or that of one of his assistants. However, the majority of the papers which resulted from Muñoz research and which came to form the Rich Collection are in the hand of Antonio de Uguina, who through means which are not entirely clear, set up a library dedicated to the preservation of the record of Muñoz scholarship. It can be assumed that when Obadiah Rich purchased these papers many were not firmly bound, for Rich had them gathered into roughly uniform bundles and bound in handsome leather covers, with the result that the collection of 149 volumes is in remarkably good physical condition.* Unfortunately, the papers were not put in any order when they were bound, except that most of the individual documents were left intact.1

While some Rich sets relate to a particular viceroyalty, for example, numbers 34 and 36, which deal mainly with New Spain, and numbers 79 through 82, which deal mainly with Perú, there are as many others that are not organized in any way, geographic or otherwise. With few exceptions, the quality of the transcriptions is outstanding. By comparing hundreds of examples from the Rich Collection to published versions of the unedited original documents, as well as to a limited number of photographic copies of transcripts in the Colección Muñoz in the Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid and the corresponding original documents themselves housed in the Archivo General de las Indias in Sevilla, it has been possible to authenticate the general accuracy of the transcripts in the Rich Collection. Within those items in the Rich Collection which did not result from the work of Juan Bautista Muñoz, there exist some minor variants from the original manuscript, but in no case has any gross misrepresentation been found; discrepancies, when they occur, have been noted in the catalogue below.

It is indeed a curious fact that a copy of a substantial part of the record of Muñozs investigations exists in New York City. The scholarly study of 1941-42 by Antonio Ballesteros Berreta, Director of the Revista de Indias, on the life and work of Juan Bautista Muñoz, generated a new interest in the Muñoz papers in the Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid and resulted in its 1954-56 Catálogo de la collección de Juan Bautista Muñoz. Nevertheless no definitive study emerged that made any connection between the New York Rich Collection and the Madrid Colección Muñoz. Several other questions relating to Muñoz papers remain unanswered to this day: the reason for the transfer of his papers from his estate to the Real Academia de la Historia; the existence of a copy of a substantial part of those same papers, upon the death of Muñoz, in the library of Antonio de Uguina, treasurer to the Prince Francisco, and the fact that several volumes known to have been part of Muñoz papers are unaccounted for today in Madrid. (Unfortunately, it now appears that these missing volumes are not a part of the Rich Collection.) Since The New York Public Library did not own a copy of the Catálogo de la colección de Don Juan Bautista Muñoz, it was difficult to determine which part of the Rich Collection was a duplication of the Colección Muñoz and which part was unique. The distinction between the handwriting of Antonio de Uguina and Juan Bautista Muñoz in the papers in the Rich Collection alone provided some clues, but it was obvious that a far more direct comparison of the two collections as well as an examination of the original documents themselves in Sevilla would be necessary. So I set out for Spain, and by using photographic copies of sample documents from the corresponding collections in Madrid and Sevilla, I found those documents as I had anticipated, thanks to the work of bibliographers before me. Also, I was able to verify Muñozs handwriting; I found, for example, that the "Memoria de las apariciones y el culto de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de México," which Muñoz himself authored, exists both in New York and in Madrid in his own handwriting, with the manuscript of the Rich Collection in New York being dated 18 April 1794, two days earlier than the manuscript of the Colección Muñoz in Madrid. And I managed to purchase a copy of the Catálogo de la collección Muñoz. Unfortunately, no catalogue, published or unpublished, providing more than a general description of the holdings of the Archivo General de las Indias in Sevilla, is available yet. The present guide to the Rich Collection demonstrates that the transcripts of the New York and Madrid collections that deal with the conquest of the New World are almost identical. There are far fewer items in New York that deal with exploration and discovery outside of America, but there are several volumes of unique and original items in the Rich Collection, like the letters of Diego Colón (son of Cristóbal Colón [Christopher Columbus]). There is also a draft in Muñoz hand of volume II of his Historia del nuevo mundo which he never published.

From the time that the Rich Collection was purchased by James Lenox up until 1970, only Wilberforce Eames (1855-1937), who worked for Lenox and then The New York Public Library, provided even the sketchiest of guides in the form of a card catalog. It is hoped that the publication of this much fuller Guide to the Obadiah Rich Collection will contribute substantially to making the Collection bibliographically useable for the study of these documents of the early history of the New World.

The reasons that such a guide was not prepared much earlier, and even before Lenox purchased the Collection, are mostly circumstantial. The following summary of the provenance of the Collection should help explain more fully what the Collection is, and, in addition, why there was no comprehensive bibliographic study of it.


Juan Bautista Muñoz

Born in Museros, Valencia, 12 June 1745, Juan Bautista Muñoz y Ferrandis studied at the University of Valencia and graduated with the degree of Bachelor and then Master of Arts. By 1765 he was a Doctor of Philosophy, and by 1769 a Professor. With the post of Cosmógrafo Mayor de las Indias vacant, due to the expulsion of the Jesuits who had held it since 1628, Carlos III named Muñoz, then twenty-six, to fill it on 27 March 1770. He held the title until his death, even though the duties were passed on to the Navy during his lifetime. Still a young man, he became an official of both the Secretaria de Estado and the Despacho de Gracia y Justicia de Indias. In the latter office he ascended to the second highest position, at which time (12 June 1799) Carlos III, king of Spain, commissioned him to write a history of America. On 27 March 1781 he was enfranchised to visit all archives in Carlos III's realm, both official and private, in order to amass the primary and secondary documentation necessary for writing his history. Faithfully and efficiently complying with his charge, he traveled, visited, investigated, extracted, and copied the documents and papers written by both Spaniards and native Americans that he found in Madrid, Simancas, Valladolid, Salamanca, Toto, Zamora, Palencia, Burgos, Tolosa de Guipuzcoa, San Sebastián, Bilbão, Navarra, Cordoba, Sevilla (where along with Caen Bermúdez he organized the Archivo de Indias), Cádiz (sources of the Casa de Contratación), Granada, Málaga, and Lisboa (mostly the Torre do Tombo).

Armed with this massive assemblege of material, Muñoz finished the first volume of the Historia del nuevo mundo, covering events in the Indies up to 1500. His plan for the entire work envisioned three parts, each discussing the New World during the reign of three groups of monarchs: the Catholic Kings; Carlos V; and Felipe II and his successors.

According to his "Idea de la orbra," his plan was to "give a history of America, complete in all its parts, authenticated with original documents"; thus, "it was necessary to grasp the matter at the roots, attending to the sources and proceedings in the investigation of incontestable documents, as if nothing had been written and published, and creating, as it were, a new history."2

But, by 1787, his work had gained him enemies, especially among members of the Real Academia de la Historia. The reaction in academic circles to his criticism of the conditions of the national archival structure, which forced him at times to have to extract, rather than transcribe documents in full,3 was to result in a series of litigations and legal setbacks, all of which would prevent him from completing the second and third parts of his Historia del nuevo mundo. Unfortunately, in his research he crossed his enemies paths, and various members of the Real Academia formed a commission to petition the king to force prior agreements of 5 October 1744 and 18 October 1755 between the Academia de la Historia and the Crown, whereby the Academia de la Historia had been granted exclusive rights to all materials dealing with the Indies. Ironically, one of the committee members was Antonio de Alcedo, whose Biblioteca americana,4 found by Obadiah Rich in a Madrid bookstore in 1830, ultimately spurred the latter to purchase the Muñoz papers, then in the possession of Henri Ternaux de Compans, the French book collector.5 The arguments of the Academia de la Historia had little substance for none of its Americanists had sufficient background and skill to undertake Muñoz task. Muñoz did, nevertheless, find himself working under great anxiety, due to these disputes. By 1790, the first volume of the Historia was being edited, but further intrigues began to plague him, this time over his right to the papers of Lorenzo Boturini.6 At that time, the Director of the Real Academia de la Historia, who had been re-elected twenty-seven times, attempted to censure Muñoz, and claimed that his "methods of dealing with essential points was improper for the lights of the 18th century." Eventually, Muñoz mustered sufficient support to rebuff these and other charges, and at length, in 1793, the first volume of the Historia del nuevo mundo was released by the Viuda de Ibarra press.

In the respite that followed the publication of the first volume, Muñoz turned to the surviving works of Boturini, and he published the Memoria de las apariciones y el culto de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de México (1794),7 while continuing work on the second volume of the Historia del nuevo mundo. But again he came under attack, this time by Francisco Iturri,8 for the charge of plagiarism. As before, Muñoz defended himself against the charges; his failing health rallied briefly, and he added material to his library for another year. But, on 19 July 1799, Muñoz was dead; his goal had not been fully realized.

Antonio de Uguina

The exact details of how papers were gathered from the Muñoz library, transcribed, and eventually passed on to Ternaux de Compans of France are lacking. According to a note published by Obadiah Rich at the beginning of his sales catalog, a copy of which is shelved with the Rich Collection,

"The greater part of this collection was formed by Antonio de Uguina of Madrid, and comprise[s] almost everything of any interest that was collected by his friend Muñoz, for his Historia del nuevo mundo, of which only the first volume was ever published. Uguina was also the intimate friend of Navarrete, and furnished him with many of the materials for his Colección de viages de los españoles. After his death, his mss were purchased by M. Ternaux de Compans, of Paris, who translated and published a few of them, and who had already collected in South America, and in other quarters, many curious books and mss on the same subject, all of which came into my possession. To these I have added several duplicates from the valuable collection made by Lord Kingsborough, and a few curious articles collected lately in Spain."9

The references to Uguina should be weighed in light of the fact that Rich got his information from Ternaux de Compans, who, in turn, was guilty of gross inaccuracies concerning the papers in his collection. Ternaux, for example, had written to William Prescott: "I own the entire collection that Muñoz had formed by order of the Spanish Government for the composition of his history of the New World of which only the first volume was published in Madrid at the end of the last century,"10 demonstrating his ignorance of the origin of the Muñoz papers and their existence in Muñoz own handwriting in Madrid. Perhaps Ternaux simply did not know that he possessed mostly transcript copies of those papers.

In any event, the facts we have regarding Uguinas role were probably best represented by Henry Wagner, who concluded that "Muñoz died in 1799, and such of his manuscripts as did not pass into possession of the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid were purchased by Antonio de Uguina, and at the latters death, these [were] acquired by Ternaux."11 Wagner too was unable to account for the massive duplication between the Rich Collection and the Colección Muñoz.

Henri Ternaux de Compans

Henri Ternaux de Compans (1807-1864), born of a wealthy family, was educated in Germany, primarily at Göttingen. He coupled his singular aptitude for foreign languages with the pursuit of a diplomatic career, and while traveling in America, he became interested in its early Spanish colonial history. Subsequently, he distinguished himself as a bibliographer in the field with his Bibliothèque américaine (1838), arranged chronologically from 1493 to 1700 in 191 quarto pages with 1,153 entries. He published French translations of a few of the Muñoz papers in two series, in twenty volumes altogether under the title Voyages, relations et mémoires originaux por servir à lhistoire de la découverte de lAmérique (1837). But his interest in such matters waned, and when only thirty-seven, he offered his entire collection for sale, intending to free himself for a public career in Latin America. That was in 1844.

On 10 April 1847, Henry Stevens (1819-1886), eagerly pursuing Americana in Europe as an agent for James Lenox, John Carter Brown, George Ticknor, and others, wrote to Lenox, saying that he had "received from Mr. Ternaux an offer of about 200 folio volumes of Manuscripts relating to America."12 Stevens characterized them as "most wonderful" and continued, "they were chiefly collected by Muñoz - And though they come to a great deal of money, 600, I think them cheap."13 Again, on 3 May 1847, Stevens wrote Lenox:

"I have received from M. Ternauxs agent the enclosed catalogues of mss relating to America -Mr. Ternaux wishes to sell them - They are 151 volumes as described in the catalogue. The price is 550. They are very valuable. It was formerly the Muñoz Collection - having been made by that celebrated historian while preparing his great work of which only one volume was ever published. M. Ternaux has added several since he bought the Muñoz papers - They are in good preservation - I have examined them and think them cheap. Mr. Rich knows them well - and once tried to purchase them."14

That Stevens attributed the ownership to Ternaux at that date was at least an error, and probably amounted to more than that, for had he contacted Ternauxs agent as he claims, the agent would have told him that Ternaux had sold the collection to Rich three years earlier, in 1844. The fact is that Stevens found both the Muñoz/Uguina papers and Obadiah Rich in London.15

Stevens haste to deal in and adeptness at identifying Americana were rivaled by his unorthodox business dealings in the European book market. He cleverly managed to overcome his lack of capital by persuading other dealers to reserve books for him, which he in turn sold, using only the books themselves as security until his orders came through.16 He never even had to go to the expense of maintaining an office. John Russell Bartlett of New York wrote to Peter Force that Stevens was the greatest monopolist of books of Americana in London. He not only bought everything of value, but also prevented respectable dealers from selling to other customers.17

Obadiah Rich

Obadiah Rich (1777-1850) a successful book dealer, was stimulated by the young American, Stevens, and ventured into the biggest deal of his career in buying from Ternaux de Compans his entire book and manuscript collection. The collection included the Alcedo "Biblioteca americana" that Rich had found in a Madrid book store in 1830 and subsequently sold to Compans. To all of this Rich added manuscripts purchased from Lord Kingsborough, famous for his nine-volume elephant-folio set, Antiquities of Mexico. In 1848 Rich sold the entire lot of manuscripts through Stevens to Lenox, who, by an agreement with Stevens made the previous year, had the right of first refusal on all material Stevens might come by.

At that time, Rich was the only American established as an important book dealer in London. Earlier, as United States consul in Valencia and Madrid, he had performed a notable service for American scholars by collecting a remarkable library of Spanish books. William Prescott, Washington Irving, and George Ticknor consulted his books to gather material for their historical works. By lending materials to Irving, Rich was influential in persuading him to write A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus.

As soon as Stevens met Rich, it became clear to both of them that their relation was to be a strange one. Stevens acknowledged Richs superiority as a bibliographer of Americana, and was later to imitate him, but in their business dealings, Stevens infuriated Rich. In almost every letter that Rich wrote to Stevens, he accused him of recklessness and irresponsibility, and several times Rich admonished Stevens about misusing credit. At first, Rich had even refused to deal the Muñoz/Ternaux/Kingsborough papers through Stevens, but later he agreed, under the condition that Stevens would purchase several hundred pounds sterling worth of many types of Americana. For that deal, Stevens was forced to put up security in cash. Rich made a formal offer to Stevens in a letter dated London, 1 June 184818. When completed, the transaction comprised a galaxy of items which can never again be assembled for sale. Many of the books went to John Carter Brown. For the manuscripts that went to James Lenox, 600 was paid, a bargain by todays standards.

James Lenox

Unfortunately, we know little about the relationship of James Lenox (1800-1880) to the Rich Collection. What information there is comes principally from Stevens Recollections of James Lenox and from the Lenox correspondence cited in Stevens book. The rest may lie scattered in the still uncatalogued James Lenox papers held by The New York Public Library. Stevens relates that:

"from about 1845 to 1868 Mr. Lenox was actively collecting his library so rapidly, and doing all the work himself, that he had no time to catalogue or arrange his accessions, except a few of the smaller and tidier nuggets which he could put away in the few bookcases in his gallery of art which was also being filled at the same time with paintings and sculpture. The great bulk of his book collections was piled away in the numerous spare rooms of his large house, till they were filled to the ceiling from the further end back to the door, which was then locked and the room for the present done with. The accessions after examination and careful collation, approval and payment, were entered or ticked off in interleaved catalogues of Ternaux-Compans, Rich, Ebert, Hain, Lea Wilson, Offor and others, or in small and special memorandum books, with sufficient clearness for his own use but unintelligible to outsiders. The books were then piled away, or corded up like wood."19

Perhaps a greater insight into the relationship between bibliography and James Lenox can be gleaned through the so-called "Epistola" of Henry Harrisse, written to Samuel L.M. Barlow between 5 and 30 August 1883. Harrisse admonishes Barlow in a covering letter of 2 January 1884 to "recollect that the accompanying Epistola is not to be printed, - at least in my lifetime, if ever." As he puts it: "the reasons are obvious."

"When I had been so fortunate as to discover the traces of a book germane to the subject, the next step was to find the book itself; - first, in order to know what was in it, (as I had not lost sight of my original purpose,) then to secure a faithful discription to insert in our incipient B[iblioteca[ A[merica] V]etustissima].

After great hesitations, I would sometimes venture to address a sort of petition to Mr. James Lenox, to ascertain whether, perchance, he did not possess the book. If he replied that he did, I would pen a second epistle asking leave to see it. Then came another answer fixing the day and hour, - and no postponement on account of the weather.

I well recollect. We were in the midst of a very snowy and dismal winter. The hour appointed was usually nine in the morning. Thinking that by making such a request I had not forfeited the privileges belonging to a white man, I would rush up the steps of Mr. Lenoxs palatial mansion on Fifth Avenue, and ring the bell. After waiting a long while, my feet soaking in the melting snow, I would hear all on a sudden a grub voice hollow from under the front steps: "What are [you] doing up there? That aint the door, - come down!" It was the servant thus gently summoning me, - in the style he would have employed to recall the boot-black or the milk boy - to enter a kind of cellar. Being ushered into a spacious kind of pantry, Mr. Lenox, a middle-sized, replete, old man, with a black cap, white hair and gold spectacles, standing up and silent, after examining my credentials, would say to me, sternly and invariably: - "Here, Sir, is the book you have asked to see." And, sure enough, in the center of a large table, there stood the very book "grand, gloomy, and peculiar, wrapped in the solitude of its own individuality," - literally.

You may well imagine that I lost no time in examining it, the owner, meanwhile, watching closely all of my moves, and, after ten minutes, exhibiting subdued but unquestionable signs of impatience. I would hurry up taking notes, and retire, with no end - on my part! - of thanks and salutations. This encouraging scene was renewed five or six times. Never did this eminent collector, who knew what I was about, say: "Do you want to see another book, - I have another edition of the same work," or "Come upstairs, I will show you my library." Had he made such a strenuous effort, it would have saved me months and months of researches and work; many of my mistakes which mar the B.A.V. might have also been avoided. Afterwards, Mr. Lenox pronounced the Bibliotheca Americana Vetustissima "a monument"; but if he ever contributed parcels of mortar to build it, these were mighty few and far between."20

Since the time Lenox held the Rich Collection as part of his private library, the pertinent facts regarding scholarly use of it are simple. Although relatively little mention has been made of the Rich Collection in print, and there has been no study linking the papers in the Collection to the work of Juan Bautista Muñoz, scholars, nonetheless, have come to New York, usually from American and Latin-American universities, in order to work with the Rich Collection. In several cases, these scholars have concluded their research by publishing editions of original letters, accounts, and monographic works in it. It can only be assumed that knowledge of the Rich Collection has been circulated by its occasional mention in works like Justin Winsors Narrative and Critical History of America,21 The New York Public Librarys Bulletin of 190122 and José de Onís scholarly treatment of the "Biblioteca americana" of Antonio de Alcedo (see footnote 17 above). In addition, the appearance in print of various items in the Rich Collection, which, of course, cite The New York Public Library and the Rich Collection, has undoubtedly intrigued others into doing research in the Collections holdings. For example, Luis Antonio Eguigurens two-volume edition of Melchor de Paz Guerra separatista brought to the attention of Latin-American scholars the fact that New York, too, had something to offer early American studies; Eguiguren paid homage to the North-American center in his "Dedicatoria": "New York represents the portent of a materialist civilization, but, in addition, the pride of the spirit from which the eternal flame of liberty burns. To this great city of the greatest country are these pages, which represent my modest homage, dedicated."

Aside from the card catalogue worked out by Wilberforce Eames for use as a guide to the Rich Collection, this guide is the first attempt to bring the contents of the Collection under bibliographic control, without which the full worth of the Collection has been limited. It should be mentioned that the use of modern electrostatic and photographic copying facilities greatly simplified the compilation of this bibliography.

Living in New York City and being on the staff of The New York Public Library has given me the time and incentive necessary for this undertaking I am also indebted to the Librarys Emily E.F. Skeel Fund for providing financial assistance. The challenge of pursuing, two hundred years later, the work of Juan Bautista Muñoz, who concerned himself with the early discovery and settlement of the New World, now nearly five centuries past, has been intriguing and exciting. I trust that this work will aid other scholars to make full use of these fascinating documents.

About the Inventory, the Indexes, and Their Uses

The Inventory

The inventory of the Rich Collection is arranged in fixed order, that is, in the order in which the documents appear, one by one, starting with number 1 and ending with number 102. We know that Obadiah Rich was in the habit of binding manuscripts into volumes as early as 1827, the year in which the United States House of Representatives published a list of Manuscripts and Printed Books in Possession of Obadiah Rich, 20th Congress, 1st Session, Rep. no. 37. The items referred to there are all bound. We also know that James Lenox received the Rich Collection bound, in 1848, from the listing in the Catalogue of a Collection of Manuscripts Principally in Spanish Relating to America in the Possession of O. Rich, no. 12 Red Lion Square, London... 1848.

By 1933 the various sets of the Rich Collection were assigned numbers in The New York Public Library that were different from the original numbers, but at the same time an improvement over the original scheme. The 1933 numbers have been used for reference by scholars and bibliographers ever since, and for the sake of consistency have been preserved in this guide.

From the bibliographic point of view, fixed order is the least desirable method of arranging a catalogue. But since the bulk of the material inventoried here pertains to letters (i.e., correspondence from one person to another), there really were no convenient main entries by which to arrange them. And so, for the sake of recording the contents of each volume, the fixed order arrangement has been used with access points to the some 1000 documents contained within the volumes provided by means of the indexes.

The inventorys subarrangement within each volume is by leaf number (and in some rare instances, by page number) which appear in the left-hand column, where "r" signifies "recto" and "v" signifies "verso". Double asterisks indicate that a printed version of the document in the pages cited is held by the Library. To the right of the leaf numbers appears the year or years to which the document refers. In the main right-hand column is the body of the document description in paragraph style. There are two general types of document description - letter and non-letter descriptions.

The format for letter descriptions is:
Geographic area: "letter"; sender & receiver; content; place and date written

The format for non-letter description is:
Geographic area: author, title (if present); content; place and date written

Geographic areas referred to are of necessity very broad (e.g. viceroyalties, countries, islands), since in many cases authors had only a vague idea of where they were or where they were going in the New World. As a consequence, New Spain, for example, is used in a broader sense than it would be used today, if it were used at all. Also, words such as "residents" in the descriptions refer to specific governmental positions.

It should be noted that Rich 73, which deals almost entirely with commercial mining in Perú in the early nineteenth century, has not been abstracted and that only the highlights have been analyzed in Rich 83, which mainly contains less historically interesting ecclesiastical letters from mid-eighteenth-century Perú.

Many descriptions are followed by bibliographic notes. They are of two types. Those beginning with "B" and a number point to a reference in the Bibliography of Published Sources (xxi-xxv). These represent printed editions of the document described that are to be found in The New York Public Library. Bibliographic notes beginning with "JBM" are followed by numbers that refer to entry numbers of the Real Academia de la Historias Catálogo de la colección de Don Juan Bautista Muñoz (Madrid: Imprenta y Editorial Maestre 1954-56) 3 vols. The New York Public Library did not obtain a copy of this catalogue. However, copies have been catalogued at SUNY at Buffalo, the University of Florida, the University of Miami, and the Hispanic Society of America, New York City.

The Name Index

The name index includes personal names and corporate names and is arranged alphabetically. Authority of name entries is standardized to Ernesto Schäfers Indice de la colección de documentos inéditos de las indias, edited by Pacheco, Cárdenas, Torres de Mendoza et al (1st Series, vols 1-42) and la Real Academia de la Historia (2nd Series, vols 1-25), (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto "Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo" 1946-47) 2 vols [also reprinted by Kraus in 1947]. In the case of personal names, the arrangement is by the fathers surname, and in the case of corporate names by place (e.g. Guatemala, Audiencia de). Names with places are always in the Spanish, except for the word "Indies" (i.e. "Indias"). Thus, for example, the "Council of the Indies" is used in place of "Consejo de las Indias." But appropriate "see" references are included in any doubtful cases. Alphabetizing also follows Schäfer; for example, persons with the same patriarchal name are alphabetized by Christian name, even though the matriarchal name may be different.

Under each name, four possible subarrangements may appear, preceded by Roman numerals, I, II, III, or IV. References after I point to letters written by that person; those after II, to letters received by that person; those after III are not letters but rather accounts, reports, diaries, or other similar non-letter documents written by that person; and those after IV (rarely used) are bibliographic in nature and are documents about that person.

The Chronological Index

The chronological index is arranged by year and subarranged by month and day. Items for which there is a year but no month and day file after Dec 31 of that year. Items for which there are no month and day or for which the year is conjectured are filed at the very end of that year. Items for which the year has not been determined are not included in the chronological Index.

The Title Index

The title index is indispensable in providing access points for documents for which authors and/or dates are not available. In many cases, religious authors, because of their vow of poverty, would omit a signature.

Where necessary the titles in the inventory (and in the index) have been spelled according to modern Spanish orthographic standards to facilitate reference to printed sources and reference works.



* Rich 12, 13, 14, 19, 26, 29, 33, 37, 44, 47, 56, 58, 62, 74, 75, and 81 already had bindings with the coat of arms of Lord Kingsborough or, more precisely, the King family and several others have earlier bindings.

1. Physically, the Collection comprises approximately 31,380 folio leaves, 3,574 quarto leaves, 165 octavo leaves, contained in 149 bound volumes and gathered into 103 sets. Rich 12 (i.e., set number 12), which contains original letters, is not bound, but is in a slipcase. Although the sets are numbered from 1 to 102, there are actually 104 sets, because there is a number "20-A," number 21-A, and a number "64-A," but no number "50."

2. Rich 5, leaves 227r-330v.

3. Rich 2 represents the majority of such fragments and extracts.

4. Rich 1.

5. Rich 1, leaf 468r.

6. For transcripts of Boturini papers see Rich 5, leaves 153r-172v.

7. Rich 34, leaves 268r-291v.

8. See letters accompanying Rich 1, and Francisco Iturri Carta Crítica ed Guillermo Fúrlong (Buenos Aires: Librería del Plata 1955) 154 p.

9. Rich Sales Catalog, annotated by James Lenox, p iv, Manuscripts and Archives Division.

10. Henry Harrisse The Discovery of North America (London: Henry Stevens & Sons; Paris: H. Walter 1892) 74.

11. Henry R. Wagner "Henri Ternaux Compans: The First Collector of Spanish-Americana" Inter-American Review of Bibliography 4: iv (1954) 291.

12. Letter, Henry Stevens to James Lenox, Dresden, 10 April 1847; Lenox Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division.

13. See also Henry Stevens Recollections of James Lenox and the Founding of His Library with annotations and elucidations by Victor Hugo Paltsits (The New York Public Library 1951), and Wyman W. Parker Henry Stevens of Vermont (N. Amsterdam: Israel 1963).

14. Henry Stevens to James Lenox, London, 3 May 1847; Lenox Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division.

15. Parker Henry Stevens of Vermont 51.

16. Parker 52.

17. José de Onís "Alcedos Biblioteca Americana" Hispanic American Review of Bibliography (Washington) 4: iv (1954) 530-41.

18. Obadiah Rich, Letters and Accounts (1847-1884); Manuscripts and Archives Division.

19. Stevens Recollections 7.

20. Letter, Henry Harrisse to Samuel Barlow, Divonne, Department of Ain, France, 7 Aug 1883; Henry Harrisse Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division; Max I. Baym transcribed the complete Epistola of his "Henry Harrisse and his Epistola to Samuel Barlow" Bulletin of The New York Public Library 71 (June 1967) 343-405.

21. Justin Winsor Narrative and Critical History of America (Boston & NY: Houghton, Mifflin 1886) ii ii-iii.

22. "Manuscript Collections in the New York Public Library" Bulletin of The New York Public Library 5 (1901) 306-07.


Bibliography of Published Sources

The New York Public Library classmark of the material appears in brackets at the end of each entry.

B1 Beaumont, Pablo de la Purisima Concepción Crónica de la provincia de los santos apostoles S. Pedro y S. Pablo de Michoacán de la regular observancia de N.P.S. Francisco2 vols (México: Impr. de I. Escalante 1873-74) - Biblioteca história de la Iberia xv-xix [HTT]

B2 Biblioteca de autores españoles, desde la formación del lenguaje hasta nuestros días vol 1- (Madrid 1847- ) [NPC]

B3 Biblioteca José Porrua Estrada de historia mexicana. Series I: La conquista [scattered]

B4 Buenos Aires (city) Museo MitreArchivo Colonial 2 vols (Buenos Aires: Impr. Rodrigues Giles 1914-15) [HKB]

B5 Cabello de Balboa, Miguel Miscelánea antártica; una historia de Perú antiguo, con prologo, notas e índices a cargo del Instituto de etnología (Seminario de historia del Perú-Incas) (Lima: Universidad nacional mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de letras, Instituto de etnología 1951) [HCO]

B6 Cañete y Domínguez, Pedro Vicente Historia física y política de la provincia de Potosí; introd. y notas de Gunnar Mendoza (La Paz: Fundación universitaria "Simón I. Patiño" 1952) [HLB]

B7 Carvajal, Gaspar de Descubrimiento del río de las Amazonas según la relación hasta ahora inédita de, con otros documentos referentes a Francisco de Orellana y sus compañeros; publicados a expensas del Excmo. Sr. duque de TSerclaes de Tilly, con una introducción histórica y algunas ilustraciones por José Toribio Medina (Sevilla: Impr. de E. Rasco 1894) [HFY]

B8 Cieza de León, Pedro de Tercero libro de las guerras civiles del Perú el cual se Ilama la guerra de Quito, hecho pory publicado por Marcos Jiménez de Espada (Madrid: Impr. de M.G. Hernández 1877) [HHL]

B9 Cobo, Bernabé Historia del nuevo mundo publicada por primera vez con notas y otras ilustraciones de M. Jiménez de la Espada 4 vols (Sevilla: E. Rasco 1890-93) - Sociedad de Bibliófilos Andalucas, Publicaciones [HAB]

B10 Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de España [Martín Fernández Navarette, ed] 112 vols (Madrid: Impr. de la viuda de Calero1842-95) [BXC]

B11 Colección de documentos inéditos, relativos al descubrimiento, conquista y organización de las antiguas posesiones españoles de América y Oceanía, sacados de los archivos del reino, y muy especialmente del de Indias; competentemente autorizada 42 vols (Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia1865-84) [BXVW]

B12 Colección de documentos inéditos relativos al descubrimiento, conquista y organización de las antiguas posesiones españoles de ultramar 2nd series 25 vols (Madrid: Real Academia de la Historiapor Est. tip. "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra" 1885-1932) [BXVW]

B13 Colección de libros Españoles raros o curiosos 24 vols (Madrid: 1871-96) [scattered]

B14 Columbus, Christopher El primer viaje de Cristóbal Colón [Journal] (Madrid: Instituto histórico de mariana 1943) [HAN (1943)]

B15 Cortés, Hernando Cartas y documentos [de] Hernán Cortés; intro. de Mario Hernández Sánchez-Barba (México: Editorial Porrúa 1963) - Biblioteca Porrúa 2 [HTI]

B16 Documentos inéditos para la historia de España, publicados por los señores duque de Alba, duque de Maura [et al.] 10 vols (Madrid: Tip. de Archivos 1936-55) [BXC]

B17 Durán Diego Historia de las Indias de Nueva España, por 2 vols (México: Impr. de J.M. Andrade y F. Escalante 1867-80) [HTH/+]

B18 Estete, Miguel de El descubrimiento y la conquista del Perú;la publica con una introducción y notas Carlos M. Larrea (Quito: Impr. de la Universidad central 1948) [HAE/+p.v. 25, #5]

B19 Fernández de Echeverría y Veytia, Mariano Historia antigua de México 2 vols (México: Editorial Leyenda 1944) [HTH]

B20 Fuentes, Manuel Atanasio Memorias de los vireyes que han gobernado el Perú durante el tiempo del coloniaje español 6 vols (Lima: F. Baily 1859) [HHL/+]

B21 Fuentes y Guzmán, Francisco Antonio de Historia de Guatemala; o, Recordación florida, escrita el siglo XVII porque publica por primera vez con notas e ilustraciones D. Justo Zaragoza 2 vols (Madrid: L. Navarro 1882-83) [HMD]

B22 Galvéz, José de, Marqués de Sonora Informe general que en virtud de real órden instruyó y entregó el excmo. Sr. Marqués de Sonoraal excmo. Sr. Virrey frey D. Antonio Bucarely y Ursua con fecha de 31 de diciembre de 1771; publicado por la Sección de fomento del Ministerio de gobernación (México: Impr. S. White 1867) [TAH]

B23 García Icazbalceta, Joaquín, ed Colección de documentos para la historia de México 2 vols (México: Libreria de J.M. Andrade 1858-66) [HTC/+]

B24 Guridi Alcocer, José Miguel Representación de la diputación americana a las Cortes de España; en 1 de augusto de 1811 (London: Schulze & Dean 1812) [HCB]

B25 Jijón y Caamaño, Jacinto La religion del imperio de los Incas 2 vols (Quito; Tip. Salesianas 1919-31) [HBC]

B26 Jijón y Caamaño, Jacinto Sebastián de Benalcázar 2 vols (Quito: Impr. del Clero 1936-38) [AN (Benalcázar, S.)]

B27 Kingsborough (Viscount), Edward King Antiquities of Mexico; Drawings on Stone by A. Aglio 9 vols (London: R. Havell 1831-48) [HBC/+++]

B28 Knights of Columbus, Texas State Council Historical Commission Our Catholic Heritage in Texas, 1519-1936, by Carlos E. Castañeda [historiographer of the commission] 7 vols [Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones 1936-58) [ITR]

B29 Levillier, Roberto Gobernantes del Perú; cartas y papeles, siglo XVI; documentos del Archivo de Indias 14 vols (Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra 1921-26) [HHL]

B30 Matienzo, Juan de Gobierno del Perú (1565). Éd. et étude préliminaire par Guillermo Lohmann Villena (Lima: Institut français détudes andines 1967) - Institut français létudes andines 11 [HHL]

B31 Medina, José Toribio Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de Chile desde el viaje de Magallanes hasta la batalla de Majpo, 1518-1818 30 vols (Chile: Impr. Ercilla 1888-1902) [HLB]

B32 México (Viceroyalty), Virrey, 1789-1794 (Conde de Revilla Gigedo) Informe sobre las misiones, 1793; e, Instrucción reservada al Marqués de Branciforte, 1794; intro. y notas de José Bravo Ugarte [1st ed] (México: Editorial Jus 1966) [HBC]

B33 Montesinos, Fernando Anals del Perú, publicados por Victor M. Maurtua 2 vols (Madrid: Impr. de Gabriel L. y del Horno 1906) [HHB]

B34 Montesinos, Fernando Memorias antiguas historiales y políticas del Perú, seguidas de las informaciones acerca del señorío de los Incas hechas por mandado de D.F. de Toledo (Madrid: M. Ginesta 1882) - Colección de libros españoles raros e curiosos 16 [HHH]

B35 Mota Padilla, Matías Angel de la Historia de la conquista de la provincia de la Nueva-Galicia, escrita poren 1742; publicada por la Sociedad mexicana de geografía y estadística (México: Impr. del gobierno, a cargo de J.M. Sandoval, 1870 1871-72) [HTT/+]

JBM Muñoz, Juan Bautista see "About the Inventory, the Indexes and Their Uses," above p xviii

B36 Muñoz Camargo, Diego Historia de Tlaxcala; publicada y anotada por Alfredo Chavero (México: Oficina de la Secretaría de Fomento 1892) [HTT]

B37 Murga, Vicente Historia documental de Puerto Rico vol I- (Río Piedras: Editorial Plus ultra 1956- ) [HPR]

B38 Navarrete, Martin Fernández Colección de los viajes y descubrimientos que hicieron por mar los españolas desde fines del siglo XV, con documentos inéditos concernientes a la historia de la marina castellana y de los establecimientos españoles en Indias 5 vols (Madrid: en la imprenta real 1825-37) [HAT/+]

B39 Nueva biblioteca de autores españoles, bajo la dirección del M. Menéndez y Pelayo 26 vols (Madrid: Bailly-Bailliére e Hijos 1905-28) [NPC & scattered]

B40 Paso y Troncoso, Francisco del Epistolario de Nueva España, 1505-1818 16 vols (México: Antigua librería Robredo, de J. Porrúa e hijos 1939-42) - Biblioteca histórica mexicana de obras inéditas, segunda serie, 1-16 [HTA]

B41 Paz, Melchor de Guerra separatista; rebeliones de indios en Sur América, la sublevación de Tupac Amarú; crónica de Melchor de Paz(Inédito de la Library of New York); por Luis Antonio Eguiguren 2 vols (Lima: por Luis Antonio Eguiguren 1952) [HHL]

B42 Perú (viceroyalty), Virrey, 1801-1806 (Avilés) Memoria del virrey del Perú Marqués de Avilés, publicala Carlos Alberto Romero (Lima: Impr. del estado 1901) [HHB/+]

B43 Porras Barrenechea, Raúl Cartas del Perú, 1524-1543 [338 cartas de Coetáneos de la conquista del Perú] (Lima: Sociedad de Bibliófilos Peruanos 1959) - Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia del Perú 3 [HHK]

B44 Portugal, Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon As gavetas da Torre do Tombo 8 vols (Lisboa: Centro de estudos históricos ultramarinos 1960-70) - Gulbenkiana 1, 3, 6-8, 11-13 [M-10, 7149]

B45 Prescott, William Hickling History of the Conquest of Peru, with a Preliminary View of the Civilization of the Incas 2 vols (New York: Harper and Brothers 1947) [HHK]

B46 Revista histórica v 1- (Lima 1906- ) [HHB]

B47 Revista de Indias v 1- (Madrid 1940- ) [HCA]

B48 Sá, Artur Basilio de, ed Documentação para a historia das missões do padroado portugues do Oriente: Insulindia 4 vols (Lisboa: Agencia geral do Ultramar 1954-56) [L-10, 9474]

B49 Sahagún, Bernardino de Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España 5 vols (México: P. Robredo 1938) [HBR]

B50 Simón, Pedro Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias Occidentales; ed. dirigida por Manuel José Forero 9 vols (Bogotá: Ministerio de educación nacional, Ediciones de la Revista Bolívar 1953) [HCB]

B51 Smith, Buckingham, ed Colección de varios documentos para la historia de la Florida y tierras adyacentes (London: Trübner 1857) [HCC/+]

B52 Urrutia y Montoya, Ignacio José de Teatro histórico y político militar de la isla Fernandina de Cuba y principalmente de su capital, la Habana (Habana: Comisión Nacional Cubana de la UNESCO 1963) [HOH]

B53 Vega Bolaños, Andres, ed Colección Somoza; Documentos para la historia de Nicaragua vols 1-17 (Madrid [n.p.] 1954-57) [HMR]

B54 Vega Carpio, Lope Félix de Lope de Vegas El Brasil restituido, together with a Study of Patriotism in his Theater by Gino de Solenni (New York: Instituto de las Españas 1929) [NPO]

B55 Velasco, Juan de Historia del reino de Quito en la America Meridional, escrita por el presbítero DnAño de 1789 3 vols (Quito: Impr. del gobierno 1841-44) [HGN]

B56 Zurita, Alonso de Breve y sumaria relación de los señores de la Nueva España; prólogo y notas deJoaquín Ramírez Cabañas (México: Universidad nacional autónoma 1942) - Biblioteca del estudiante universitario 32 [HTK]