Skip to main content

Texas as a Province and Republic, 1795-1845


Available Downloads

AUTHOR FICHE REEL CONTENT

About this Collection

Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845

Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845

Preface

Ordinarily the publication of a bibliography immediately brings to light new titles the bibliographer should and would have included had he known of them. It is a tribute to Thomas W. Streeters thoroughness that in the twenty years since his work was completed comparatively few titles have turned up which he overlooked. Nevertheless, there are additions to be made. These number less than a dozen for the Texas Imprints, and less than two dozen for the U.S. and European Imprints. There are, however, over one hundred for the Mexican Imprints. This is only to be expected for an area that has not yet been brought under any sort of bibliographic control.

The publication of a bibliography also usually brings into the antiquarian book market a more or less steady flow of copies of the titles listed therein. This has not been true of the Streeter bibliography except for those works that were relatively common and already available in many libraries. Most of the titles listed by Streeter were rare in 1955 and are still rare today.

It is to the combination of these two circumstances that this new edition owes its genesis. The few existing copies of these documents were located in libraries scattered the length and breadth of this country, and so a large body of historical source materials was practically unavailable to scholars. Several years ago I suggested to Research Publications, Inc. (now Primary Source Microfilm, an imprint of Thomson/Gale) that it would be an excellent idea to publish them on microfilm. They investigated the feasibility of the project and agreed to undertake it.

One of the attractions of the project was that it not only involved a well-defined body of material but also that a complete guide to that material existed in Streeters bibliography. Unfortunately the work was long since out of print and commanded prohibitive prices in the antiquarian book market. Research Publications then approached the Streeter family about the possibility of a new edition. After careful consideration the family gave permission on condition that this should not be a mere reprint but a revised edition incorporating such new material as had come to light in the intervening years.

The changes in this new edition of the bibliography fall into three groups. First, and most numerous are the new entries for items unknown to Streeter but which meet the criteria he established for inclusion in the original publication of this work. There are 119 of these to be added to his original 1661. Secondly, there are 26 new subentries, that is, other editions of titles either entered by Streeter or first entered in this edition. Finally, there are 23 corrections of Streeters original entries. Most of these involve titles that Streeter was unable to locate for the first printing and which he entered either from a later edition or from a compilation.

By the time U.S. and European Imprints was published in 1960, Streeter had already received a number of additions and corrections to Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints. These he embodied in Appendix B to U.S. and European Imprints. We have made the textual corrections indicated in that Appendix and interpolated the new entries in their proper places in the text. Appendix B to U.S. and European Imprints is therefore omitted. The other appendices have been retained in their positions following Texas Imprints, Mexican Imprints, and U.S. and European Imprints.

For many years booksellers and collectors have cited titles by their Streeter numbers as given in the original edition. To change these numbers would cause great confusion. Since Streeter indicated later editions of a title by the addition of letters (e.g. A,B,C) to the number for the main entry, we could not use this method of indicating new entries. We have therefore used decimals for all new entries and for those entries transferred from Appendix B of U.S. and European Imprints. For example, numbers 1632 and 1633 from Appendix B are now numbers 18.1 and 18.2, and thus fall into their proper chronological and alphabetical positions. Number 45.1 is the former number 1634, but 64.1 is an entirely new entry. Number 194A is a new entry for a later edition of Streeters original number 194.

Although Streeters choice of heading and method of description do not always agree with library practice, I have made no effort to revise them but rather have tried to make all new entries conform to the pattern that he established for the first edition.

In a bibliography of this sort, the inclusion of locations for the titles listed is bound to give rise to some dissatisfaction. It is never possible to make anything approaching a complete census. It should be recognized that the primary purpose is to locate copies for the use of scholars and only secondarily to indicate relative rarity.

For the first edition, all of Streeters entries were checked in the major Texas libraries, the more important scholarly libraries throughout the country, and the National Union Catalogue. No attempt has been made to recheck those sources for this edition, and Streeters tables of comparative holdings have been allowed to stand unchanged. At least one location has been given for each new entry in this edition. Three other exceptions should be noted. The Jenkins Garrett Library in the University of Texas at Arlington did not exist when this bibliography was first published, but its holdings include more than three hundred of the seventeen hundred and eighty titles listed in this edition. They have been added to the census. The two largest collections, then as now, were at Yale and the University of Texas at Austin. Having personally catalogued all the additions to the former collection over the past twenty-five years I have naturally included them. When the firm of Edward Eberstadt & Sons, the leading Western Americana booksellers in the country, was dissolved, its stock was acquired by the Jenkins Company of Austin and the University of Texas was able to make substantial additions to its Texas holdings. Through the kindness of John H. Jenkins I have been able to add those holdings to the new census. They have no doubt also made other additions of which I am unaware.

Although all of the titles that were listed in the first edition as being in the Streeter Collection are now with one exception at Yale, I have not changed the location symbols. Rather let future readers see and marvel at what one collector was able to bring together in a quarter century of assiduous and perceptive acquisition.

Since such a large percentage of the new entries for this edition come from the Yale Collection of Western Americana, it may be alleged that an unhealthy bias exists on the part of the editor. To this I can only plead that a genuine effort was made to solicit material from other sources. The work of revision had to be carried on in what time could be spared from my regular duties and it was not possible to do extended research in other libraries. It seemed best to concentrate on the substantial body of material at hand and the photocopies so kindly furnished in response to my requests for new titles. I owe much to many libraries and librarians, but particularly to J.C. Martin, formerly of the Jenkins Garrett Library, Jean Carefoot and John N. Kenney of the Texas State Library, Jane Kenamore and John D. Hyatt of the Rosenberg Library and Marian Orgain and Covington Rogers of the University of Houston Library. John H. Jenkins has been a constant source of information and encouragement.

No bibliography is ever complete. If I have left much for my successor, I hope I have added a few courses to the foundation so solidly established twenty-five years ago.

Archibald Hanna

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TEXAS, 1795-1845
By Thomas W. Streeter

Texas Imprints: Introduction

Over forty years ago, interests in Mexican oil brought about my first visit to Texas. A few years later these visits became frequent and I became fascinated by the history of the early colonization of Texas, with the drama of its revolution from Mexico and the successful establishment of its republic. Soon I became an ardent collector of Texana and as early as January, 1922, began a rich and rewarding friendship with Dr. Eugene Barker, the historian of Texas, and with Ernest W. Winkler, the Librarian of the University of Texas Library. I had made valuable use of Henry Wagners The Spanish Southwest 1542-1794, Berkeley, 1924, in my Texas collection and had learned from him that he had given up the idea he once had of its continuation. It was then, early in 1927, that in the valor of almost total ignorance I conceived the idea of continuing the Spanish Southwest, but only for Texas and the marvelous Texas period ending in 1845. Mr. Wagner urged me to go ahead and offered help. Later this was most generously given. Mr. Winkler, whose University of Texas Library then contained the most extensive collection of material for the bibliography, likewise urged me to go ahead and gave me invaluable assistance.

Accordingly, early in 1927, fortified by the encouragement of these two distinguished bibliographers, I embarked lightheartedly and almost casually on the project of compiling a critical bibliography of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, 1795-1845. Raines in his Bibliography of Texas had taken three and a half centuries (1536-1896) for his field. I proposed to limit myself to an interesting half century. I did not know then what Dr. Paltsits had said many years before, "Anyone can compile a list, many can make a catalogue, but very few can agonize to bring forth a bibliography." In my state of complete bibliographical innocence, it appeared to be a comparatively simple task, for the spare time of a busy life, to assemble the material of that half century printed in or relating to Texas and to describe it with critical notes. That some twenty-seven years have passed before the completion of the first part of the project, Texas Imprints, has demonstrated, to me at any rate, that the task takes far more time and energy than are furnished by the free hours of a life engaged in many other activities. Perhaps I should add that the stock market collapse of 1929 and the ensuing depression tended to absorb for some years the energies of many of us then actively engaged in business, an absorption that ended happily for me at the end of 1939 when I retired.

At the opening of the period covered by this bibliography, there were perhaps 4,000 people of European blood in the vast region now included in the State of Texas, and there were only three settlements of any importance: San Antonio de Bexar, La Bahía (Goliad), and Nacogdoches. In the next twenty-five years or so under Spanish rule, there was little change except that by 1820 Nacogdoches had become almost a deserted village. In this early period there were attempts at settlement, as by the French at Champ dAsile; and there were military expeditions, some of them of great interest, such as that by Mina, accompanied by his printer, Samuel Bangs, from Galveston Island into Mexico. It was in the early twenties, when Mexico established its independence of Spain and Stephen F. Austin began the successful colonization of Texas, that the real drama of the contest between two different civilizations began in Texas. By 1834 its population, as reported by Almonte, had increased to 24,700 including slaves; its trade for the year was estimated at $1,400,000, practically all of it from the Anglo-American settlements; and by that time Texas was in many respects an American State. In 1836 the Texas pioneers under Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna at San Jacinto, and Texas began its notable career as a republic, a career that ended in 1845 when it voted overwhelmingly to enter the American Union.

The region which had perhaps 4,000 people of European descent during the opening years of this bibliography, and around 125,000 at its close, now has more than seven and a half million people who call it their home, and it is known as one of the richest and most prosperous of our states. It has seemed to me a worth-while task to attempt a bibliography of the significant fifty years preceding the entry of this great State into the Union.

While there are a few bibliographies of the different states of the Union and many check lists of their early imprints, I know of only one other bibliography that aims, as I have here, to list for the period covered not only the books about a state but also the imprints of that state, and to accompany the entries, when appropriate, with descriptive notes. That bibliography is Miss Baers noteworthy Seventeenth Century Maryland, Baltimore, 1949. It might be noted that Miss Baers task in recording imprints was simple, for through the year 1700 there were only eight Maryland imprints. John Russell Bartlett in his Catalogue of Books and Other Publications relating to the State of Rhode Island, with Notes Historical, Biographical and Critical, published as early as 1864, had a similar objective, as did Thomson in his Bibliography of Ohio, Cincinnati, 1880; Raines in his Bibliography of Texas, Austin, 1896; and Gilman in his Bibliography of Vermont, Burlington, 1897; but they did not aim at a complete listing of the imprints of their regions. Indeed this would have been entirely impracticable, because the periods covered by these nineteenth-century bibliographies extended to within a few years of the dates of their publication.

Anyone who has had occasion to consult frequently, as I have, Henry Wagners Spanish Southwest, 1542-1794, or Harrisses Notes sur la Nouvelle France, 1545-1700 knows how much the historical and descriptive notes in these bibliographies add to their effectiveness. Randolph Adams once remarked of Harrisse, "He did not write history, he compiled lists. But such lists! He had a genius for pointing out exactly what a book was and how it added to the sum total of human knowledge." Of the same high standards are the descriptive notes in Miss Baers Maryland and Thomsons Bibliography of Ohio. These four regional bibliographies have been my inspiration in writing the notes to the entries in this Bibliography of Texas.

The material to be reported on in this bibliography has proved to be so extensive that a classification according to the three different regions of printing has seemed necessary. In Texas Imprints it is my intention to list all books, pamphlets, folders, broadsides, and maps printed in what is now Texas in the period 1795-1845. The earliest surviving Texas imprint was published in 1823; but the first imprint, though no copy is now known, was published in 1817. Included is an account of printing in Texas through the year 1845 and an appendix on Texas newspapers for the period. Mexican Imprints lists material that directly and predominantly relates to Texas and was printed in what is now Mexico in the period 1795-1845. U.S. and European Imprints lists material relating to Texas printed during the same period in what is now the United States or in Europe. For the fifty years covered by these three parts, Raines has about two hundred entries. What I lightheartedly assumed over twenty-five years ago to be a comparatively simple task has turned out to be the assembling, with descriptive notes where appropriate, of over nineteen hundred entries.

A reasonably complete assembling of the titles to be recorded in a regional bibliography such as this, and the location of these titles, especially those referred to as "rare," involves extensive search and a careful examination of the individual pieces so that important defects in copies may be noted in the locations. I have been most fortunate in those who have made these searches for me in this country and in Mexico, and later in this Introduction express my thanks to them individually. Especial pains have been taken to ascertain and record the holdings of the libraries in Texas. The important collections in Texas are at the University of Texas, the Texas State Library, and the Texas Masonic Grand Lodge Library at Waco. These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints, but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well. Searches have also been made in other Texas libraries.

Detailed searches have been made for all three parts of the Bibliography at Harvard, the Boston Public Library, the Boston Athenæum, the American Antiquarian Society, the Watkinson Library now at Trinity College, Hartford (for Texas Imprints only), Yale, the New York Public Library, the New-York Historical Society, Princeton, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (for Texas Imprints only), the Library Company of Philadelphia (for Texas Imprints only), the Library of Congress, the Clements Library at the University of Michigan, the University of Chicago, the John Crerar and Newberry libraries at Chicago, the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Historical Society, the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, the Mercantile Library of St. Louis, the Huntington Library at San Marino, and the Bancroft Library at Berkeley. In some of the libraries scarcely any items were found. As was the procedure in Texas, various other libraries not specifically mentioned in this Introduction were checked. These included libraries in the Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Chicago regions not mentioned above. Finally, my own collection has been the source of many entries.

In addition to the searches just mentioned, the Union Catalog at Washington and the Union Catalogue of the Philadelphia area have been checked, as well as the cards of the American Imprints Inventory on file at the Library of Congress, and the holdings indicated checked with the individual libraries. Some new locations, but no new titles, resulted from this. The Imprints Inventory cards frequently confuse reprints with original editions and make other errors. The information on them should always be rechecked.

In Mexico City the three most important libraries checked were the Biblioteca Nacional de México, the Archivo Histórico Militar, and the Archivo General de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. Other checking was done at Durango, Guadalajara, Saltillo, San Luis Potosí, and Zacatecas. These examinations resulted in perhaps forty new titles and many new locations, almost all being for Mexican Imprints. I might remark in passing that Dr. and Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean, who carried on this research for me in Mexico, learned that the state archives of Puebla had been sold for cardboard in 1937, and that while they were at Oaxaca they actually saw several truckloads of documents piled in the patio awaiting a similar fate.

Despite these extensive searches, new items which should have been included are bound to be discovered after the publication of the successive parts of this Bibliography. I would appreciate being advised at Morristown of items which should be added to Texas Imprints; and also of any errors of statement, for these are bound to be present in a work such as this where innumerable statements of fact are made.

The imprints of the beginnings and early days of printing in a region constitute an important phase of its culture and a prime source of its history, but to keep such lists of manageable length certain classes of material have to be excluded. Here, in Texas Imprints, legal forms, writs and the like are left out except for a few forms of the colonization period, Nos. 9, 10, 13, 14, and 20, that seem quite fundamental to an understanding of colonization procedure. Baptism into the Roman Catholic Church played an interesting part in the social history of Texas as a province of Mexico so a form of a baptismal certificate, No. 22, is included. The few other forms listed need no further reference here. Drafts of proposed legislative bills printed for the convenience of members of the Texas congresses have not been included. References in printers bills and in one of the Journals to printing of "Ayes and Noes" are apparently to forms and these also have been omitted. Apparently after the adjournment of each congress a list of facts and resolutions passed by that congress was printed. The list for the First Congress and similar lists for the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, the last two as they list private acts of which there seems to be no other record, are the only ones entered here. Though issues of paper currency certainly do relate to the history of a region, they are usually regarded as proper subjects for a separate study and they have been omitted. On the other hand, certificates of stock of colonization companies and of the railroad enterprises for Texas in this period have been listed when known. Extras of newspapers have been included since they usually relate to only one subject and were issued as broadsides or as four-page folders. Finally, even when no copies could be located, entries have been included for pieces which a reading of the House and Senate Journals of the Texas congresses, the newspapers of the period, printers bills preserved in the Archives of the Texas State Library, or other contemporary records indicate were actually printed and not just proposed.

These same sources have been searched in an effort to supply imprints for pieces on which no printers name appears. For the early period of printing in Texas the problem has been comparatively simple, since until October, 1835, except for a brief period, only one press was in operation at any one time. In the later period as many as fourteen presses were in operation at one time, and for the years beginning with 1836 a count shows that approximately half of the imprints have been supplied. Where there is external evidence such as printers bills, printers manuscript endorsements, and the like, supplying an imprint presents no problem, but ability to compare type faces and knowledge of the customs of different printers are required where external evidence is lacking or inconclusive. Here I have been most fortunate in having the skilled assistance of John C. Wyllie, Curator of Rare Books at the University of Virginia Library. He is much interested in printing and has been good enough to suggest what imprints should be supplied in cases where external evidence is lacking.

In view of the extensive search for copies of the items entered, it has been somewhat surprising to find in Texas Imprints that, except for certain editions of laws, the greater part of the entries are represented by few individual locations, often not more than two or three. There were 134 entries where no copy could be located. In the case, however, of the Laws of the Republic of Texas, in Two Volumes, Houston, 1838, No. 275 here, forty-two copies were located, and some of the alphabetical indexes of the laws and some of the session laws were located in anywhere from eighteen to thirty-eight collections. There were thirty-four locations for Kimballs Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas, Houston, 1839, No. 310 here. Many of these locations were from the Imprints Inventory lists. The text of all these laws has been reprinted, though not always accurately, in the easily available Gammel edition of the laws. It has seemed to me inartistic, if that is the right word, to clutter up this bibliography with a complete listing of the locations of these ten or a dozen editions of the laws. This would often require the listing of a library which, except for two or three volumes of these session laws, had no other Texas Imprints holdings. Accordingly I have limited the location of these session laws to the three Texas libraries having the largest number of entries; that is the Texas State Library and the libraries of the University of Texas and the Grand Lodge at Waco, and the six leading collections of Texas imprints elsewhere; that is the New York Public, Yale, Harvard, Library of Congress, Bancroft, and my own collection. In all cases where the listing of locations is not complete I add, "Also---------others."

Besides the main list of Texas imprints also included is a preliminary chapter, a "Brief Sketch of Printing in Texas through 1845" summarizing printing in Texas for the period year by year, and Appendix A, an account of "Texas Newspapers through 1845." No list of the imprints of the early years of a region can be completed without a study of the presses on which the newspapers were printed, and brief sketches of those newspapers and locations of such issues as have survived are, I believe, a helpful part of a regional bibliography such as this. The appendix is largely based on a search by one of my assistants, Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean, of the files of Texas newspapers in Texas libraries, and a listing of their issues. In her study Mrs. McLean made copious extracts of material relating to printing in Texas. Her work has been supplemented by a reading of the unique issues in my collection and elsewhere outside of Texas. All this has resulted in locating and listing in the newspaper appendix over 400 issues of newspapers for the period ending in 1845 not reported in the San Jacinto Museums useful listing Texas Newspapers, 1813-1899, Houston, 1941. It might be added that in cases where the San Jacinto list credits a library with an incomplete file without indicating which numbers are in the file, such issues, some 400 more, have been individually listed here. I should also add that in 1940 Mr. Joe B. Frantz presented a thesis, "The Newspapers of the Republic of Texas," at the University of Texas that served as the basis for articles on those newspapers in that useful work, the Handbook of Texas, Austin, 1952. To avoid duplication, little of the history of individual newspapers recorded in the Handbook has been repeated in the appendix, but considerable new material has been included, and from time to time more correct statements of matters already covered in the Handbook.

Appendix B, "Unidentified Public Documents," lists items known through printers bills against the government, but not there described sufficiently to permit their entry in the main list. Appendix C is entitled "Data on the Journals of the Convention of March, 1836, Entered as No. 162 in This Bibliography." Only two quite incomplete copies of this most important Journal have survived and a new edition would be most helpful. The data developed in the research for making a note on the Journal turned out to be too voluminous for the note to the entry so it has been included in this appendix.

Although in a regional bibliography such as this a listing of the number of entries credited to institutions and collections by no means indicates that the collection credited with the greatest number is therefore the most valuable, a recording of those collections in and out of Texas which have the most numerous holdings is, I think, a matter of general interest. I have accordingly worked out figures giving approximate totals of entries for all three parts and the holdings of the leading collections. This census should be accurate for Texas Imprints, and reasonably close to the facts for Mexican Imprints, and U.S. and European Imprints.

Before giving this census in tabular form, certain comments are in order. It should be remarked that in Texas Imprints there are 670 numbered entries, and 24 sub-entries for additional issues of imprints given main entries, for a total of 694. In the case of 134 pieces, known from references of one kind or another to have been printed, no copy could be found. There are accordingly 560 items entered in Texas Imprints for which locations are given. In Mexican Imprints there are at present 333 numbered entries and 3 sub-entries, for a total of 336. Of these 15 are for imprints of which no copy has been located, leaving 321 entries for which locations are given. In U.S. and European Imprints there are at present 812 numbered entries and 58 sub-entries, for a total of 870. Of these 61 are for imprints of which no copy could be found and 102 are for United States House and Senate documents dated 1817 or later for which no locations are given, leaving 707 entries for which locations are given. Although in the final drafts of Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints some entries may be eliminated and others added, there are at present 1815 entries and 85 sub-entries in all imprints together, for a total of 1900, of which 1588 are entries for which locations are given.

The holdings, as at present recorded, of the six Texas institutions represented by the greatest number of entries are:

Texas Imprints
Located in one or more copies 560
University of Texas 242
Texas State Library 150
Grand Lodge at Waco 134
Houston Public 51
Baylor 7
Rosenberg at Galveston 15

Mexican Imprints
Located in one or more copies 321
University of Texas 146
Texas State Library 56
Grand Lodge at Waco 0
Houston Public 0
Baylor 5
Rosenberg at Galveston 6

U.S. and European Imprints
Located in one or more copies 707
University of Texas 304
Texas State Library 155
Grand Lodge at Waco 9
Houston Public 51
Baylor 73
Rosenberg at Galveston 50

Total
Located in one or more copies 1588
University of Texas 692
Texas State Library 361
Grand Lodge at Waco 143
Houston Public 102
Baylor 85
Rosenberg at Galveston 71

For the first six libraries outside of Texas the present record is as follows:

Texas Imprints
Yale (including Law School) 60
Library of Congress 59
New York Public 49
Harvard (including Law School) 32
Bancroft 53
Streeter 232
Located in one or more copies 560

Mexican Imprints
Yale (including Law School) 75
Library of Congress 18
New York Public 7
Harvard (including Law School) 8
Bancroft 53
Streeter 199
Located in one or more copies 321

U.S. and European Imprints
Yale (including Law School) 217
Library of Congress 205
New York Public 204
Harvard (including Law School) 149
Bancroft 75
Streeter 449
Located in one or more copies 707

Total
Yale (including Law School) 352
Library of Congress 282
New York Public 260
Harvard (including Law School) 189
Bancroft 181
Streeter 880
Located in one or more copies 1588

The recorded holdings of all of the libraries checked are given after their names in the "Key to Locations" at the beginning of each part.

Most of us who collect Americana enjoy reading a list of early imprints such as this and making a mental note of the pieces they would like to own. I cannot resist recording my own ideas of such a pleasant survey. Out of the 525 or so Texas imprints entered here of which copies are located, I list first the five imprints which I would choose as a book collector if my choice were so limited. I realize that many might not agree with this selection, so I then list my next ten choices. I hope the fact that some are in my collection will not make these choices seem biased. A list then follows of six pieces relating to historic events which to my way of thinking, though not important enough to be included with the first fifteen imprints, are yet most interesting. Finally I discuss various pieces on the social, economic, religious and educational life of Texas which though not "high spots" represent a class of material well worthy of the attention of any Texas collector.

My selection of the first five Texas imprints follows, arranged, I should add, in chronological order and not in the order of their supposed importance.

No. 4, the Prospecto of April 9, 1823, announcing the establishment of a press at Bexar on which a weekly newspaper was to be published. Only the Bancroft Library copy is known of this earliest surviving Texas imprint.

No. 3, Austins To the Settlers in Austins [sic] settlement, Province of Texas, July, 1823. The first address of Austin to his colonists marks the beginning of the successful colonization of Texas. The only located copy is in my collection.

No. 17, Municipal Ordinance for the Government of the Municipality of Austin, G.B. Cotten, Print. Austin, Texas [1829]. Until 1832 all the Anglo-American portion of Texas, except that between the Sabine and the San Jacinto, was subject to this ordinance, and it is probably the earliest surviving imprint after the permanent establishment of the press in Texas. The only located copy is in my collection.

No. 12, Translation of the Laws, Orders, and Contracts, on Colonization, from January, 1821, up to this time, in virtue of which Col. Stephen F. Austin, has introduced and settled foreign emigrants in Texas, with an Explanatory Introduction, San Filipe [sic] de Austin, Texas: Printed by Godwin B. Cotten, November, 1829. This is the contemporary account, written by the founder, of the establishment of the first Anglo-American settlement of Texas and the first book or pamphlet of over a dozen pages printed in Texas. Copies are located in the Sutro Branch of the California State Library, at Yale, New-York Historical, New York Public, Library Company of Philadelphia, the University of Texas Library, and my collection.

No. 165, Unanimous Declaration of Independence, by the Delegates of the People of Texas, in General Convention, at the Town of Washington, on the Second Day of March, 1836. This is the outstanding state paper in Texas history. Copies are located at Yale (trimmed, affecting caption title), the Texas Memorial Museum at Austin, the Texas State Library, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.

For those who might not agree with the foregoing selection, I list now ten more Texas imprints that seem to me only a little less important; again in chronological order.

No. 32, Proceedings of the General Convention of Delegates Representing the Citizens and Inhabitants of Texas: Held at the Town of San Felipe, in Austins Colony, the First Week of October, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty Two, Brazoria, Texas, published by D.W. Anthony, 1832. This is the account of the first popular convention held in Texas and is the second pamphlet of more than a few pages printed in Texas. The only copy located is at the Texas State Library.

No. 37, Representacion dirijida por el Ilustre Ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de Bexar al Honorable Congreso del Estado, Brazoria, 1833. This vigorous statement of the ills from which Texas was suffering is a significant document as it was published by a group predominantly Mexican which had declined to participate in the October, 1832, convention. The only known copy of this Representacion it is usually referred to as the Bexar Remonstrance is in my collection. It was formerly owned by Stephen F. Austin.

No. 89, Declaration of the People of Texas; in General Convention assembled, San Felipe [1835]. This declaration of November 7, 1835, that the people of Texas have taken up arms in defense of the Constitution of 1824 is second only in importance to the Declaration of Independence of March, 1836. The only copies located are in the University of Texas Library and in my collection.

No. 132, Meeting of the Citizens of San Felipe of February 27, 1836, San Felipe de Austin [1836]. This, or possibly the broadside entered here as No. 185, marks the first appearance in print of the famous Travis letter of February 24 from the Alamo, "I shall never surrender or retreat." Copies of both No. 132 and No. 185 are at the Texas State Library and in my collection.

No. 177, Agreement between Santa Anna and the Texian Government, Brazoria [1836]. This agreement marks the culmination of the Texas struggle for independence. The only copy located is at the San Jacinto Museum.

No. 162, Journals of the Convention of the Free, Sovereign and Independent People of Texas, in General Convention Assembled, [Columbia, 1836?]. The convention of March, 1836, which brought forth the Declaration of Independence was similar in importance in Texas to the convention at Philadelphia which issued the Declaration of Independence of 1776. Only two quite defective copies of the Journals of the Convention have survived. The better one is at the Harvard Law School, and the other in the Masonic Library at Waco, Texas. As an adequate discussion of the bibliographical problem raised by these Journals is too voluminous to be included in the main text, the subject is treated in Appendix C.

No. 181, Charter of the Texas Railroad, Navigation and Banking Company; together with Other Papers therewith Connected, [Columbia: 1836]. This promotion pamphlet for the first railroad enterprise of Texas has an added interest from the fact that it seems also to be the first separate piece, wherever printed, outlining plans for a railroad to the Pacific. My copy and that in the Bancroft Library are the only ones located.

No. 190, Houston Displayed, or, Who Won the Battle of San Jacinto? By a Farmer in the Army, Velasco; 1837. This is a famous and rare Texas book, with a scorching criticism of Sam Houston. The only copies located are in the University of Texas Library and in my collection.

No. 483, Proclama de Su Excellencia [sic] Mirabeau B. Lamar, a los Ciudadanos de Santa Fe, Austin [1841]. This edition in Spanish of the invitation to the inhabitants of New Mexico to become citizens of Texas has material not in the English edition, No. 480 here, and I think is perhaps the best single piece on the Santa Fe Expedition printed in Texas. Kendalls classic account is entered in U.S. and European Imprints here. There are copies of the Proclama at Texas State Library, University of Texas Library, and in Mr. DeGolyers collection and mine.

No. 664, Constitution of the State of Texas. Adopted in Convention, at the City of Austin, 1845, Austin, 1845. This is the first edition in English of the first constitution of the state of Texas and probably the first printing of the Constitution in final form in either English or Spanish. There are copies at the Huntington Library, Harvard Law School (with some defects), Dallas Historical Society, University of Texas Law School, and in my collection.

There are a few entries relating to historic Texas events which, though perhaps not of the importance of the selections thus far made, would be a welcome addition to any Texas collection. Again in chronological order, they are:

No. 41, Memorial. To the General Congress of the United Mexican States, [Brazoria: Printed by D.W. Anthony, 1833]. Austin carried this memorial of the April, 1833, convention to Mexico. It states with force and eloquence why Texas should be separated from Coahuila and have its own state government. If the only copy located (it is in my collection) had not lacked the last four leaves, I would have included it in the preceding list.

No. 87, Fall of Bejar and Surrender of General Cos!!, San Felipe de Austin, [1835]. This tells the story of one of the dramatic events in Texas history, the capture of San Antonio de Bexar from the Mexicans by the Texans in December, 1835. Copies are located at the Texas Memorial Museum at Austin, the Baylor University Library, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.

No. 398, McLeod, Sentinel Extra, Austin, March 23, 1840. This extra gives an account by McLeod of another dramatic episode of Texas history, the clash usually referred to as the "Council House Fight" between a group of Texans and a group of Comanche Indians headed by twelve chiefs who came to San Antonio in March, 1840, to make a treaty. The only copies of the extra located are in the Masonic Library at Waco and in my collection.

No. 501, Austin, Committee of Vigilance, To Arms! To Arms! This broadside was called forth by the Mexicans capture of San Antonio in March, 1842. The only copy located is at the Texas Land Office.

No. 509, Civilian and Galveston Gazette Extra, March 21, 1842. This extra shows the panic that prevailed in coastal Texas after the capture of San Antonio by the Mexicans. It tells, incorrectly of course, of the approach of the Mexican army, and appeals for help. The only located copy is in my collection.

No. 559, E.W. Moore, To the People of Texas. This gives the essential and little known facts of the last two years of the Texas Navy and of the bitter controversy between President Houston and Moore. The located copies are at the Houston Public Library, the Masonic Library at Waco, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.

In addition to the fifteen Texas imprints that to me seem most important, and the further group of imprints relating to historic Texas events, I think some mention should be made of various imprints which describe the country and its way of life. Légers Essay on the Particular Influence of Prejudices in Medicine, over the Treatment of the Disease most common in Texas, Intermittent Fever, Brazoria, 1838, No. 240 here, is the first medical book published in Texas. It is known only in the copy in the University of Texas Library. The first locally printed description of Texas is Bonnells Topographical Description of Texas. To Which is Added an Account of the Indian Tribes, Austin, 1840, Nos. 380 and 380A here. A number of copies of this book have been located. Another book published about the same time, but describing a more limited part of the country, is The Colorado Navigator, containing a Full Description of the Bed and Banks of the Colorado River, from the City of Austin to its mouth. By Wm. C. McKinstry, Matagorda, 1840, No. 393 here. Copies are located in the Library of Congress and in my collection.

There are fifteen or so invitations to social events entered in Texas Imprints, the first in point of time being No. 26 (copy at Texas State Library) to a dinner and ball in honor of Santa Anna to be held at Brazoria on July 21, 1832. There are also two broadsides relating to theatrical performances at Houston, the first, No. 239, with the date June 11, 1838, being in the Masonic Library at Waco. For education there is the Project of the Galveston University, February 1840, No. 388 here, with copies at the Texas State Library and in my collection; and the first annual catalog of Rutersville College, No. 397 here, entered from a photostat of a privately owned copy.

On the economic side there are fifteen or so pieces relating to the establishment or promotion of new towns entered in Texas Imprints. The first of these of which a copy has survived is the Certificate of Stock in the Town of Swartwout, No. 244 here, printed at Houston, probably in 1838, with copies at the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, at the Incarnate Word Academy at Houston, and at the San Jacinto Museum. Another interesting piece along this line is President Houstons communication, dated June 13, 1838, to the chief justices of the frontier counties on the regulation of trade between the Rio Grande and the frontier settlements, No. 293 and 293C, with copies at the Bancroft Library and in my collection. Another worth-while piece in this line is the Constitution of the Texas San Saba Company, May 9th, 1839, No. 375, with copies located at the Bancroft Library, Harvard, University of Texas, and in my collection. The pamphlet on the first Texas railroad, No. 181 here, has already been mentioned.

There are only a few entries for religious bodies, the earliest being No. 21, the Circular of the Nacogdoches Board of Piety, with copies at the Bancroft and University of Texas libraries. Most of the rest are proceedings of the two organizations of Baptists, the earliest being No. 379, the Minutes of the First Session of the Union Baptist Association, which, with later Minutes, is at the library of the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary at Fort Worth. A piece quite suitable for exhibitions is the first issue of Laws of the Republic of Texas, in Two Volumes. Printed by order of the Secretary of State. Volume I, Houston, 1837, No. 210 here. Only two copies (at New York Public and in my collection) of this first issue of the first publication of the Laws of Texas are located.

It will perhaps be noticed that I do not include in the foregoing lists the various editions of the House and Senate Journals of the congresses of the Republic of Texas or the numerous reports of congressional committees. Many of these are essential to an understanding of the history of the Republic, but to me they lack the glamor that would entitle them to special mention.

I have already mentioned my debt to Henry Wagner and Ernest Winkler. This project had a great appeal to Mr. Winkler when it was first discussed with him early in 1927. He had been for almost twenty-five years a librarian interested in Texas books and he was at that time, as Librarian of the University of Texas, in charge of an outstanding collection of Texas material. It was then that he began to send me entries for the Texas imprints in the University library, often accompanied with illuminating comments. Three thick files of correspondence are evidence of his invaluable help, especially in the early years. While I often refer to his aid in the notes to this or that piece, they are a quite inadequate record of my debt. Two of his associates at the University are entitled to special mention. For the last fifteen years Miss Winnie Allen, Archivist at the University, has answered many of my inquiries, and for the last three or four years much of this help has been given by Miss Llerena Friend, now Librarian of the Barker Texas History Center at the University. Though with less Texas material their opportunities to help have not been as extensive, my thanks are also due to the librarians and staffs of five other important Texas libraries, the Texas State Library, the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston and San Antonio Public Libraries, and the San Jacinto Museum. In this group are Mr. Thomas J. Gibson and Mr. Seymour V. Connor, Librarian and Archivist respectively of the Texas State Library, and Miss Harriet Smither, former Archivist; Mr. C. Lamar Wallis, Librarian of the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, and his predecessor, Mr. J.S. Ibbotson; Miss Julia Ideson, Librarian of the Houston Public Library, and Miss Martha Schnitzer, in charge under Miss Ideson of the Texas Collection and later her successor as Librarian; Miss Julia Grothaus and Miss Minnie B. Cameron, respectively Librarian and Reference Librarian at the San Antonio Public Library; and the late Mr. Ike Moore and after his death Mrs. Dorothy W. Knepper of the San Jacinto Museum. To Mr. L.R. Elliott, Librarian of the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary at Fort Worth, I owe the entries for the years 1840 through 1845 of the Seminarys unique copies of the reports of the Union Baptist Association. Others in Texas to whom I am indebted are the Most Reverend Laurence J. FitzSimon, Bishop of Amarillo; Mrs. Lois Foster Blount, Department of History, Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College, Nacogdoches; and Mr. Guy Bryan Harrison, Jr., at Baylor.

I have been fortunate in having been able to rely on Dr. and Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean for the necessary detailed checking and examination of individual copies not only at the Texas libraries just mentioned, but at the important Grand Lodge Library at Waco and other less extensive Texas libraries. The McLeans formerly lived at Austin, Texas, and since the fall of 1951 at Fayetteville, Arkansas, where Dr. McLean is on the faculty of the University of Arkansas. They have devoted seven summers to this work, including one summer checking at libraries in Mexico, with Mrs. McLean doing considerable research at other times while still living at Austin. She has been almost entirely responsible for assembling the data on Texas newspapers which is incorporated in Appendix A. As late as this last summer Dr. McLean came to my rescue by spending several weeks in the archives of the Texas State Library, going over a large batch of printers bills for the period of the Republic which had come to light some months previously. To the McLeans go my sincere thanks.

I am especially indebted to those in charge of the Huntington Library, the Bancroft Library of the University of California, and the Yale University Library for having their collections checked for all material relating to Texas for the period of the bibliography, and to Mr. Carey S. Bliss, Mrs. Eleanor Bancroft, and Mr. Donald G. Wing of these institutions for their services.

Among those with whom I have had considerable correspondence and to whom I extend my sincere thanks are Mr. Clarence S. Brigham of the American Antiquarian Society; Miss Ruth Kerr, Watkinson Library at Hartford; Mr. James T. Babb, Librarian of Yale University, and Mr. Archibald Hanna, Jr., Curator of the Western Americana Collection at Yale; Mr. R. Norris Williams, 2nd, Director of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Mr. William J. Paterson, Grand Lodge F. & A.M., Pennsylvania; Mr. Frederick R. Goff and the late Miss Alice H. Lerch at the Library of Congress; Mr. John P. Harrison of the National Archives and Record Service, Washington; Miss Anna Brooke Allan, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library; Prof. R.H. Woody, Duke University; Mr. Richard B. Harwell, Assistant Librarian, Emory University, Georgia; and Mr. Benton H. Wilcox, Librarian, Wisconsin State Historical Society.

Among librarians west of the Mississippi and outside of Texas not already mentioned, my sincere thanks go to Mr. Earl B. Delzell, Grand Lodge F. & A.M. of Iowa; Mr. George P. Hammond, Director of the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, and Miss Helen Bruner, Sutro Branch, California State Library, San Francisco. I do not list here individually the many names of those who have courteously answered this or that question about their holdings, but I extend to them as a group my warm appreciation.

Thanks are also due to my old friends and fellow book collectors Mr. E.L. DeGolyer and Mr. Everett D. Graff, who have been good enough to inform me of their rare Texas pieces and permit me to list them here.

My thanks also go to those whose services I have been able to secure, either for short investigations or for long periods of study. I have already mentioned my debt to Dr. and Mrs. Malcolm McLean. In my early work on Texas newspapers, I was helped by Mrs. Lotta Spell of Austin, Texas. When it became necessary to search the archives at the Department of State, Washington, Mr. Charles C. Griffin, Professor of History at Vassar, was able to spend several days there for me. My associate on many bibliographical matters, the late Major Albert H. Allen of Chicago spent considerable time in reporting for the bibliography on the holdings of the University of Michigan Library and the Clements Library at Ann Arbor, Michigan, the Newberry and University of Chicago libraries at Chicago; the Mercantile Library at St. Louis; the libraries of the Minnesota Historical Society at St. Paul and the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis; and the library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Special mention should also be made of Mr. Fred Anthoensen, not only for his skillful handling of the printing of this bibliography but also for his cheerful patience in immobilizing for some six years the type for the entries which follow.

I have been particularly fortunate in the assistants who have worked on my immediate staff here in Morristown for the last eighteen years.

Miss Elizabeth G. Greene came to me as my first librarian in July, 1936, and retired in the summer of 1947. With her background as one of the editors of Sabin, she was an invaluable aid in assembling the material for this bibliography, the greater part of the entries for Texas Imprints being in printed proof when she retired. One of her assignments was making the preliminary check of the Yale University Library and all the checking for Texas Imprints at the Harvard University Library, the Boston Public Library, the Boston Anthenæum, the Massachusetts State Library, and the New York Public Library, with some checking on Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints at all these libraries. Miss Greene likewise carried on research for me at the Library of Congress and the Union Catalog at Washington.

Miss Marian Griffin came to me as my secretary in the fall of 1947. She has been a great help in typing and retyping much of the text and in checking the proof, saving me thereby from a number of errors.

Mr. Howell J. Heaney, who succeeded Miss Greene as my librarian in July, 1947, has been a tower of strength on all matters relating to this work. He has completed the checking of Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints at the New York Public Library and the libraries around Boston and at Washington, and has checked Texas Imprints, Mexican Imprints, and U.S. and European Imprints at the New-York Historical Society and the Philadelphia libraries. He has had much to do with the newspaper appendix and the index is almost entirely his work, but his most important contribution has been wise advice, not only on my notes but also on the countless minor decisions which have to be made in compiling a bibliography such as this.

I wish to record here my deep and most sincere thanks to these three members of my staff, whose talents and devotion to the work in hand have done so much to bring it to a successful conclusion.

Thomas W. Streeter
Morristown, New Jersey
December 22, 1954

 

A Brief Sketch of Printing in Texas Through the Year 1845

Printing in Texas for the period ending in 1845 may be described as having gone through three successive stages. The first stage, which ended in 1823, might be called that of the transient press, with presses brought into Texas by the expeditions of Toledo in 1813, Mina in 1817, and Long in 1819, and by the Provincial government in 1823. All these presses were carried out of Texas soon after they were brought in, the first apparently without having produced an imprint.

The second phase of printing began early in September, 1829, with the permanent establishment of the press in Texas. Except for the slight competition of Milton Slocums press, which began printing at Nacogdoches early in September, 1829, and of which only one imprint has survived, the only printing carried on in Texas until October, 1835, was on the press established at San Felipe late in September, 1829, by Godwin B. Cotten. That printing office was moved to Brazoria in the spring of 1832 and continued there, first under Cotten, and then in the summer of 1832 under D.W. Anthony. In the fall of 1833 the same press continued under John A. Wharton, and beginning with July, 1834, under F.C. Gray and his partner Harris. It was being operated by Gray when in October, 1835, what might be called the third phase began.

The third phase of printing in Texas, one represented finally by the operation of several presses in various parts of Texas, began with the establishment of the Telegraph and Texas Register at San Felipe in October, 1835, by the firm of Baker & Bordens.

The present sketch of printing is largely based on the entries and notes of the bibliography and on the data on Texas newspapers assembled by my assistant, Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean. The most helpful of the earlier studies on printing in Texas have been Dr. Barkers "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836,"1 and the unpublished manuscript of Ben C. Stuarts History of Texas Newspapers.2 Stuart, a newspaperman like his father, was a son of Hamilton Stuart, who established the Civilian and Galveston Gazette in 1838.

The earliest general account of printing in Texas was A.B. Nortons "History of the Texas Press,"3 which dealt primarily with newspapers. Nortons account is sketchy and full of inaccuracies, but some of his comments on personalities are of interest. A decade later Bancroft devoted a page and a half of his North Mexican States and Texas4 to early Texas newspapers, managing to include several misstatements; and a few years later John Henry Brown in his History of Texas5 likewise succeeded in being incorrect in well over half of his comments. A.C. Gray, head of a prominent Texas printing firm who in 1873 became owner and editor of the Telegraph (Houston), did better in his "History of the Texas Press."6 In covering the period through 1845, Grays emphasis was on newspapers printed at Houston. There are various inaccuracies in it, but the account, as far as it went, was the best to that time. We are indebted to Gray for publishing at Houston in 1909 the important diary of his father, William Fairfax Gray, From Virginia to Texas, 1835. This now rare volume is one of the important sources on the Texas Revolution and the beginnings of the Republic. The most recent account of the press to 1846 is Douglas C. McMurtries "Pioneer Printing in Texas."7 This is largely, through 1836, a restatement of some of the facts assembled by Dr. Barker in his "Notes," and by Mrs. Spell in her "Samuel Bangs: The First Printer in Texas."8

What has been referred to here as the period of the transient press in Texas might have had its beginning at Nacogdoches in 1813, and it was the belief of the late Ike H. Moore that printing actually began at Nacogdoches in May of that year, on a press brought into Texas by José Alvarez de Toledo, with the publication of a bi-lingual newspaper called El Mejicano. However, in the note to the entry under the year 1813 for its predecessor, the Gaceta de Texas, where Mr. Moores conclusions are discussed, I think I make it clear that both El Mejicano and the Gaceta were actually printed in Louisiana, although type for the single issue of the Gaceta was set in Nacogdoches. For the same year, 1813, I have in my collection a five-page folder issued by a revolutionary provisional government carrying an address with a caption title, The provisional government of the internal provinces of Mexico, to the freemen of all nations, which is dated at the end, "On the Mexican side of the Sabine, the 5th of December 1813," but in my note to the entry for this piece. I show that it was in fact printed in New Orleans.

The first printing in Texas of which there is definite knowledge is a proclamation of General Xavier Mina, the leader of a revolutionary expedition into Mexico, issued on Galveston Island and dated and signed at the end, "Galveston 22 de febrero de 1817. Javier Mina." Mina headed an expedition to aid the Mexican revolutionists, which sailed from England in the spring of 1816. After a short stay in the United States he set up his base of operations on Galveston Island in November of that year. He brought along a printing press and also "Blacksmiths, Carpenters, Printers and Tailors," says W.D. Robinson, who describes the organization of the expedition in his Memoirs.9 Bustamante in his Cuadro Historico de la Revolucion Mexicana, 2d edition, Mexico, 1843-1846, also gives an account of the expedition10 for which Robinsons Memoirs, just cited, is one of the authorities. He gives the text of the Galveston proclamation, No. 2 here,11 which he reports as dated at the end, "Galveston 22 de febrero de 1817," and later12 the text of a proclamation made at the mouth of the Rio Grande, No. 1 here, dated at the end, "Rio Bravo del Norte á 12 de abril de 1817." In neither of these texts is the name of the printer mentioned, but quite casually in a note13 in speaking of a "manifest" issued by Mina after his arrival at Soto la Marina, a port in Mexico about half way between the mouth of the Rio Grande and Tampico, Bustamante remarks: "I do not know whether it was the same one that has been inserted [i.e. the Proclama of February 22, 1817, printed by Bustamante at p. 317-323] but the latter is dated in Galveston on February 22 and on the back it says it was printed by Juan J.M.: Laran and S. Bancs." This indicates that the document printed at Galveston, which Bustamante probably had before him as he wrote, was a broadsheet, and, as "M" followed by a colon in Spanish signifies "Mc," that the printers were John J. McLaran and Samuel Bangs. While McLaran and Bangs are not mentioned by Robinson in his Memoirs and only incidentally by Bustamante, Robinson in his Memoirs says and he is followed in this by Bustamante that when the Mina expedition landed at Soto la Marina "a printing press was immediately established, under the direction of Doctor Infante, a native of Havana; and the generals Manifesto was published."14 All this would seem to show that Bangs can not be called the first to print in Texas, as Mrs. Spell suggested, but must share the honor with McLaran.

No copy is now known of an original example of either the Galveston or the Rio Bravo proclamations of the year 1817, but there is a contemporary printing of the Rio Bravo proclamation in a four-page folder which was printed for Mina after his arrival at Soto la Marina. This has the caption title Boletin I de la Division Ausiliar de la Republica Mexicana, is dated at the end, at the foot of page 3, Soto la Marina 25 de abril de 1817, and is signed Xavier Mina. Only two copies of Boletin I are now known, one in the National Museum of Mexico and the other, formerly the Robles copy, now in my collection.

Boletin I and two other pieces printed at about the same time for Mina at Soto la Marina, only known from the copies now in my collection, are entered in Mexican Imprints here, but I should report that one has the distinction of being the earliest known piece to carry the separate Samuel Bangs imprint. It is a broadside (28 x 20 cm.) with the title, Cancion Patriotica que, al desembarcar el general Mina y sus tropas en la Barra de Santander, compuso Joaquin Infante, auditó de la division, and the imprint at the foot, "Soto la Marina 1817. Samuel Bangs, impresor de la division ausiliar de la republica mexicana." My copy of this formerly belonged to Mr. Robles, who reproduces it in facsimile in his La Primera Imprenta en las Provincios Internes de Oriente, Mexico, 1939, following page 48.

The next printing in Texas of which there is any record was at Nacogdoches in 1819, where the first issue of the Texas Republican was published under date of August 14, 1819. The paper was printed on a press owned by Eli Harris, a member of the Long expedition of 1819, and continued for a few issues. No copies are known to have survived.

After this brief period of activity at Nacogdoches in 1819, there is no record of printing in Texas until 1823, when a press was in operation at San Antonio de Bexar for a few months. The printer was one Asbridge, about whom a few surmises are given in the note to the Prospecto for the Texas Courier, No. 4 here. We owe much of our scanty information on this press, whose six imprints are recorded in entries No. 3-8, to correspondence of J.M. Veramendi, "in charge of the customs office," relating to his efforts to collect customs duties on the press and on other articles imported in the early part of 1823 from the United States by José Felix Trespalacios, Governor of Texas. Many years ago, Henry R. Wagner told me of his finding this correspondence in the Bexar Archives, in the letter book of the Collector of Customs for the period November 20, 1821, to February 16, 1826.

The authorities indicate that on April 1, 1822, Trespalacios received the appointment as Governor of Texas to succeed Antonio Martínez and that he took over the office from Martínez on August 17 of that year. It appears from the correspondence that after his appointment, Trespalacios commissioned his aide, the then young Juan Nepomuceno Almonte, author some years later of Nota Estadistica sobre Tejas, Mexico, 1835, to go to the United States and buy various articles, including a printing press. It also appears that the shipment arrived on the Texas coast at the mouth of the Levaca on the schooner Perseberencia late in January or early in February, 1823.

The resignation of Trespalacios as governor was dated April 17, 1823, though the office was not taken over by his successor, Luciano García, until July 8; and on April 29 he replied to a letter of Veramendis, asking for duties on the shipment, by telling of his efforts to import into the province from the United States "arms, munitions, uniforms, saddles, and everything else which I considered necessary for its advancement. As a result there came to methe guns, the printing press (which among other things I am leaving in this city)and effects for the use of my home and family." Trespalacios goes on to say that the government for which he had done this had been dissolved, but that he would take up with "the government to be established for these four provinceswhether the articles are to be charged to the nation and I am to be paid for them, or whether they are to remain in my possession." A letter from Brown Austin to his brother Stephen, dated at Bexar, May 4, 1823 (Austin Papers, Vol. I, p. 635-636), says that Trespalacios had left "a few days since" for Monterrey. That the authorities at Monterrey had decided as early as June 13 to take over the press is shown by Austins letter of that date to his brother, "Trespalacios is here, and it is said will go to Mexico. The Govt here have bought the printing establishment that is in Bexar and will send for it immediately."15

As shown by the circular of July 8, 1823, No. 7 here, Luciano García was installed on that day as governor, taking over the powers that, since the resignation of Trespalacios, had been carried on by a junta gubernativa. On July 9 García wrote to Felipe de la Garza, the new Commandant General at Monterrey, that the press would be forwarded to him at Monterrey as soon as transportation became available and that the printer, that is Asbridge, and his assistant had been reluctant to turn over the press as the greater part of their salaries as agreed upon with Trespalacios was still unpaid. It appears that the press was finally shipped on July 17 by pack mule "in seven loads, well packed and wrapped by Adbrig [Asbridge], the printer," and that the press and its equipment were sold by Trespalacios "to the Most Excellent Deputation of [Monterrey][for] the sum of 3500 pesos."

In the Archives is a bill for printing rendered by Trespalacios to the junta gubernativa, dated July 10, 1823, or two days after Luciano García took over the office of governor, indicating that though Trespalacios had left San Antonio for Monterrey about the end of the previous April he still was entitled to the receipts of the press. The bill is for printing the pieces in entries No. 5, 7, and 8 here. The notes give details of the charges.

We know of no printing in Texas between July, 1823, and September, 1829, when a new phase began. On or just before September 4, 1829, Milton Slocum began the publication of the Mexican Advocate at Nacogdoches. No copies of that newspaper seem to have survived, and only one imprint of his press is known, a circular dated March 10, 1831, No. 21 here. Though no further printing in Nacogdoches is recorded until late in 1835, the publication of the Mexican Advocate early in September, 1829, marks the permanent establishment of the press in Texas.

Later in the month of September, Godwin Brown Cotten set up a press at San Felipe on which was printed the Texas Gazette, the most important Texas newspaper before the Revolution. He also printed there three books or pamphlets that are landmarks of Texas printing: Austins Laws, Orders, and Contracts, No. 12 here; Laws, Passed by the Legislature of the State of Coahuila and Texas, No. 16, a pamphlet of twelve pages; and a four-page folder, Municipal Ordinance, for the Government of the Municipality of Austin, No. 17. Though printing of the twelve-page Lawsof Coahuila and Texas preceded Austins Laws, Orders and Contracts, the latter has the distinction of being the first book, as distinguished from a pamphlet, printed in Texas.

Cottens activities made San Felipe the fourth place of printing in Texas, the earlier printing points being Galveston for the Mina Proclama of 1817, No. 2 here; Nacogdoches for the Texas Republican of 1819; and San Antonio de Bexar for the imprints of 1823. That Cotten published the Louisiana Gazette in New Orleans in 1815 and the Mobile Gazette at Mobile, Alabama, from 1818 to 1819 is about all that is definitely known about him before he arrived at San Felipe in August, 1829. We do not know how the purchase of his printing press and equipment was financed or where he had been for the previous ten years. In the first number of his Texas Gazette, published at San Felipe on September 25, 1829, he printed a prospectus and stated, "The severe indisposition of the Editor and his assistant has been the cause of its [the Gazettes] not appearing at a much earlier day."

The issue of the Gazette marking the completion of its first volume, No. 52 for January 15, 1831, announced the sale of the press and the newspaper to Robert M. Williamson, a well-known Texan who had acted as editor of the Gazette for three months or so early in the year 1830. Williamson changed the name of the paper to the Mexican Citizen, but its publication continued at San Felipe. Cottens announcement on resuming ownership, on or about November 24, 1831, stated that the paper would be published "on a Royal Sheet with new type." The account of Volume II of the Texas Gazette in the newspaper appendix shows that Cotten published it at San Felipe until the beginning of March, 1832, and then moved the press and the newspaper to Brazoria, the fifth place of printing in Texas, where he published the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser. I was fortunate enough to acquire recently not only the hitherto unknown February 28, 1832, issue of the Texas Gazette, the latest located, but also Volume I, No. 1 of the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser, dated April 14, 1832, showing that one more number of the Texas Gazette was published at San Felipe about the middle of March and that its successor was begun at Brazoria a month later. From a request for publication in the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser at the end of a document addressed "To the Standing Committee at Brazoria,"16 it would appear that Cotten continued the publication of the paper at Brazoria through June, 1832, although no copies published during Cottens ownership later than the issue of April 14, 1832, have survived. Shortly after June 29 the press and newspaper were sold to D.W. Anthony, who announced his purchases in an extra of July 23, 1832, No. 33 here. As Cottens press was apparently the only press in operation in Texas during the first half of 1832, we are justified in supplying the Cotten imprint for pieces we are reasonably certain, from their text or other evidence, were printed in Texas during that period.

Continuing the story of Cotten, it appears from a handbill, No. 28 here, that Cotten was in charge of Anthonys press in the summer of 1832, and there is a record of his working on that press in January, 1833. Our next and last bit of information about him is his advertisement in the extra of the Advocate of the Peoples Rights for March 27, 1834, No. 42 here, stating that he was prepared to "practice law in the different courts of Austins Colony," and that he felt himself "as capable as many others who are now exercising the profession." It is to be hoped that sometime we may learn a little of his later history.

Dr. Barkers "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836,"17 gives an excellent account of the Texas Gazette, which is quite largely the foundation for the accounts of Cotten and of the Texas Gazette in the Handbook of Texas. Mr. Charles A. Bacarisses article, "The Texas Gazette, 1829-1831,"18 gives special attention to the contents and editorial policy of the paper.

Copies of the Texas Gazette and of the Mexican Citizen, the first two Texas newspapers of which issues have survived, are of such rarity that it may be of interest to report that the unusual file of Volume I of the Texas Gazette in my collection, lacking only six of the fifty-two numbers (no copies are known of five of these six missing issues), formerly belonged to Mrs. Mila T. Morris of Houston. My issues are listed in the newspaper appendix here. The four surviving examples of the Mexican Citizen, listed in the appendix as at Yale, were acquired years ago by Henry R. Wagner at one of the Sir Thomas Phillipps sales.

After acquiring the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser from Cotten on or before July 23, 1832, Anthony announced a change in its name to the Constitutional Advocate and Brazoria Advertiser, but all the surviving issues have the title Constitutional Advocate and Texas Public Advertiser. A unique copy in my collection of the latest issue of that paper to be located, the issue of July 20, 1833, shows that Anthonys press, the only one operating in Texas, continued from July, 1832, to at least July 20, 1833. I have, accordingly, supplied the D.W. Anthony imprint for pieces without an imprint thought to have been printed in Texas during that period. Dr. Barker in his "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836," cited above, says that Anthony died of the cholera "during the summer of 1833." There seems to be nothing known about Anthony before his purchase from Cotten in the early summer of 1832. The Handbook of Texas is obviously wrong in saying that Anthony began publication of the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser "about 1830." Two very important books were published by Anthony, the first "books" since Austins Laws, Orders and Contracts of 1829. One, in thirty-five pages, was the Proceedings of the General Convention of Delegatesheld at the Town of San FelipeOctober, Brazoria, 1832, No. 32 here, of which there is a unique copy in the Texas State Library; the other was the Exposition of the Part Taken by T.J. Chambers, in the difficulties of Texas in the summer of the past year, Brazoria, 1833, No. 39 here, of which there is a unique copy in my collection. Except for three or four-page folders and the incomplete Proceedings of the Consultation of the Chosen Delegates of All Texas, San Felipe, 1835, in sixteen pages, No. 91 here, of which there is a copy at the University of Texas, all the other eighty-five or so surviving publications of the Texas press for the period 1830 through 1835 are broadsides or broadsheets.

We know from Dr. Barker that after Anthonys death there was much litigation over his press, and that on or before November 23, 1833, John A. Wharton took over the press and published on it at Brazoria a newspaper, the Advocate of the Peoples Rights. The last issue of the Advocate, an extra announcing its suspension, was dated March 27, 1834. There are two entries here that I have ascribed to this press, the extra of March 27, 1834, No. 42, of which of course there can be no doubt, and the Austin letter of July 24, 1833, from Mexico, published with the heading, "Brazoria, October 26, 1833," No. 35. These might be given a John A. Wharton imprint, but there seem to be fewer difficulties in using, as I have, the "Office of the Advocate of the Peoples Rights."

The extra, just mentioned, of the Advocate of the Peoples Rights carries a prospectus for a paper, The Emigrant, to be published at Brazoria by Benjamin Franklin Cage and Franklin C. Gray, but no copies have been located, and after the extra of March 27, 1834, we have no record of a press in operation in Texas until July 5, 1834, when Gray, with A.J. Harris, issued at Brazoria the first number of the Texas Republican. A comparison of the 1832 issue of the Texas Gazette with the extant issues of the Texas Republican shows that the same type was used in their printing, and it is most probable that the Gray and Harris press was the one imported by Cotten when he resumed publication of the Texas Gazette late in 1832. There is no reference to any other press operating in Texas until the Bordens brought a press into Texas in the summer of 1835. Harris retired from the partnership publishing the Texas Republican after the issue of November 8, 1834 the fact is announced in the next issue, that of November 29 and the paper was issued by Gray alone at least as late as March 9, 1836, the date of the last issue located. On the basis of this evidence, it has seemed in order, where a piece has no imprint and the date of publication in the year 1834 is fairly clear, to supply the imprint "Office of the Advocate of the Peoples Rights" for pieces published on or before March 27, 1834, with the Gray and Harris imprint supplied for pieces probably published between July 5 and November 8, 1834, and the F.C. Gray imprint for pieces published during the remainder of the year.

The Handbook of Texas devotes only five lines to Gray and merely mentions Harris, whose initials we learn from the notice of the dissolution of the partnership between him and Gray in the January 3, 1835, issue of the Texas Republican. A.C. Gray in his "History of the Texas Press,"19 says that publication of the Texas Republican continued until August, 1836, "when it finally died," and that its death was due to a suspicion that Grays wife had intrigued to effect the escape of Santa Anna after San Jacinto, with Gray also falling under suspicion. Gray afterwards went to California where he accumulated wealth, returned to New York, and committed suicide. That A.J. Harris was in Texas as late as October 1, 1835, is shown by a short note to him from Austin in the Austin Papers for that date.

It is not usually realized, I think, that except for a press operating at Nacogdoches from 1829 to 1831, or perhaps 1832, of which only one imprint (No. 21 here) has survived, there was only one press operating in Texas from the time of the establishment of the Texas Gazette in 1829 to the setting up of the press of the Telegraph and Texas Register six years later, in the fall of 1835, and that from April 14, 1832, this press was located at Brazoria.

A new phase of printing in Texas began in September, 1835, when Gray ceased to have the only printing office in Texas. In October, the firm of Baker & Bordens, composed of Joseph Baker, Gail Borden and Thomas H. Borden, established the Telegraph and Texas Register at San Felipe on a press which, according to a circular of the Committee of Safety of San Felipe dated September 13, had by that time arrived at San Felipe.20 San Felipe, notwithstanding its importance in Texas affairs, had been without a press for almost three and a half years since Cotten had moved his Texas Gazette to Brazoria in March or April, 1832. Not long after the establishment of the Telegraph at San Felipe, David E. Lawhon, a recent arrival from Tennessee in Nacogdoches, began the publication there of the Texean [sic] and Emigrants Guide, the first issue of which was dated November 28, 1835. This was printed on the press on which Slocum had begun printing the Mexican Advocate in 1829. Only a few issues have survived, the latest being the issue of January 2, 1836, and we know from a reference in the Telegraph that it suspended publication before March 24, 1836. The new press of Baker & Bordens at San Felipe was most active during the last three months of 1835 in printing for the Permanent Council, the Consultation, and the General Council of the Provisional Government, all sitting at San Felipe. The usual imprint of the firm in 1835 was "Printed by Baker & Bordens, San Felipe de Austin," as in No. 81 here. The Baker & Bordens press at San Felipe, the Lawhon press at Nacogdoches, some 200 miles northeast of San Felipe, and the Gray press at Brazoria, seventy miles or so down the Brazos from San Felipe, were the only presses operating in Texas at the end of 1835. Though the Baker & Bordens press at San Felipe was not set up until October, 1835, its output in that year, as represented by number of entries, slightly exceeded that of F.C. Gray and his Texas Republican. Only a few 1835 entries are credited to Lawhon at Nacogdoches.

The Baker & Bordens firm continued without change in 1836 until April 5, when Baker left the firm to join the army. The press was active in January and February in printing for the General Council and for Governor Smith or his rival Governor Robinson, whose headquarters were still at San Felipe, and in March for the Convention, which met on March 1 forty miles or so up the Brazos at Washington. It was in March, 1836, that the press printed at San Felipe that great Texas document, the Declaration of Independence. News of the fall of the Alamo reached San Felipe on March 16 (see No. 134), and reached the Convention at Washington at about the same time. Soon word came of Santa Annas advances across Texas. The last issue of the Telegraph at San Felipe was that of March 24, but No. 137 here is an entry for a broadside printed there and dated March 25. That is the last recorded imprint of San Felipe to this day. The Bordens moved their press from San Felipe on March 30 and succeeded in publishing one number of the Telegraph, the issue of April 14, at Harrisburg, which thereby became the sixth place of printing in Texas, but by the time six copies had been printed the Mexicans arrived and the press was shortly afterwards thrown into Buffalo Bayou.

After the interregnum caused by the Mexican invasion, the Bordens re-established the Telegraph at Columbia, the seventh place of printing in Texas, on August 2, 1836, with a new press bought at Cincinnati. The earliest surviving imprint of the press at Columbia is either Austins Letter to Gail Borden of August 18, No. 113 here, or Moseley Bakers undated circular To the Voters of the County of Austin, No. 115 here, both also printed in the Telegraph of August 23, 1836, and not, as stated by Mr. McMurtrie in his Pioneer Printing in Texas, the Journals of the Senate, No. 156 here. These Journals were not printed until after the adjournment of the First Session of the First Congress late in December, 1836. The story of the Telegraph through 1836 is told in articles in the issues of August 2, 1836, and January 18 and 27, 1837.

An interesting proposal of the Borden firm, listing their charges for various kinds of government printing, made on the opening days of the First Congress, is given in the House Journal of the First Congress, Houston, 1838, at page 32. One of the proposals was that laws, proclamations and the like were "to be paid for at the rate of ten dollars per column of the Telegraph," with handbills of one column or under at fifteen dollars for the first hundred copies and five dollars for every additional hundred. The currency in use in Texas at this time was for the most part notes of the various chartered state banks of the United States, with an exchange value of only a little under par.

Except for two Nacogdoches imprints, No. 128, printed January 20, 1836, or a little later, and No. 140, probably published early in January, the Texas imprints recorded here for the year 1836 were printed either on the Borden press, first at San Felipe then at Harrisburg, and from August at Columbia, or on Grays press at Brazoria. We have no record of printing in 1836 on the Nacogdoches press after January, and the latest date for Grays press is sometime in August, No. 124 here. The latest piece on which Grays name appears as printer, No. 135, has a May 23 date. Except for three of the Journals (Nos. 155, 156, and 162), which run from ninety to upwards of 226 pages, and eight pieces running from eight to eighteen pages, the seventy or so entries for the year 1836 are for broadsides, broadsheets, and four-page folders.

At the beginning of the year 1837, the only press operating in Texas seems to have been that of the Bordens at Columbia, and the important printing event of the year was the removal of that press to Houston in April. Shortly before, on March 9, 1837, Francis Moore, Jr. had bought out Thomas H. Bordens interest in the Telegraph, and the firm became Borden & Moore. Moore, who became one of the most distinguished citizens of Texas, was for the next seventeen years the able editor of the Telegraph, for the last three years as its sole owner. He sold the Telegraph in 1854 and turned his active mind to the study of geology, on which he became an authority. His Map and Description of Texas, Philadelphia, 1840, entered here in U.S. and European Imprints, is one of the important Texas books. Professor S.W. Geiser of Southern Methodist University has written an excellent sketch of Moores career.21

The First Congress of the Republic had met at Columbia on October 3, 1836, and had adjourned on December 22, to meet at Houston on May 1, 1837. Gail Borden and his new partner started moving their press and equipment from Columbia to Houston on April 16, 1837, and on May 2 published there the first Houston issue of the Telegraph. This made Houston the ninth place of printing in Texas, Velasco, as will be noted later, being the eighth. Houston was the third place in Texas at which the Borden firm did the first printing, the other two being Harrisburg and Columbia. Finally on June 20, 1837, Jacob W. Cruger bought out Gail Bordens interest, and the firm became Cruger & Moore. While the firm was still Borden & Moore, it printed President Houstons Speech to the Senate and House, No. 217 here. This, and not, as McMurtrie stated in his Pioneer Printing in Texas, the Report of the Committee to Whom Was Referred So Much of the Presidents Message as relates to the Land Bill, No. 197 here, was the first Houston imprint.

Joe B. Frantz in his Gail Borden22 tells in an interesting fashion of the founding of the Telegraph and Texas Register by Gail Borden and his two associates, Joseph Baker and Thomas H. Borden, and of the later sales of the various interests of the three partners.

The year 1837 also marks the beginning of printing in Velasco, where the Velasco Herald was published from March probably until well into the fall. A comparison of type of the only surviving example of an issue of the Herald, that of its extra of April 21, 1837 (No. 224), with one of the most important Texas books, Colemans Houston Displayed (No. 190), shows that they were printed from the same fonts; and we also know by a comparison of type that the Herald was printed from the same type as that used by Gray and Harris on their Texas Republican at Brazoria. As has been pointed out, this, the Gray & Harris press, was that on which Cotten resumed publication of the Texas Gazette late in 1831.

While we have no definite knowledge as to who owned the press in the spring of 1837, we do know from a reference in the Lamar Papers23 that a press at Velasco, almost certainly the one on which the Velasco Herald was printed, was owned by Lamar late in 1837 or early in 1838, and that on January 25, 1838, Lamar agreed to lend to Messrs Léger & Thompson "the press, printing materials, and paper now at Velasco."24 Thompson, who has been suggested as the "ghost writer" for Colemans Houston Displayed, may also have been the editor of the Velasco Herald. There is no doubt but that he and Dr. Léger, after borrowing the press from Lamar early in 1838, moved it to Brazoria where they published a newspaper, The People. There is a sketch of Thompson in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1947.25 Velasco was the eighth place at which printing was carried on in Texas, as printing did not begin at Houston until May, 1837.

Matagorda became the tenth place of printing in Texas, when, in August, 1837, J.W.J. Niles started publication of the Matagorda Bulletin. Printing was resumed at Nacogdoches, probably in June, 1837, when the Texas Chronicle, a weekly, began publication, and continued until July or August, 1838. There are contemporary references to two newspapers to be printed at Houston in 1837, one to be called the Texian, the other, a monthly, to be called the Star of Texas, but no publication is known to have resulted. This is also the case with the Nazarene Advocate, which was to have been published monthly at Matagorda. The Telegraph of November 17, 1837, reported that a new paper, the Single Star, had made its appearance in Brazoria, and the Star is referred to in Niles Register of February 10, 1838, as one of the five newspapers of Texas.

Next in importance in 1837 to the move of Borden & Moore to Houston was the formation of the firm of Cruger & Moore at about the end of June, when, as stated above, Jacob W. Cruger bought out Gail Bordens interest. The obituary of Cruger in the Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph of December 8, 1864, says that he died on November 30, 1864, "aged 45 years." If this statement is correct, Cruger was only eighteen years old when he became Moores partner. He had already been postmaster at Houston. Crugers various partnerships made him an important factor in Texas printing for the remaining years of the Republic, though for the four years 1839 through 1842 the leading press, as shown by number of entries, was that of Samuel Whiting. Cruger & Moores activities included all the public printing in the fall of 1837 for the Second Congress, and the firm was responsible for twenty of the thirty-nine entries for the year 1837.

The permanent establishment of the press at Galveston, some twenty-one years or so after the first printing in Texas was done there, is the important event in Texas printing for the year 1838. The record of this is given in the newspaper appendix in the entry for the Commercial Intelligencer, a weekly "Publishedby Samuel Bangs, for the Proprietors," beginning about the end of July. It had previously been supposed that Bangs did not return to Galveston until February, 1839.

In September, 1838, the Civilian and Galveston Gazette began publication at Galveston, having been moved in June from Houston where it had been published as the Civilian. The publisher of the Civilian and the leading spirit of that paper until 1874 was Hamilton Stuart, one of the great Texas editors. There is an interesting sketch of him in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1918.26

According to Secretary of State Irions report of April 12, 1838, on public printing, he entered into a contract on December 6, 1837, with J.W.J. Niles, one of the publishers of the Matagorda Bulletin, for the printing of two volumes of 250 pages each at $1,600 per volume, and immediately afterwards "Mr. Niles proceeded to the United States to procure presses and materials, which, after some delayhave arrived, and he expects to commence operations in a few days."27 It was on this press that Niles printed at Houston the first issue of the National Banner on April 25, 1838. Shortly afterwards, in the election for public printer at the adjourned session of the Second Congress on May 14, Niles & Co. were the winners over Cocke & Simmons on the third ballot, Cruger & Moore having withdrawn after the second ballot.28 Though Niles & Co. were the winners in the election and had as well the contract of December 6, 1837, for public printing, referred to above, it will be seen by looking over the imprints of work done for Congress and the various government agencies in 1838 that the Telegraph imprint in its various forms outnumbers the Niles & Co. or the National Banner imprint by over five to one.

Niles sold an interest in the National Banner to Samuel Whiting in June, 1838, and in December of that year the entire interest of Niles in the Banner passed to Whiting, who changed its name to the National Intelligencer. Our last record of Niles is of his establishing the first newspaper at Washington, Texas, in the summer of 1839. As shown here in the newspaper appendix, the paper, the Texas Emigrant, had an up and down career of perhaps a year. There is no sketch of Niles in the Handbook of Texas. Whitings purchase of an interest in the Banner in June, 1838, marks the beginning of his important career in Texas printing and publishing. He had come to Texas as early as 1825 and had been a member of the Convention of 1833 and a secretary for a short time of the Consultation of 1835. Whitings adventurous side is shown in the note to the Ordinance and Decree granting Letters of Marque, approved November 30, 1835, No. 100 here, telling of the grant to him of six commissions as a privateer.

The appendix, "Texas Newspapers through 1845," records that in Brazoria a newspaper known as The People was published for a few months in 1838 on the press owned by Lamar and lent by him to Algernon P. Thompson and Dr. Theodore Léger. This was the historic old press used first by Cotten late in 1831 to print the Texas Gazette and later by Gray & Harris to print the Texas Republican. On it Léger & Thompson printed the first Texas book on medicine, Légers Essay on the Particular Influence of Prejudices in Medicine, No. 240 here. Apparently while the press was being operated by Léger & Thompson, Lamar sold it to one J.S. Jones, who in May, 1838, sold it to Robert Eden Handy of Richmond, Texas, delivery to be on August 1, 1838. As stated in the appendix, Handy is reported to have used the press in printing at Richmond a paper known as the Gazette. As Handy died in October, 1838, the paper could only have lasted for a short time in 1838. I have run across no contemporary reference to the Gazette in the newspapers of 1838 or 1839. There is no record of a press at Brazoria in 1838 after the sale to Handy.

As far as we know, printing ended at Nacogdoches, for the period of this bibliography, in July or early August, 1838, when the Texas Chronicle ceased publication. Its press was bought by W.W. Parker, who moved it to San Augustine and in September began the publication there of the Red-Lander. This marks the beginning of printing in San Augustine, the twelfth place of printing in Texas. The appendix records a prospectus dated at Houston, January 22, 1838, for a paper to be published at Houston to be called the Banner of the Lone Star, but apparently this paper was never published. The appendix also reports the publication at Houston in September and October, 1838, of a short-lived newspaper known as the Courier and Enquirer.

On November 12, 1838, in the early days of the Third Congress, the firm of Cruger & Moore was elected public printer. Though in later years the main function of the public printer seems to have been to print the journals and the laws of the session of Congress at which the public printer had been appointed, this November, 1838, election seems to have had particular reference to other government printing. There seems to have been dissatisfaction with the progress of this printing and at a joint session of the House and Senate on January 18, 1839, Samuel Whiting was elected public printer over Cruger & Moore "for the special purpose of printing the Laws and the Journals of the proceedings in book or pamphlet form" (House Journal, Third Congress, p. 377). Notwithstanding this vote, the laws passed by the Third Congress were printed not only by Whitings Intelligencer Office, but by the Telegraph Power Press as well, with the Intelligencer Office charging for only 1,000 of the 2,000 copies printed.

At the end of the year 1838 we only have definite records of printing presses in operation at Houston, Galveston, Matagorda, and San Augustine, though by this time there had been printing at Harrisburg, of a single item, and more extensive printing at Nacogdoches, San Antonio de Bexar, San Felipe, Brazoria, Columbia, Velasco, and perhaps Richmond. Entries for the year 1838, eighty-five in number, show Cruger & Moores to be the leading press with fifty-eight entries, followed by J.W.J. Niles & Co.s National Banner office with fourteen entries. There was also printing during the year at Brazoria, Galveston, Matagorda and Nacogdoches. Two additional presses at Houston, and the press at San Augustine are credited with newspapers only.

In the fall of 1839, the capital of Texas was moved from Houston to the newly organized settlement of Austin, on what was then the western frontier, and Samuel Whiting followed the government, establishing Austins first press, on which, on October 30, he printed the first issue of the Austin City Gazette. Whiting continued his Intelligencer office at Houston in 1839, probably until October. In the transfer of equipment to Austin in the last three months of 1839, one press and a small portion of the type arrived by the end of October,29 and five wagons "loaded with paper, materials, and another press" were reported in the Gazette of December 25 as "on their way up: a part of them having been already twenty-seven days out from Houston." In the Morning Star of February 19, 1840, there is a most interesting advertisement offering the rest of the equipment used in printing the Intelligencer for sale, including "One Imperial Printing Presscomplete; one Lithographer Press, with five superior stones, complete; one imposing stone; a full assortment of furniture; some 10 or 12 pair of chases; 10 brass newspaper galleys; standing galleys&c.; with a large quantity of every variety of type for a news and job office, some 25 or 30 fountsalso, the House and lot, built expressly for the printing office ." The sale included "one Lithographer Press," and indeed as early as July 5, 1838, the National Banner carried an advertisement of their being prepared to do "lithographing in all its Branches, Maps of Cities and Towns, [various forms]in fact every description of Work on Stone,"30 but no examples of lithography done in Texas before 1846 have come to my attention.

In the fall of 1839 Cruger formed the firm of Cruger & Bonnell at Austin and on December 6 that firm was elected public printer by the Fourth Congress, after the vote had first been in favor of Major Whiting. In accordance with a vote of its committee on public printing, Whiting had already, on November 13, been given the contract for the job printing of the session. There is no record of printing by the new firm of Cruger & Bonnell until January, 1840.

As already stated the Texas Emigrant was established by J.W.J. Niles at Washington, Texas, either in July or late June, 1839, before printing began in Austin. Though, as previously stated, there is some question as to whether printing began at Richmond in 1838, there is no question but that there was printing there in the year 1839 as the Richmond Telescope began publication in April. A new Galveston imprint for 1839 is that of "Gladwin & Mims, Printers" (No. 315), who, as shown in the newspaper appendix, were at one time the publishers of the 1839 Galvestonian. William D. Mims was a partner of W.B. McClellans in publishing the LaGrange Intelligencer in the later part of 1845. Although Samuel Bangs was the publisher of the third Galvestonian, the one which began March 30, 1841, there is no evidence that he was connected with the first Galvestonian of Gladwin & Mims, which began about March 20, 1839.

Probably the most important imprint of the year 1839 was Ashbel Smiths Account of the Yellow Fever which appeared in the City of Galvestonin the Autumn of 1839, Published by Hamilton Stuart, Galveston; Cruger & Moore, Houston; and J.W. Cruger, City of Austin, No. 334 here. Though the style of the title page and the types used resemble very closely those of An Addressbefore the Society of Ancient York Masons by John R. Reid, Houston, 1839, No. 327 here, a reference to the Account in the Morning Star (Houston) of March 2, 1840, saying that it appeared in Galveston in the fall of 1839, and the fact that Galveston comes first in the imprint are evidence that the book was printed at Galveston.

Various newspapers were started in 1839 in places where there had already been printing in Texas. These include the Brazos Courier at Brazoria, the Galvestonian at Galveston, and the Morning Star at Houston. The Morning Star was from the first printed at the office of the Telegraph although it was published by "E. Humphreys & Co." With the death of Humphreys in November, 1839, Jacob Cruger became the publisher, and in January, 1841, James F. Cruger replaced his brother. In Matagorda, the Matagorda Bulletin ceased publication in May and was immediately followed there by the Colorado Gazette and Advertiser. There is a reference in the Richmond Telescope of April 27, 1839, to a prospectus of the Epitomist, a weekly newspaper to be printed at Austin and to be edited by James Burke, "late editor of the National Intelligencer," but there is no record of its publication. Austin had just been selected as the capital, and construction of the government buildings did not begin until May. The beginning of publication of the Texas Emigrant at Washington has already been referred to. There are sixty-eight entries for the year 1839, of which Whiting with his National Intelligencer office at Houston, followed by his Austin City Gazette office, is credited with thirty-four and Cruger & Moore at their Telegraph office at Houston are credited with twenty-two. There was also printing during the year at Galveston and San Augustine, and of newspapers alone at Brazoria, Matagorda, and Richmond.

In 1840 Jacob Cruger, who continued to publish the Telegraph at Houston with his partner Francis Moore, and the Morning Star on his own account, began on January 15 the publication of the Texas Sentinel at Austin as a partner in the firm of Cruger & Bonnell. The Journals of the Fourth Congress, which should have been printed by Cruger & Bonnell, public printers, after the final adjournment of that body on February 5, 1840, were not printed at the time, the reason alleged being that no appropriation for printing them had been made. They were printed about the year 1930 in an undated edition in three volumes. The laws of the Fourth Congress were printed by Cruger on the Telegraph press at Houston, after the termination on July 28, 1840, of his partnership with Bonnell. There is an interesting account of a dispute as to the proper charge for printing these laws in a report of the Texas State Department dated January 12, 1841, given on pages 35-44 of the AppendixJournals of the HouseFifth Congress. Apparently it was the procedure at this time to allow for the depreciated value of the Texas promissory notes, which the government used in payment of its debts, by multiplying by six the face amount of the liability.

As in previous years more than half of the entries for the year 1840 are for government publications, most of them printed by Whiting, who had the contract for job printing for the government. There is a record in the House Journal of the Fifth Congress for December 22, 1840, at pages 327-330 of propositions for public printing submitted by Cruger and by Samuel Whiting, and of the election of Cruger as public printer by the Fifth Congress.

One of the most interesting of the 1840 imprints is Bonnells Topographical Description of Texas, No. 380, with the imprint "Published by Clark, Wing & Brown." These men were all employees or associates of Bonnell on the Texas Sentinel at Austin and were sufficiently important in Texas history to be the subjects of sketches in the Handbook of Texas. John Henry Brown is of course well known for his later historical writings on Texas. Years ago Mr. Winkler called my attention to an entertaining account of Clark and his connection with the Topographical Description in Ewells History of Hood County, Texas, Granbury, Texas, 1895. This was to the effect that Clark took his share of the books to New Orleans to have them bound, and that on the return trip, due to an Indian attack between Lavaca Bay and Austin, his entire share was lost. Ewell in telling the story says that there was then no bindery in Texas, but in the National Banner for October 5, 1838 (Vol. I, No. 27), there is an advertisement of the Banner headed "Book-Bindery, Houston," soliciting orders for "Binding Books of every description with neatness and despatch." Very little is told about Wing in the Handbook of Texas beyond the fact that he was a practical printer who came to Texas after the battle of San Jacinto in 1836, worked on the Texas Sentinel and later on the Northern Standard and the Red-Lander. He became a partner of Jacob Cruger late in 1840, and in December, 1840, the partnership of Cruger & Wing acquired the sole ownership of the Texas Sentinel. Wing was one of the seventeen to draw a black bean on the Mier Expedition and was executed by the Mexicans on March 25, 1843.

In addition to the Texas Sentinel at Austin, the following newspapers began publication in 1840: the Musquito and the Times of Houston, the Journal and Advertiser of San Augustine, the San Luis Advocate of San Luis, and the second Galvestonian, the Daily Courier and the Galveston Morning Herald of Galveston. Issues have survived of all except the Daily Courier. Publication of the Advocate marks the beginning of printing at San Luis, but printing there was only temporary as the press was moved to Galveston in 1842. There is a reference in the Austin City Gazette for June 10, 1840, to "two new papers," which have appeared "since our last went to press, The Spy and the Six Pounder, " and the Gazette continues, "It is rumoredthere will be in a few days two others published, viz., the Ring Tail Roarer and the Wasp. " No copies of these four papers are known and it is extremely unlikely that any of them was issued. As it is probable that the editor of the Gazette was spoofing, none of the four is listed in the newspaper appendix.

In 1840, as in 1839, Samuel Whiting under variations of his "Whitings Press" or "Austin Gazette" imprints had more pieces to his credit than his rival Jacob Cruger, the count being twenty-four items for Whiting compared with twenty-one for Cruger and his partners at Houston and Austin. There are eight other entries for printing during the year at Galveston, Matagorda, Richmond, and places of printing not known.

The important political event in Texas in the year 1841 was the presidential election, in which Sam Houston was the victor over David G. Burnet in a campaign marked by the issue of vitriolic circulars by both sides. At least one of the circulars damning Houston was printed at the office of the Telegraph, which in its editorials supported Burnet, and two circulars with bitter attacks by Houston on Burnet were printed at the office of the Houstonian. Hamilton Stuart in his Civilian and Galveston City Gazette was outspoken for Houston.

A new printer of some importance who made his appearance during the year was Greenberry Horras Harrison, whose daily and weekly Texian began publication at Austin in November, 1841, immediately following the discontinuance of the Texas Sentinel. In November, 1841, he printed various public documents for the Sixth Congress. However, the House Journal of that Congress for November 30, 1841, records that the Chairman of the Committee on Public Printing was ordered to call at the office of Harrisons paper, the Texian, for all unpublished reports "and deliver the same to the Gazette Office for publication." Under this authority various reports of the Sixth Congress in 1842, as well as 1841, were printed by Whiting. By July 6, 1842, as noted in the newspaper appendix, Harrison had moved the Texian to Washington, Texas, where he published it under the name of the Texian and Brazos Farmer. Harrisons sale of this paper to Thomas Johnson by November, 1842, apparently marks the end of his career as a Texas publisher and printer. On November 15, 1841, Whiting was elected public printer by the House of the Sixth Congress, but through a misunderstanding, the Senate did not vote. However, on December 3 the House adopted a Senate resolution declaring Whiting "printer of the Laws and Journals of the Sixth Congress." Because of the Mexican invasion, only the Senate Journal of the regular session was printed at the time. This Senate Journal was reprinted in 1840 in the reconstructed Journals of the Sixth Congress of the Republic of Texas, 1841-1842, To Which Are Added the Special Laws, 3 vols., Austin, 1940-1945, edited by Miss Harriet Smither. The reconstructed Journals include the journals of the special session which met at Houston in June, 1842. The preface to Volume I of the new edition gives a full account of the failure to print in 1842.

The newspaper appendix records the start of several new papers in 1841, none requiring further comment here. Included are the Houstonian, a tri-weekly and weekly published at Houston, and Harrisons daily and weekly Texian, already mentioned, at Austin. In March the Rambler, a weekly paper, was begun at Austin, and in December Samuel Whiting started the Daily Bulletin, which had a life of less than two months. There was considerable activity at Galveston, where for the third time a paper with the name Galvestonian appeared. The paper began as a daily at the end of March and a weekly issue was added at the beginning of May. These have a special interest because Samuel Bangs was their publisher. During this year the Daily Courier, which had been started at Galveston in 1840, ceased publication. It was followed by the Peoples Advocate, which soon afterwards was followed by the National Intelligencer. No issue of any of these three papers is known to have survived. In November a daily paper known as the Advertiser was issued at Galveston from the office of the National Intelligencer. References in other papers indicate that a paper known as the Tarantula was issued at Washington, Texas, in 1841; and in San Augustine the Journal and Advertiser, which began publication in 1840, was renamed the Red-Lander in May, 1841.

Entries for the year 1841 for books, broadsides, and the like, sixty-nine in number, again put the output of Whitings Austin City Gazette office, with twenty-six entries, considerably ahead of Cruger & Moores Telegraph office with six entries and Cruger & Wings Texas Sentinel office at Austin with eleven entries. G.H. Harrisons Texian office at Austin, the successor in November to the Sentinal, is credited with ten items. Another press at Houston, three presses at Galveston, and the press at San Augustine are each credited with one or two items. There were also three newspapers at Galveston, one at Houston, one at Matagorda and one at San Augustine, as well as newspapers at San Luis and Washington, whose presses are not credited with imprints other than newspapers. No new place of printing in Texas is recorded for the year.

An important entry for 1841 is for a certificate of capital stock of the "City of Portland Matagorda Co., Republic of Texas," No. 450, with the inscription "J. Lowe, Galveston, Texas," for the certificate is not printed but engraved, and is the only example of Texas engraving for the period of the bibliography that has come to my attention.

Because of the Mexican entry into San Antonio in March, 1842, and again in September, the Sixth Congress, whose regular session was held at Austin from November 1, 1841, to February 4, 1842, met in special session at Houston in June, and the Seventh Congress met in called session at Washington, Texas, in November, with printing for the government at these three different towns. Another consequence of the Mexican incursions was the printing of a number of broadsides reporting the exciting news. Though the Sixth Congress had in January, 1842, elected Whiting public printer, because of the Mexican invasion only the Senate Journal of the regular session was printed by Whiting in 1842, and the laws passed at the special session of the Sixth Congress held at Houston were printed by Crugers Telegraph press. Whitings Austin City Gazette was discontinued some time after August 17, and no press is known to have operated at Austin for the balance of the year. The printing for the government in the final months of 1842, and again in 1843, was done at Washington by Thomas Johnson, who first appeared on the Texas scene as a printer with his purchase of G.H. Harrisons Texian and Brazos Farmer at Washington in November, 1842, a fact announced by Johnson in a prospectus dated November 12, 1842. Harrison in June, 1842, had moved his press from Austin to Washington and renamed his Weekly Texian the Texian and Brazos Farmer. Johnson was not only an editor, but a judge in the Texas courts. Though there are more imprints to his credit in the years 1843 and 1844 than to any other Texas printer and he was elected public printer in 1843, I have not been able to learn anything about him before 1842 or after 1844. The Handbook of Texas states that because of his editorial support of Houston he was called "Ramrod Johnson."

Miss Llerena Friend has referred me to page 133 of W.S. Bays Austin Colony Pioneers, Austin, 1949, where it stated:

"Thomas Johnson died at his residence in Brenham, Washington County, on the 16th inst., late solicitor in that district. He was formerly one of the District Judges of the State, and subsequently the editor of the National Vindicator."
"Southern Standard, June 24, 1848 (page 3, column 1)."

The earliest Washington imprint located is a proclamation of President Houstons printed by Johnson late in November, 1842 (No. 540), and not, as suggested by McMurtrie in his Pioneer Printing in Texas, the Laws Passed by the Seventh Congress printed by Johnson in the spring of 1843. No separate item printed at Washington by Harrison in 1842, or by Niles, who published the Texas Emigrant there in 1839 and 1840, has been found.

In the year 1842 there was printing for the first time in Clarksville, where Charles DeMorse established the Northern Standard. Ernest Wallace has an excellent account of DeMorse in his Charles DeMorse, Pioneer Editor and Statesman, Lubbock, Texas, 1943. Printing also began in Pulaski, where, according to contemporary references, a paper called the Sabine Advocate was started. Its press was apparently moved to Marshall late in the year, and the paper, which continued to be sent to its former subscribers, was renamed the Marshall Review. The Review was published by L.A.W. Laird, and edited by a Dr. Shelton and a man named Stinson. A prospectus of a weekly paper to be called the Texas Farmer, which was to be published at Crockett, appeared in the Weekly Texian (Austin) of February 16, 1842. I have found no further reference to it.

The following newspapers were published for the first time in 1842, but in places where there had previously been printing: the Alarm Bell of the West and its continuation, the Anti-Quaker, both at Austin; the Planters Gazette, later the Planter, at Columbia; and the Daily News published and edited by George H. French and the Commercial Chronicle published by Samuel Bangs, both at Galveston. During the year the San Luis Advocate was transferred from San Luis to Galveston, where it became the Texas Times. Later in the year a Tri-Weekly Times was also issued. In addition to these, there were other newspapers at Austin and Galveston, and there was a newspaper at Matagorda, at San Augustine, and at Washington.

There are fifty-two entries for 1842. Again, as had been the case for the three previous years, there are more entries, seventeen, for books, broadsides and the like recorded as printed at Samuel Whitings Austin City Gazette office than at the press of his rivals Cruger & Moore at the Telegraph office, who are credited with twelve items. The twenty-three remaining items, eight of them newspaper extras, were printed at Austin, Galveston, Houston, and Washington.

Neither the name of Samuel Whiting nor of any press in which he had an interest is recorded in the imprints for the year 1843. In the election for the public printer held by the Seventh Congress in January, 1843, Whiting was defeated by Thomas Johnson. The sketch of Whiting in the Handbook of Texas records that he remained in Austin until about December, 1842, left for a trip East in 1843, "was back in Texas in 1849, enroute to California, and died somewhere in the state of New York in 1862." It would be interesting to learn more about such a prominent figure in the history of Texas printing in the time of the Republic.

The newspaper appendix reports for the year 1843 the beginning of publication of the Western Advocate by George K. Teulon at Austin, called a "renewal" of the Austin City Gazette, and a change by Thomas Johnson of the name of the Texian and Brazos Farmer, published at Washington, to the National Vindicator. At Galveston, the Evening News, referred to as "a re-embodiment of the Texas Times," was established, the Texas Times having been the continuation at Galveston of the San Luis Advocate. In the summer, the Independent Chronicle was started at Galveston by Samuel Bangs, who described himself as its "Editor, Printer, Publisher & Proprietor." There is a contemporary reference to this paper as a "revival" of the Commercial Chronicle. At Houston the Citizen, a semi-weekly, with a weekly edition added later in the year, seems to have followed the Houstonian established at Houston in 1841; and at Matagorda the Weekly Despatch, with James Attwell as editor and proprietor, began about December 2, some time after the discontinuance of Attwells Colorado Gazette and Advertiser.

Only twenty-eight entries for books, broadsides, and the like are reported for the year 1843. Thomas Johnson was the leading printer for the year with thirteen entries credited to him or to the press of his Texian and Brazos Farmer and its successor, the National Vindicator, at Washington. Only three entries are credited to Cruger & Moores Telegraph office. The remaining twelve entries are for items printed at Austin, Clarksville, Galveston, Houston, and San Augustine. Newspapers only were printed on presses at Columbia, Marshall, and Matagorda. The most important book of the year, E.W. Moores To the People of Texas, No. 559 here, has no imprint, but its type suggests that it was printed at the office of the Civilian at Galveston.

The story of printing in Texas in 1844 is rather humdrum. There was one new place of printing, LaGrange, where the LaGrange Intelligencer was established by James Longley and William P. Bradburn early in the year. Only two other newspapers were started this year. Marshall, which had been without a press since the Marshall Review had ceased publication in the fall of 1843, now had a paper called the Harrison Times, about which little is known, and in the fall of 1844 Miller & Cushney established the Texas National Register at Washington. In Houston the Texian Democrat began publication in January, 1844, but it followed the Weekly Citizen, with which it was numbered consecutively, so it cannot be regarded as a new paper. It was on the press of this paper, discontinued in October, 1844, that Miller & Cushney began the publication of their Texas National Register at Washington. The appendix also records a reference to a weekly called the Town, said to have been published on Sundays at Galveston.

The election for public printer for the Eighth Congress was held on January 8, 1844, with Cruger & Moore elected over Thomas Johnson by a vote of 25 to 24. Johnson again in 1844, as in 1843, is credited with the printing of more of the years entries than any other printer. For his National Vindicator office twenty-two entries are recorded out of the thirty-six for the year, while Cruger & Moore at their Telegraph office are credited with only five imprints. In 1844 second presses at Washington and Houston, and presses at Columbia, Galveston, Matagorda, and San Augustine, are each credited with one or two imprints. No 1844 imprints other than newspapers have been located from the presses at Austin, Clarksville, LaGrange, and Marshall.

The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas. Miner & Cruger were the printers for the Convention, and it was on their press that the Constitution was first printed at Austin in English, and a few days later in Spanish. Somewhat later the Constitution with the addition of the assenting ordinance and the names of the sixty members of the Convention was printed on the press of the Telegraph at Houston. It was also on the press of Miner & Cruger that the Report of the Committee on the Bill of Rights and General Provisions of the Constitution (No. 641), with its first publication of the Bill of Rights, was printed. In the summer of 1845 Miner & Cruger established the New Era at Austin to record the proceedings of the Convention. The press on which this was printed was bought in October by one John G. Chalmers, who at that time issued a prospectus for a paper of the same name. No issues of this paper appeared until 1846. There are November, 1845, references to a paper published at Galveston called the Daily Globe and Galveston Commercial Chronicle, but nothing more is known of it. Late in 1845 Miller & Cushney sold their Texas National Register to John S. Ford and Michael Cronican, who moved the paper from Washington to Austin and continued it there under the same title.

In 1845 there were two new places of printing in Texas, Montgomery where the Montgomery Patriot was established in April, and Huntsville where the paper was moved in July or August. It was still called the Montgomery Patriot, both towns being in Montgomery County.

There are fifty-one entries for the year 1845. Miller & Cushney, who on December 21, 1844, had been elected public printers for the Ninth Congress, are credited with the printing of seventeen items. Miner & Cruger and their "Office of the New Era" come next with fifteen, followed by Thomas Johnson with six printed in January or early February. The thirteen other items for the year were printed on presses at Columbia, Galveston, Houston, and LaGrange.

Data in the appendix and elsewhere indicate that at the close of the year 1845 there were presses operating in ten Texas towns, with three separate presses at Galveston and two at Austin. The individual count is as follows: at Austin, the press on which John G. Chalmers was preparing to publish his New Era and that on which Ford & Cronican published the Texas National Register; at Brazoria, the press of Samuel J. Durnetts Planter; at Clarksville, the press of Charles DeMorses Northern Standard; at Galveston, the presses on which were published Hamilton Stuarts Civilian and Galveston Gazette, Richardson & Lewiss Galveston News, and Trigant & Paces Texas State Paper; at Houston, the Morning Star published by James F. Cruger and the Telegraph and Texas Register published by Cruger & Moore, both issued from the same press; at Huntsville, the press on which John M. Wade published the Montgomery Patriot; at LaGrange, the press of the LaGrange Intelligencer, which at the end of 1845 was published by W.B. McClellan and W.D. Mims; at Marshall, the press of the Soda Lake Herald, published by T.A. Harris and Zach Wills; at Matagorda, the press of James Attwells Weekly Despatch; and at San Augustine, the press of A.W. Canfields Red-Lander.

In reviewing the foregoing sketch of printing in Texas through the year 1845, one is impressed with the mortality rate of the nearly one hundred newspapers whose beginnings have been noted and by the fading out of the picture of many of the important printers and publishers of the period. Only three of the newspapers listed here as founded in the thirties had a life lasting well into the fifties or later: the Telegraph, founded by the Bordens and Joseph Baker in 1835; the Civilian and Galveston Gazette, founded in 1838; and the Morning Star of Houston, founded by Ezekial Humphreys in 1839 and continued by Jacob W. Cruger on Humphreys death in the fall of 1839. Of the newspapers of the Republic, founded in the eighteen forties, the Northern Standard, founded by Charles DeMorse at Clarksville in 1842; the Evening News, founded by Cronican and Cherry at Galveston in June, 1843; and the Texas National Register, founded at Washington, Texas, by Miller & Cushney in 1844 and continued at Austin in 1845 by Ford & Cronican, were the only ones which continued well into the fifties. While full length accounts of the Bordens and Charles DeMorse and a good shorter account of Hamilton Stuart are referred to in the text, often our information on the early printers, even on those who like Asbridge played an important part in Texas printing, is very slight. Asbridge is not mentioned in the Handbook of Texas and we know little about Godwin B. Cotten, Samuel Whiting and Thomas Johnson, all of them the leading printers of their time. Here is a real field for scholars of today.

I have not tried to sketch the problems of publishing a paper in Texas in the years between 1819 and 1846, since they were very similar to those of country printers elsewhere during the same period. They are neatly summed up in Miss Walkers Beginnings of Printing in the State of Indiana, Crawfordsville, Indiana, 1934: "The first problem of the printer was to get paper, the second to get news, and the third to get paid."

Footnotes

1 Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1917, Vol. XXI, at pages 127-144.

2 History of Texas Newspapers from the Earliest Period to the Present, IncludingBrief Sketches of Some of the Pioneer Editors, Beaumont, Texas, 1917; manuscript at the Rosenberg Library, typescript at the University of Texas Library.

3 In Texas Editorial and Press Association, Charter, Constitution and By-Laws, Jefferson, 1875, pp. [1]-37.

4 Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas, 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol. II, pp. 548-550.

5 Brown, History of Texas, 2 vols., St. Louis, 1893, Vol. II, pp. 522-524.

6 In Dudley G. Wooten (editor), Comprehensive History of Texas, 2 vols., Dallas, 1898, Vol. II, pp. 368-423.

7 Southwestern Historical Quarterly for January, 1932, Vol. XXXV, pp. 173-193; reprinted separately, with additions, Austin, 1932.

8 Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. XI, p. 248-258; reprinted, with slight revisions, Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1932, Vol. XXXV, pp. 267-278.

9 Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution Including a Narrative of the Expedition of General Xavier Mina, Philadelphia, 1820, p. 61.

10 Volume IV, p. 306.

11 Pages 317-323 of Vol. IV.

12 At p. 333.

13 At p. 337.

14 Robinsons Memoirs, p. 83.

15 Austin Papers, Vol. I, p. 672.

16 No. 143 in the Lamar Papers, dated June 29, 1832, Vol. I, p. 127.

17 Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1917, Vol. XXI, pp. 127-144.

18 Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1952, Vol. LVI, pp. [239]-253.

19 In Dudley G. Wooten, editor, Comprehensive History of Texas, 2 vols., Dallas, 1898, Vol. II, p. 369.

20 Austin Papers, Vol. III, p. 123.

21 S.W. Geiser, "Note on Dr. Francis Moore (1808-1864)," Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1944, Vol. XLVII, pp. 419-425.

22 Joe B. Frantz, Gail Borden, Dairyman to a Nation, Norman, Oklahoma, 1951, pp. 71-128.

23 J.D. Cocke to M.B. Lamar, January 21, 1838, Lamar Papers, No. 665, Vol. II, p. 28.

24 Contract, Lamar Papers, No. 666, Vol. II, p. 29.

25 Andrew Forest Muir, "Algernon P. Thompson," Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1947, Vol. LI, pp. 143-153.

26 Ben C. Stuart, "Hamilton Stuart: Pioneer Editor," Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1918, Vol. XXI, pp. 381-388.

27 Journal of the House of RepresentativesSecond Congress Adjourned Session, Houston, 1838, pp. 10-13.

28 Ibid., p. 119.

29 Austin City Gazette, October 30, 1839.

30 Advertisement reprinted in the National Banner of October 5, 1838, Vol. I, No. 27.

 

Books referred to in Texas Imprints by author or short title

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of Mexico, San Francisco, 1886-1888. 6 vols. (Vols. 9-14 of his Works.)

______. History of the North Mexican States and Texas, San Francisco, 1886-1889. 2 vols. (Vols. 15-16 of his Works.)

Barker, Eugene C., editor. The Austin Papers. 3 vols. in 4. (Vol. I, in two parts, Washington, 1924, and Vol. II, Washington, 1928, as the second volumes of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1919 and 1922; Vol. III, Austin, 1927.)

Barker, Eugene C. The Life of Stephen F. Austin, Nashville, Dallas, 1925.

______. "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836," in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1917, Vol. XXI, pp. 127-144.

Binkley, William C., editor. Official Correspondence of the Texas Revolution, 1835-1836. New York, 1936. 2 vols.

Brown, John Henry. History of Texas from 1685-1892, St. Louis, 1892-1893. 2 vols.

______. Life and Times of Henry Smith, the First American Governor of Texas, Dallas, 1887.

Edward, David B. The History of Texas, Cincinnati, 1836.

Foote, Henry Stuart. Texas and the Texans, Philadelphia, 1841. 2 vols.

Frantz, Joe B. The Newspapers of the Republic of Texas, unpublished Masters thesis, University of Texas, 1940.

Gammel, H.P.N., compiler. The Laws of Texas, 1822-1897, Austin, 1898. 10 vols.

Garrison, George P., editor. Diplomatic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas, Washington, 1908-1911. 3 parts in 3 vols. (Part I as Vol. II of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1907; Parts II and III as Vol. II (1) and Vol. II (2) of the Annual Reportfor1908.)

Gray, Allen C. "History of the Texas Press," in Dudley G. Wooten, editor, Comprehensive History of Texas, 1898, Vol. II, pp. 368-423.

Gulick, Charles Adams, Jr., Elliot, Katherine, Allen, Winnie, and Smither, Harriet, editors. The Papers of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, Austin, 1921-1927. 6 vols. in 7.

Hernández y Dávalos, Juan E., compiler. Colección de Documentos para la Historia de la Guerra de Independencia de México de 1808 a 1821, México, 1877-1882. 6 vols.

Hogan, William R. The Texas Republic: A Social and Economic History, Norman, Oklahoma, 1946.

Johnson, Francis W. A History of Texas and Texans Edited and Brought to Date by Eugene C. BarkerWith the Assistance of Ernest William Winkler, Chicago and New York, 1914. 5 vols.

Kemp, Louis Wiltz. The Signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence, Houston, 1944.

Kennedy, William. Texas: The Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas, London, 1841. 2 vols.

Kimball, John P., compiler. Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas, Houston, 1839.

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Pioneer Printing in Texas, Austin, 1932; reprinted with additions from the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for January, 1932, Vol. XXXV, pp. 173-193.

Norton, A.B. "History of the Texas Press," in Charter, Constitution and By-Laws of the Texas Editorial and Press Association, Jefferson, Texas, 1875. Nortons address to the Association in 1886 on the same subject is printed in F.B. Baillio, A History of the Texas Press Association, Dallas, 1916, pp. 318-385.

Rader, Jesse L. South of Forty from the Mississippi to the Rio Grande: A Bibliography, Norman, Oklahoma, 1947.

Raines, C.W. A Bibliography of Texas, Austin, 1896.

Sabin, Joseph. A Dictionary of Books relating to America, New York, 1868-1936. 29 vols.

Stuart, Ben C. History of Texas Newspapers from the Earliest Period to the Present, Beaumont, Texas, 1917; manuscript in the Rosenberg Library, Galveston; typescript in the University of Texas Library.

Wagner, Henry R. The Plains and the Rockies: A Bibliography of Original Narratives of Travel and Adventure, 1800-1865. Third Edition, Revised by Charles L. Camp, Columbus, Ohio, 1953.

Webb, Walter Prescott, Carroll, H. Bailey, Friend, Llerena B., and others, editors. Handbook of Texas, Austin, 1952. 2 vols.

Williams, Amelia W., and Barker, Eugene C., editors. The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813-1863, Austin, 1938-1943. 8 vols.

Winkler, Ernest W. Check List of Texas Imprints, 1846-1860, Austin, 1949.

Yoakum, Henderson K. History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846, New York, 1856.

Other Works Cited in Texas Imprints

Armstrong, James. Some Facts on the Eleven League Controversy, Austin, 1859.

Barker, Eugene C. Mexico and Texas, 1821-1835, Dallas, 1928.

______. Readings in Texas History. Edited by Eugene C. Barker, Dallas, 1929.

Bayard, Ralph. Lone-Star Vanguard: The Catholic Re-Occupation of Texas (1838-1848), St. Louis, 1945.

Biographical Directory of the Texan Conventions and Congresses, 1832-1845, Huntsville, 1941; reissued Austin, 1942.

Brigham, Clarence S. History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, 1947. 2 vols.

Burnet, David G. Review of the Life of Gen. Sam Houston, as recently published in Washington City, by J.T. Towers, Galveston, 1852.

Bustamante, Carlos María de. Cuadro Historica de la Revolucion Mexicana, Second Edition, Mexico, 1843-1846. 5 vols.

Carroll, James. M. A History of Texas Baptists, Dallas, 1923.

Castañeda, Carlos E. The Mexican Side of the Texan Revolution (1836) by the Chief Mexican Participants, Translated with Notes by Carlos E. Castañeda, Dallas, 1928.

Chambers, William. Sketch of the Life of Gen. T.J. Chambers of Texas, Galveston, 1853.

Clopper, Edward N. An American Family1650-1880, Cincinnati, 1950.

Cravens, John N. James Harper Starr: Financier of the Republic of Texas, Austin, 1950.

Crocket, George L. Two Centuries in East Texas, Dallas, 1932.

Dallam, James W., compiler. A Digest of the Laws of Texastogether with the Opinions of the Supreme Court, Baltimore, 1845.

Dixon, Samuel Houston, and Kemp, Louis Wiltz. The Heroes of San Jacinto, Houston, 1932.

Dixon, Samuel Houston. The Poets and Poetry of Texas, Austin, 1885.

Ewell, Thomas T. A History of Hood County, Texas, Granbury, Texas, 1895.

Filisola, Vicente. Memorias para la Historia de la Guerra de Tejas, Mexico, R. Rafael, 1848-1849. 2 vols. Continued through the campaign of 1837 in Filisolas work of the same title published by Ignacio Cumplido at Mexico City in 1849, in two volumes.

Frantz, Joe B. Gail Borden, Dairyman to a Nation, Norman, Oklahoma, 1951.

Freemasons, Texas. Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of TexasfromDec. A.D. 1837toJanuary 19, A.D. 1857, By A.S. Ruthven, Grand Secretary, Galveston, 1857.

______. Proceedings of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Republic of Texas, Houston, 1897.

Gambrell, Herbert. Anson Jones, the Last President of Texas, Garden City, 1948.

Gouge, William M. The Fiscal History of Texas, Philadelphia, 1852.

Graham, Philip. The Life and Poems of Mirabeau B. Lamar, Chapel Hill, 1938.

Gray, William F. From Virginia to Texas, 1835, Houston, 1909.

Green, Thomas J. Replyto the Speech of General Sam Houston, in the Senate of the United States, August 1, 1854, Washington? 1855.

Harllee, William C. Kinfolks, New Orleans, 1934-1937. 2 vols.

Hill, Jim Dan. The Texas Navy, Chicago, 1937.

Houston, Samuel. Letter of General Sam Houston, to General Santa Anna, Washington, 1852.

Howard, William E. The Romance of Texas Money, Dallas, 1946.

Jones, Anson. Memoranda and Official Correspondence relating to the Republic of Texas, New York, 1859.

Leake, Chancey D., editor. Yellow Fever in Galveston, Republic of Texas, 1839By Ashbel Smithwith a Biographical Sketch, Austin, 1951.

Lubbock, Francis R. Six Decades in Texas, Austin, 1900.

Peeler, Anderson J., and Maxey, Samuel B. History and Statement of Mercer Colony Case, Austin, 1882.

Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Vol. I, No. 1, July 1896 Vol. XV, No. 4, April, 1912. Continued as the Southwestern Historical Quarterly.

Raines, C.W. Analytical Index to the Laws of Texas, 1823-1905, Austin, 1906.

Red, William S. The Texas Colonists and Religion, 1821-1836, Austin, 1924.

Reed, S.G. A History of the Texas Railroads, Houston, 1941.

Robinson, Duncan W. Judge Robert McAlpin Williamson, Austin, 1948.

Robinson, William D. Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution; Including a Narrative of the Expedition of General Xavier Mina, Philadelphia, 1820.

Robles, Vito Alessio. Coahuila y Texas desde la Consumacion de la Independencia hasta el Tratado de Paz de Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico, 1945-1946. 2 vols.

______. La Primera Imprenta en las Provincias Internas de Oriente, Texas, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León y Coahuila, Mexico, 1939.

Sayles, John, and Sayles, Henry, compilers. Early Laws of Texas, St. Louis, 1888. 3 vols.

Smith, Justin H. The Annexation of Texas, New York, 1919.

Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVI, No. 1, July, 1912, to date. A continuation of the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association.

Spell, Lotta M. "Samuel Bangs: The First Printer in Texas," in Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. XI, pp. 248-258; reprinted, with slight revisions in Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1932, Vol. XXXV, pp. 267-278.

Stiff, Edward. The Texan Emigrant, Cincinnati, 1840.

Texas (republic). Congress (Fourth). Journals of the Fourth Congress of the Republic of Texas, 1839-1840, Edited by Harriet Smither, Austin, 1930. 3 vols.

Texas (republic). Congress (Sixth). Journals of the Sixth Congress of the Republic of Texas, 1841-1842, Edited by Harriet Smither, Austin, 1940-1945. 3 vols.

Texas (republic). Congress. Senate. Secret Journals of the Senate, Republic of Texas, 1836-1845, Editedby Ernest William Winkler, Austin, 1911.

Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939: A Union List of Newspaper Files, Houston, 1941. (San Jacinto Museum of History Association. Publications. Volume I.)

Wade, Houston, editor. David G. Burnet Letters, LaGrange, Texas, 1944.

White, Joseph M., compiler. A New Collection of Laws, Philadelphia, 1839.

Winkler, Ernest W., compiler. Manuscript Letters and Documents, of Early Texians, 1821-1845, Austin, 1937.

Wooten, Dudley G., editor. A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685 to 1897, Dallas, 1989. 2 vols.

Key To Location Symbols

Note: The total number of Texas imprints through 1845 located in this bibliography in each of the libraries and collections listed below is given following their names, with the number of apparently unique imprints included in the totals shown in parentheses.

C-S: California State Library, Sutro Branch, San Francisco, California. 1
CSmH: Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California. 10
CU-B: Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California. 53 (3)
CU-L: University of California Law School Library, Berkeley, California. 2
Ct: Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut. 2
CtHWatk: Watkinson Library, in the Trinity College Library, Hartford, Connecticut. 1
CtY: Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut. 59 (4)
CtY-L: Yale University Law School Library, New Haven, Connecticut. 1
DGU: Georgetown University Library, Washington, D.C. 1
DLC: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 59 (1)
DNA: National Archives, Washington, D.C. 21 (5)
DSC: Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree Library, Washington, D.C. 5
DSG: United States Armed Forces Medical Library, Washington, D.C. 1
DW: National War College Library, Washington, D.C. 1
GEU: Emory University Library, Emory University, Georgia. 1
ICN: Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois. 1
ICU: University of Chicago Library, Chicago, Illinois. 3
IU: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, Illinois. 1
IaCrM: Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 3
KyDC: Centre College of Kentucky Library, Danville, Kentucky. 1
M: Massachusetts State Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 11
MB: Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 2
MBAt: Boston Athenæum, Boston, Massachusetts. 6
MBFM: Massachusetts Masonic Grand Lodge Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 5
MBM: Boston Medical Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 1
MH: Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 6 (2)
MH-L: Harvard Law School Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 27 (1)
MHi: Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 1
MWA: American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts. 1 (1)
MeBa: Bangor Public Library, Bangor, Maine. (newspaper only)
MiD: Detroit Public Library, Detroit, Michigan. 2
MiU: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1
MiU-L: University of Michigan Law School Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 3
MnHi: Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 1
MoSM: Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Missouri. 1
NBMS: Medical Society of the County of Kings and Academy of Medicine of Brooklyn Library, Brooklyn, New York. 1
NHi: New-York Historical Society, New York, New York. 18
NN: New York Public Library, New York, New York. 49
NNB: Association of the Bar of the City of New York Library, New York, New York. 6
NNFM: New York Masonic Grand Lodge Library, New York, New York. 6
NNLI: New York Law Institute Library, New York, New York. 2
NNNAM: New York Academy of Medicine Library, New York, New York. 1
NNU-W: New York University, Washington Square Library, New York, New York. 1
NRU-M: University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry Library, Rochester, New York. 1
NWM: United States Military Academy Library, West Point, New York. 1
NcD: Duke University Library, Durham, North Carolina. (newspaper only)
NcU: University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 13 (6)
NhD: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, New Hampshire. 1
OFH: Hayes Memorial Library, Fremont, Ohio. 1
OMC: Marietta College Library, Marietta, Ohio. 1
OrHi: Oregon Historical Society, Portland, Oregon. 1
PHi: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 7
PPCP: College of Physicians Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1
PPFM: Pennsylvania Masonic Grand Lodge Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 7 (1)
PPL: Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1
PU-Mus: University of Pennsylvania, Museum Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1
RPB: Brown University Library, Providence, Rhode Island. 14
Tx: Texas State Library, Austin, Texas. 150 (49)
Tx-LO: General Land Office, Austin, Texas. 8 (3)
Tx-Sc: Texas Supreme Court Library, Austin, Texas. 1
TxArU: University of Texas, Arlington, Texas.
TxAuDR: Daughters of the Republic of Texas Museum, Austin, Texas. 16 (2)
TxAuTM: Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, Texas. 2
TxDaHi: Dallas Historical Society, Dallas, Texas. 3 (1)
TxDaM: Southern Methodist University Library, Dallas, Texas. 4
TxFwSB: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Library, Fort Worth, Texas. 6 (6)
TxGR: Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas. 15 (8)
TxH: Houston Public Library, Houston, Texas. 51 (10)
TxHIWA: Incarnate Word Academy Library, Houston, Texas. 1
TxHSJM: San Jacinto Museum of History, San Jacinto Monument, Texas. 26 (12)
TxNacT: Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College Library, Nacogdoches, Texas. 1 (1)
TxSa: San Antonio Public Library, San Antonio, Texas. 1
TxSaDR: Daughters of the Republic of Texas Library, The Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. 3 (1)
TxSaWi: Witte Museum, San Antonio, Texas. (newspaper only)
TxSangM: Fort Concho Museum, San Angelo, Texas. (newspaper only)
TxU: University of Texas Library, Austin, Texas. 242 (60)
TxWB: Baylor University Library, Waco, Texas. 7 (1)
TxWFM: Texas Masonic Grand Lodge Library, Waco, Texas. 134 (29)
WHi: State Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin. 11 (1)

Private Collections
DeGolyer: Everette L. DeGolyer, Dallas, Texas. 16
Graff: Everett D. Graff, Winnetka, Illinois. 11 (1)
TWS: Thomas W. Streeter, Morristown, New Jersey. 232 (38)

Mexican and Foreign Libraries
MxCty-SDNag: Archivo General de la Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico. 1

 

Texas Imprints Appendix A: Texas Newspapers Through 1845

In compiling this bibliography of Texas through 1845 it was essential to make a study of the Texas newspapers of the same period, not only because almost all the Texas imprints listed were printed in newspaper offices, but also because, from time to time, the newspapers gave interesting data on those imprints. As this study has also resulted in the location of many issues not recorded in the listing of Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 published by the San Jacinto Museum at Houston in 1841, and in the discovery of material not included in Mr. Joe B. Frantzs unpublished thesis, The Newspapers of the Republic of Texas, presented at the University of Texas in 1940, it has seemed appropriate to add to the bibliography this account of Texas newspapers through the year 1845. After all, the story of the newspapers of a region for a given period is an important part of the history of printing in the region for that period.

The material on which this appendix is based was largely gathered by my assistant Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean, who listed the copies of newspapers published through 1845 in the important Texas libraries, and read them for information on their histories and for comments on Texas imprints. Further data have resulted from a study of issues of Texas newspapers in my collection and in libraries outside of Texas. As most of the information on individual papers in Mr. Frantzs thesis has been incorporated in the sketches in the Handbook of Texas, which is generally available, the accounts given here, for the most part, include only information supplementing or, at times, correcting the sketches in the Handbook.

While the "Sketch of Printing in Texas" is arranged chronologically, this would be impracticable and confusing in a listing of accounts of individual newspapers. These are arranged here alphabetically under their places of publication, with words in the titles such as "Morning," "Weekly," and the like, and place of publication ignored in the alphabetization. Whenever possible an attempt has been made here to give the date each paper began and its final date. Where the first issue of a newspaper has not been located, and there is no other evidence of the date of beginning, the date is figured back from the earliest issue located. This has been done on the assumption of regular issues and as the result is at best only an approximation, such beginning dates are queried. In the listing of locations, runs marked with a dagger are more specifically reported than in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1839, referred to above, and runs or issues marked with an asterisk are reported here for the first time. The volume and number of the earliest and latest issues located are given by way of suggesting the regularity with which each paper was published. Imperfections in individual copies have not been recorded, except for the papers in my collection, because doing so would have increased the length of this appendix unduly.

Counting separately dailies and weeklies issued from the same office, there are entries here for 101 newspapers published or proposed for publication in Texas from 1813 through 1845. Issues of fifty-seven of these have been located, twenty-six more are known only from references to issues, another seventeen were proposed but very probably never published, and one is a special case, the Gaceta de Texas, type for whose single issue was set up in Nacogdoches, although it was printed in Natchitoches, Louisiana. In reviewing the following accounts one is struck by the high rate of mortality among these early papers. Only fifteen ran for more than two years, and of those only seven for more than three years. The three problems of pioneer editors in Indiana, which Miss Walker lists in her Beginnings of Printing in Indiana, Crawfordsville, 1934, at page 15, "to get paper, to get news, and to get paid," applied with equal force in Texas. The newspapers of the time are full of apologies to their subscribers because publication had had to be suspended for lack of paper. The Austin City Gazette of August 7, 1840, for example, in what is perhaps a competitors exaggeration, asks what "the total stoppage of the Telegraph for two or three months indicates." This was almost certainly due to shortage of paper. Undoubtedly the short life of many of the papers resulted from the third difficulty Miss Walker mentions, that of getting paid.

For the most part the Texas papers of this period were issued weekly. Daily newspapers were attempted but usually had a short life. The one continuing for the longest time, and the first Texas daily paper, was the Morning Star (Houston). This was issued as a daily from April 8, 1839, through July 11, 1840, and then became a tri-weekly. For two or three months in the winter of 1841-1842 Samuel Whitings Daily Bulletin (Austin) competed with G.H. Harrisons Daily Texian (Austin) in publishing the doings of the Sixth Congress. One other attempt was made to publish a daily paper at Houston and eight attempts were made at Galveston, most of them lasting for only two or three months. The dozen semi-weeklies and tri-weeklies included a few hardier specimens. Almost always the object of the papers was the usual one of printing the news, but there were exceptions. What was referred to by a contemporary as "the first literary paper started in our republic," was the Richmond Telescope, which in its prospectus was called the Richmond Telescope and Texas Literary Messenger. Two other weekly papers, known only by references to them, were the Rambler (Austin), "intended for amusement and fun," and the Town (Galveston), "devoted to humor, and chit-chat generally and specially." The Matagorda Bulletin of February 28, 1838, advertised the Matagorda Letter-Sheet Prices Current, a monthly, as just published, but no copies have been located. The Star of Texas (Houston), a monthly proposed but apparently never published, had as its object "the Promotion of Religion, Virtue and Morality and the Diffusion of Learning." The object of another monthly, the Nazarene Advocate (Matagorda), also known only from its prospectus, was "the revival of the Sect of the Nazarenes in primitive purity." Finally, and this completes the list of publications having objectives other than printing the news of the day, in the fall of 1840 Doctors Richardson and Smith proposed to edit a quarterly medical and surgical journal to be printed at the office of the San Luis Advocate, but again no issues appear to have been published.

Among the eighty-three newspapers which were published in Texas before 1846 there are five which stand out. Perhaps the most important is Godwin B. Cottens Texas Gazette, first published at San Felipe de Austin on September 25, 1829. Except for an interregnum of a few months in 1831, when under the name of the Mexican Citizen it was published at San Felipe by R.M. Williamson, the Gazette continued at San Felipe under Cotten until March, 1832. Next in importance seems to be the Telegraph and Texas Register which the Bordens, with Joseph Baker, began publishing at San Felipe in October, 1835, and continued at Harrisburg, Columbia, and then Houston, where it soon came under the ownership of Cruger & Moore. The Telegraph finally ceased publication in 1877. The Morning Star, published from the same office as the Telegraph, was first issued in March, 1839, and came under Crugers management that fall. Hamilton Stuarts Civilian and Galveston Gazette was first published at Galveston in September, 1838, and continued until 1886. Charles DeMorses Northern Standard was first published at Clarksville in August, 1842, and lasted until 1888. The Evening News, later the Galveston News, was first published at Galveston in June, 1843, and is now going strong as the Dallas Morning News. In addition to San Felipe, Harrisburg, Columbia, Houston, Galveston, and Clarksville, there were fifteen other Texas towns where newspapers were published before 1846 Austin, Brazoria, Columbus, Huntsville, LaGrange, Marshall, Matagorda, Montgomery, Nacogdoches, Pulaski, Richmond, San Augustine, San Luis, Velasco, and Washington and newspapers were proposed, but probably never published, in three other places Crockett, San Antonio and Sarahville de Viesca. Although it should be added that the press became well established before 1846 in only ten of the twenty-one towns in which there was printing, the total is still remarkable for the time and place.

[Austin] ALARM BELL OF THE WEST
No copies have been located, but the following appeared in the Morning Star (Houston) of February 3, 1842: "Alarm Bell of the West. A new paper having this startling title, came to hand Tuesday evening with our exchange papers from Austin. It is dated San Antonio, Jan. 22nd, and has for its motto the memorable words remember the Alamo! It is a spirited sheet, and breathes nothing but war and vengeance, and as usual this theme has rendered it truly eloquent and even poetic. We can only say if it never sounds a false alarm, we bid it God speed." On March 22, 1842, the Morning Star reported receipt of the "first and last number" of the Anti-Quaker published at Austin, March 12, 1842, and said that it seemed to be "a new edition of the Alarm Bell." The Alarm Bell was probably printed at Austin, since no other San Antonio imprints for the period from July, 1823 through September, 1848, are known, and since its successor was published at Austin. In view of its motto and contents it would have been appropriate to date it from San Antonio.
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Austin] ANTI-QUAKER
No copies have been located. See the reference to it in the preceding sketch.

[Austin] Daily BULLETIN
Daily. November 27, 1841 January 18, 1842.
The prospectus, dated November 27, 1841, and signed by Samuel Whiting, was printed in the issue of December 7, 1841, and the history of the paper is given in the final issue of January, 18, 1842. The paper was issued from the office of Whitings Austin City Gazette. Although the heading of the editorial column of all the numbers reads, "Published and Edited by S. Whiting," a report from the Austin correspondent of the Morning Star (Houston), dated January 19th, 1842, and reprinted in the Telegraph of February 2, announced the discontinuance of the paper, and said that "for some weeks past [it] had been conducted by Mr. C. DeMorse, and had been free from the vulgar abuse that characterized one or two of its first numbers." On December 30 the Senate passed a resolution to end their subscription to the Bulletin and subscribe instead to the Daily Texian (Austin), published by G.H. Harrison.

Tx
1842: Jan. 11-Jan. 15, Jan. 18.
*TxU
Nov. 27, 1841-Dec. 10, Dec. 13, 1841-Jan. 18, 1842 (Vol. I, Nos. I-XI, XIII-XL).
*TWS
Extra: Jan. 18, 1842 (Entry No. 512).

NOTE: Runs marked with a dagger are more specifically reported here than in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939, Houston, 1841. Runs or issues marked with an asterisk are reported here for the first time.

[Austin] EPITOMIST
No copies have been located, and perhaps the paper was never published. Its prospectus was mentioned in the Richmond Telescope of April 27, 1839, and printed in the Morning Star (Houston) of May 23 and the Telegraph of May 29. The paper was to have been a weekly, with James Burke as editor.
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

Austin City GAZETTE
Weekly. October 30, 1839-At least August 17, 1842.
This was the first Austin newspaper. The prospectus, dated Austin, September 19, 1839, and signed by Samuel Whiting, was printed in the issue of November 6, 1839. The press and type used were brought from Houston, where Whiting had published the National Intelligencer. George K. Teulon was the editor from January 29, 1840, through February 2, 1842. Discontinued at some time after August 17, 1842, the date of the latest issue located, the paper was "renewed" at Austin as the Western Advocate in February, 1843, by Teulon and others.

DLC
1840: *May 6.
1841: May 19-May 26.
1842: Jan. 19, Aug. 17 (Vol. III, No. 21).
*DNA
1840: Jan. 6, Dec. 23 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 1).
NN
Oct. 30, 1839-Mar. 2, 1842.
Lacking: June 10, 1842.
Extras: [Aug. 26, 1840] (Entry No. 391), [Sept. 16, 1840] (Entry No. 391, note), Oct. 29, 1841 (Entry No. 435).
Tx
1839: Oct. 30 (Vol. I, No. 1) Nov. 6, Nov. 27-Dec. 4.
1840: Jan. 1, Jan. 15-Feb. 5, Feb. 19-Mar. 4, Mar. 18, Apr. 8-Apr. 15, Apr. 29-Dec. 16, Dec. 30.
1841: Jan. 6, Jan. 20-Jan. 27, Feb. 10-Mar. 3, Mar. 17-Sept. 22, Oct. 6-Nov. 17, Dec. 1-Dec. 29.
1842: Jan. 5-Jan. 26, Feb. 9-Feb. 23, Mar. 30.
Extras: Oct. 29, 1841 (Entry No. 435), [Mar. 8, 1842] (Entry No. 502).
TxSangM
1840: Aug. 12.
TxU
1842: Mar. 23.
TxWFM
1841: Dec. 15.
Extra: [Aug. 26, 1840] (Entry No. 391).

[Austin] LONGERS ADVANCE
Although this newspaper is listed in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939, as having been published in 1840, no references to it have been found in contemporary newspapers or elsewhere.

[Austin] NEW ERA
Weekly. July 23, 1845-August or early September, 1845.
The New Era was issued from the office of Miner & Cruger, printers for the Convention of 1845, with Miner named in the issues as its publisher. Since the paper was established to publish the proceedings of the Convention of 1845, it probably closed soon after the adjournment of the Convention on August 28, 1845. Its printing establishment had been used earlier in publishing the Austin City Gazette and the Western Advocate (Austin). In October, 1845, the press was bought by John G. Chalmers. The prospectus of his New Era, dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22. No issues of his paper had been published by the end of the year.

*DNA
1845: July 30 (Vol. I, No. 2. In State Department Archives, Department of State, Miscellaneous Letters).
*Tx
1845: July 30.
*TWS
1845: July 23 (Vol. I, No. 1).

[Austin] RAMBLER
This paper, a weekly, was announced to begin on March 13, 1841, with George W. Morris as its publisher, printer, and editor. A prospectus, dated March 17, was printed in the Texas Sentinel (Austin) of March 25, 1841. In the Morning Star (Houston) of April 3, the editor reported having seen the first two numbers. No copies have been located.

[Austin] TEXAS NATIONAL REGISTER
Weekly. November 15, 1845-December 27, 1845+.
Moved from Washington, Texas, where it had been published from December 7, 1844, through October 9, 1845. As is pointed out in the Handbook of Texas, the paper was published at Austin by John S. Ford and Michael Cronican.

*TxU
1845: Nov. 15-Dec. 27 (Vol. I, Nos. 45-51).

[Austin] TEXAS SENTINEL
January 15, 1840-November 11, 1841. Semi-weekly, January 15-February 8, 1840; weekly from February 12, 1840.
Title varies: given in prospectus as Texas Centinel, but issued as Texas Sentinel through Vol. II, No. 14, March 11, 1841; as Texas Centinel, Vol. II, No. 16, March 25, 1841, and following; no copy of Vol. II, No. 15, March 18, 1841, located.

The prospectus, dated Austin, November 8, 1839, and signed by George W. Bonnell and Jacob W. Cruger, was printed in the Morning Star (Houston) of November 13, 1839. This was an added venture for Cruger, who was publishing the Telegraph at Houston, in partnership with Francis Moore, and the Morning Star from the same office, on his own account. With the dissolution of the Bonnell and Cruger partnership on July 28, 1840, Bonnell continued the publication of the paper until late in the year. In the issue of December 26, 1840, there was a notice that ownership of the paper has "lately changed hands." At or about that time Jacob Cruger, with Martin Carroll Wing as his partner, took over the paper. The Morning Star of January 9, 1841, reported that Cruger had become editor. The Sentinel of November 11, 1841, announced the sale of the paper to Gen. G.H. Harrison, who published the Daily Texian and the Weekly Texian in its place.

DLC
1840: Feb. 5, Apr. 15.
*DNA
1841: Jan. 16 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 1).
ICN
1840: Jan. 22, Sept. 26.
NcU
1840: Apr. 29.
Tx
1840: Jan. 25, Mar. 4.
1841: Jan. 23-Jan. 30, Feb. 18, Apr. 22-May 13, July 22-July 29, Aug. 19-Aug. 26.
Extra: July 8, 1841 (Entry No. 493).
*Supplements: July 15, 1841 (Entry No. 495), Aug. 16, 1841 (Entry No. 496).
TxU
1840: Apr. 29, June 13, July 4-July 25, Nov. 14.
1841: Mar. 18.
TxWFM
1840: Jan. 15 (Vol. I, No. 1)-May 30, *June 13-Aug. 1, Aug. 15-Dec. 12, Dec. 26.
1841: Jan. 2-Mar. 11, Mar. 25-Sept. 9, Sept. 23, Oct. 7-Oct. 14, Oct. 28-Nov. 11 (Vol. II, No. 50).
Extras: Mar. 23, 1840 (Entry No. 398), July 15, 1841 (Entry No. 494).
*Supplements: July 15, 1841 (Entry No. 495), Aug. 19, 1841, Sept. 2, 1841 (Entry No. 497).
*TWS
1840: Apr. 22.
1841: Sept. 30.
Extras: Mar. 23, 1840 (Entry No. 398), July 15, 1841 (Entry No. 494).

[Austin] Daily TEXIAN
Daily. On or just before November 13,1841-About February, 1842.
The Colorado Gazette and Advertiser (Matagorda) of November 27, 1841, reported that they had received the issue of the weekly Texas Sentinel of the 11th "and the Daily Texian of the 13th; this is a new paper just started by a Genl. Harrison, who has purchased out Cruger & Wing, the late owners of the Centinel concern." The prospectus, reprinted in the Daily Texian of December 18, 1841, and the Telegraph of January 5, 1842, announced: "This paper is designed to communicate daily intelligence of the two houses of Congress. It will contain a complete transcript of the Journals of the Senate and House of Representatives." The daily issues were probably discontinued about February 5, 1842, the date of the adjournment of the first session of the Sixth Congress.

DLC
1841: Dec. 11 (Vol. I, No. 16).
Tx
1842: Jan. 11, Jan. 13, Jan. 18.
TxU
1841: *Dec. 18.
1842: *Feb. 1, Feb. 2 (Vol. I, No. 47).

[Austin] Weekly TEXIAN
Weekly. November 25 1841-June, 1842.
As shown in the preceding sketch, the Weekly Texian followed the Texas Sentinel (Austin). The issue of November 25, 1841, said the editor intended to support "the coming administration of Gen. Houston." The paper was moved to Washington, Texas, by July 6, 1842, and continued there as the Texian and Brazos Farmer.

DLC
1841: Dec. 22.
TxU
1842: Jan. 12.
TxWFM
1841: Nov. 25 (Vol. I, No. 1)-Dec. 1, Dec. 15, Dec. 29.
1842: Jan. 5-Feb. 16, Mar. 9 (Vol. I, No. 16; editorial column dated Mar. 15).

[Austin] WESTERN ADVOCATE
Bi-weekly. February 4? 1843-February, 1844. Suspended July ?-September or October, 1843.
The prospectus, dated Austin, February 4, 1843, and signed by George K. Teulon, was issued separately (Entry No. 578), and also printed in the Telegraph of March 15, 1843. The paper is spoken of as a "renewal" of the Austin City Gazette, of which the latest issue recorded is that of August 17, 1842. Since the second number was "forwarded by mail on [Monday] the 20th February (editors letter, issue of April 15)," and since Saturday was the regular day of issue, the second bi-weekly number was probably published on February 18 and the first on February 4. The Red-Lander (San Augustine) of November 25, 1843, referred to the resumption of publication of the Advocate after a suspension of several months. The LaGrange Intelligencer of February 22, 1844, referred to having received its closing number. Apparently the same press was used in 1845 to print the New Era at Austin.

ICN
1843: Apr. 1 (Vol. I, No. 4)-Apr. 15.
Tx
1843: June 24 (Vol. I, No. 10).

[Brazoria] ADVOCATE OF THE PEOPLES RIGHTS
Weekly. On or before November 23, 1833-March 27, 1834.
Dr. Baker, in his "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers," shows that the paper was begun by John A. Wharton on or before November 23, 1833, and was discontinued by him with the extra of March 27, 1834, because the public had "withheld the support necessary to its existence." The type used indicates that the paper was printed on the press which had formerly been used by D.W. Anthony in printing the Constitutional Advocate at Brazoria. Although Oliver H. Allen appears alone as editor and publisher of the issue of February 22, 1834, he was publisher in name only. The press was next used in July to publish the Texas Republican (Brazoria).

TxU
1834: Feb. 22 (Vol. I, No. 8).
*Extra: Mar. 27, 1834 (Entry No. 42).

[Brazoria] BRAZOS COURIER
Weekly. February 17? 1839-At least December 22, 1840.
R.L. Weir was the printer as well as the publisher of this paper. Nothing else about Weir seems to be recorded.

*TxGR
1840: Sept. 1.
TxU
1839: Dec. 3 (Vol. I, No. 42).
1840: Mar.3, Mar. 17-Apr. 7, Apr. 21-May 12, June 2-June 16, June 30, July 14-July 28, Aug. 4, Aug. 11, Sept. 1-Oct. 27, Nov. 17-Dec. 1, Dec. 22 (Vol. II, No. 42).
*TWS
1840: May 19.

[Brazoria] BRAZOS PLANTER, see PLANTER
Although there are references in the newspapers of 1845 to the Brazos (or Brazoria) Planter, and the paper is listed under that name in the Handbook of Texas, its title was simply the Planter.

[Brazoria] CONSTITUTIONAL ADVOCATE AND TEXAS PUBLIC ADVERTISER
Weekly. August 29? 1832-July or August, 1833.
Although D.W. Anthony in announcing, in the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser of July 23, 1832, that the press of the Gazette had been transferred to him said that the paper would thereafter be called the Constitutional Advocate and Brazoria Advertiser, all the issues located appeared under the title given above. The prospectus, dated Brazoria, July 30, 1832, and signed by Anthony, was reprinted in the issue of September 12, 1832. The latest issue located is that of July 20, 1833, and Anthony died of the cholera soon afterwards. His press was next used in November to publish the Advocate of the Peoples Rights at Brazoria.

DLC
1833: June 15.
TxGR
1832: Sept. 5 (Vol. I, No. 2).
*TWS
1832: Sept. 12 (lacks second leaf), Oct. 17, Nov. 14.
1833: May 11, June 8-June 22, July 20 (Vol. I, No. 41).

[Brazoria] EMIGRANT
A prospectus for this paper, signed by Benjamin Franklin Cage, and Franklin C. Gray, appeared in the last issue of the Advocate of the Peoples Rights (Brazoria), the extra of March 27, 1834, but no copies have been located and probably the paper was never published. On July 5, 1834, Gray and A.J. Harris began the publication of the Texas Republican at Brazoria.
There is no account of the Emigrant in the Handbook of Texas.

[Brazoria] PEOPLE
Weekly. February 14? 1838-June or July, 1838.
A prospectus for this paper, dated December 11, 1837, appeared in the Texas Chronicle (Nacogdoches) of February 28, 1838. The People was printed on a press which Algernon P. Thompson and Dr. Léger had borrowed from Lamar under an agreement dated January 25, 1838 (Lamar Papers, Vol. II, p. 29). The press had previously been used to print the Velasco Herald. Apparently sometime before May 2, 1838, ownership of the press was transferred from Lamar to J.S. Jones (Lamar Papers, Vol. II, p. 154), for on May 16 Robert E. Handy reported to Lamar in a letter written from Richmond, Texas, that he had "purchased the press of Mr. Jones on which the People is now printed" for $900, delivery to be on August 1 (Lamar Papers, Vol. II, p. 158). The latest reference noticed to an issue of the People is in a letter to Léger & Thompson dated June 12, 1838 (Lamar Papers, Vol. II, p. 163).

*TxU
1838: Apr. 18 (Vol. I, No. 10).
*TWS
1838: May 30 (Vol. I, No. 16).

[Brazoria] PLANTER
Weekly. Early 1845-December, 1845+.
The paper was begun at Columbia in September or November, 1842, as the Planters Gazette, but by August 19, 1843, the date of the first issue located, its title was simply the Planter. At some time between December 27, 1844, and March 30,1845, the press was moved from Columbia to Brazoria. Samuel J. Burnett was the publisher and proprietor of the paper from the beginning to its conclusion in 1846.

*TWS
1845: Nov. 14 (Vol. III, No. 36); lacks second leaf.

[Brazoria] SINGLE STAR
The following reference to this paper appeared in the Telegraph of November 11, 1837: "A new paper styled the Single Star, has just made its appearance at Brazoria. We trust it will prove no transient meteor." It is listed in Niles National Register (Washington, D.C.) of February 10, 1838, where it is called the "Signal Star," as one of the "five weekly newspapers now published in the republic of Texas."

[Brazoria] TEXAS GAZETTE AND BRAZORIA COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER
Weekly. April 14, 1832-July 23, 1832.
A continuation, under a new title and with new numbering, of the Texas Gazette published by Cotton at San Felipe through about March 15, 1832. In an extra of the new paper published July 23, 1832, D.W. Anthony announced, "The Press of the Gazette having been transferred to the subscriber, will hereafter be conducted under the style of The Constitutional Advocate and Brazoria Advertiser," but Anthonys paper actually appeared as the Constitutional Advocate and Texas Public Advertiser.

TxU
Extra: July 23, 1832 (Entry No. 33).
*TWS
1832: Apr. 14 (Vol. I, No. 1).
Extra; July 23, 1832 (Entry No. 33).

[Brazoria] TEXAS REPUBLICAN
Weekly. July 5, 1834-At least March 9, 1836.
The paper was published by Franklin C. Gray and A.J. Harris through November 8, 1834. With the next issue, that of November 29, Gray announced himself as the sole proprietor and denied a report that the policy of the paper would be controlled by the Whartons. A.C. Gray in his "History of the Texas Press" says that publication continued until August, 1836, and his assertion is supported by Grays publication of separate pieces in July and August of that year (Entries No. 175 and 124).

CtY
1835: July 25, Aug. 22.
*Tx
1834: Dec. 13.
1835: July 25.
*TxHSJM
1835: Dec. 2.
TxU
1834: July 5 (Vol. I, No. 1), Oct. 25-Nov. 8.
1835: Jan 3, Feb. 14, Mar. 14-Apr. 11, May 2-May 9, May 30-July 4, July 18-July 25, Aug. 8, Aug. 22-Aug. 29, Sept. 19-Nov. 14.
1836: Jan. 6 (clipping), Mar. 2-Mar. 9 (Vol. I, No. 77).
*State Archives, Saltillo, Mexico
1834: No. 29.
*TWS
1834: July 12, Dec. 27.
1835: Jan. 17, Feb. 14, July 25, Dec. 2-Dec 30.
1836: Feb. 3, Feb. 17.

[Brazoria] TEXAS TELEGRAPH AND LAND GAZETTE
Although a newspaper with this title is listed in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 as having been established at Brazoria in August of 1835, no references to it have been found in contemporary newspapers or elsewhere.

[Brownsville] AMERICAN FLAG
This newspaper is entered in the Union List of Newspapers and Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 as begun at Brownsville, possibly in 1844. As pointed out by McMurtrie in his "Pioneer Printing in Texas," in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for January, 1832, Vol. XXV, at page 191, on the basis of information gathered by Mrs. Lota M. Spell, the paper was actually begun on June 1, 1846 at Matamoras, at the time of the Mexican War, as the Republic of the Rio Grande. It was renamed the American Flag before September 26, 1846, the date of the earliest issue located, Vol. I, no. 36 (copy at the American Antiquarian Society). The paper was moved to Brownsville at some time between the issues of January 3, 1847 [i.e. 1848], and November 1, 1848.

[Clarksville] NORTHERN STANDARD
Weekly. August 20, 1842-December 24, 1845+.
A prospectus, dated January 13, 1842, and signed by Charles DeMorse and M. Carroll Wing, was printed in the Telegraph of January 20, 1842, but the first number was not published until August 20, 1842. That issue has an interesting account of the causes of the delay in beginning publication. When the paper was finally issued DeMorse appeared alone as editor, proprietor and publisher. Wing is said to have worked on the paper as a printer, presumably until he left Texas with the Mier Expedition in December, 1842. None of the accounts of DeMorse seen have noted that when practicing law in Matagorda he was at one time a partner of Ira R. Lewis and that an advertisement in the Colorado Gazette and Advertiser of June 6, 1839, recorded the dissolution of that partnership on May 12, 1839.

DLC
1842: Oct. 15.
TxU
Aug. 20, 1842 (Vol. I, No. 1)-Dec. 24, 1845+.
Lacking: Mar. 30, 1843; Jan. 6, Jan. 20, 1844; July 19, 1845.

[Columbia] PLANTERS GAZETTE later the PLANTER
Weekly. Before November 30, 1842-Early 1845. Continued at Brazoria.
The paper began as the Planters Gazette (in full, The Planters Gazette, and Brazoria, Velasco, Quintana, Orizimbo, Bolivar & Fort Bend Advertiser according to the Red-Lander [San Augustine] of May 13, 1843), but by August 19, 1843, the date of the first issue located, the title was simply the Planter. A prospectus dated September 1, 1842, and signed by Samuel J. Durnett, in which it was proposed to publish the first number "on or about the first of October," was printed in the Texas Times (Galveston) November 6, 1842. The Times acknowledged receipt of two numbers in its issue of November 30, and the Telegraph receipt of the first number in its issue of December 7, The last issue published at Columbia so far located is that of December 27, 1844. A reference to the paper in the LaGrange Intelligencer of March 30, 1845, indicates that it had been moved to Brazoria by that date.

*DNA
1844: Dec. 27 (Vol. II, No. 49. In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2).
*Tx
Extra: Jan. 28, 1845 (Entry No. 624; place of publication not stated).
*TxU
1843: Aug. 19 (Vol. I, No. 37), Sept. 9, Sept. 23, Dec. 2.
1844: Feb. 10, Mar. 22, Apr. 5.
*TWS
Supplement: Dec. 23, 1844 (Entry No. 584).

[Columbia] TELEGRAPH AND TEXAS REGISTER
Weekly. August 2, 1836-April 11, 1837. Continued at Houston.
Semi-weekly in the weeks of November 7, November 14, December 5, December 12, 1836, January 2, January 9, and January 16, 1837, in part during the first session of the First Congress.
Published at San Felipe from October 10, 1835, through March 24, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 1-Vol. I, No. 21); one number published at Harrisburg, April 14, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 22); publication resumed at Columbia, August 2, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 23); press moved to Houston after the issue of April 11, 1837 (Vol. II, No. 14), where publication was resumed May 2, 1837 (Vol. II, No. 15). For a short note on the Telegraph see its entry under Houston.

DLC
Sept. 13, 1836-Apr. 11, 1837.
Lacking: Sept. 20, Nov. 19, Nov. 23, 1836.
MH
1836: No. 9.
*MWA
1836: Oct. 11-Dec. 13.
1837: Feb. 14-Feb. 21, Mar. 21.
NN
1837: Jan. 21, Mar. 7.
Tx
Aug. 9, 1836-Apr. 11, 1837.
Lacking: Dec. 9, 1836; Jan. 11, Jan. 21, Feb. 28, 1837.
*TxDaHi
1836: Aug. 16, Aug. 30-Sept. 20, Oct. 11, Nov. 2, Nov. 12-Nov. 16.
1837: Jan. 3-Jan. 11.
TxGR
Aug. 2, 1836-Apr. 11, 1837.
Lacking: Feb. 28, 1837.
TxU
Aug. 2, 1836-Apr. 11, 1837.
Lacking: Dec. 13, 1836.
*TWS
Aug. 2, 1836-Mar. 7, 1837 (John P. Bordens bound file, with his signature and the date May 13th, 1837, on the fly leaf).

Columbus HERALD
No copies have been located, and perhaps the paper was never published. The following notice appeared in the Austin City Gazette of May 6, 1840: "We have been informed that on or about the 4th of July next, there will be published at Columbus on this river, a new journal, to be called The Columbus Herald: Dr. Thomas Wilson, editor and proprietor."
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

Columbus SENTINEL AND HERALD
No copies have been located, but a paper of this name was apparently published at Columbus, Texas, in 1839. The Colorado Gazette and Advertiser (Matagorda) of August 22, 1839, quoted an item on the recent break in the drought from "the Columbus Sentinel and Herald on the 11th inst.," and it seems unlikely that the news could have come from outside Texas within eleven days. No other references to the newspaper have been found and there is no sketch of it in the Handbook of Texas.

[Crockett] TEXAS FARMER
No copies have been located, and perhaps the paper, which was to have been a weekly, was never published. A prospectus, dated February 7, 1842, and signed "L.M.H. Washington & Co.," appeared in the Weekly Texian (Austin), February 16, 1842. The prospectus stated that a press had already been purchased, and that if there was sufficient encouragement the first number would be issued as soon as the press and materials could be removed from the Brazos.
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Galveston] Daily ADVERTISER
Daily. November 1, 1841 or soon thereafter-April or early May, 1842.
A prospectus, dated October 8, 1841, and signed by A.J. Yates, who was also at this time the editor of the National Intelligencer (Galveston), appeared in the Telegraph of December 22, 1841. The Advertiser was to be printed at the office of the National Intelligencer. It was proposed to publish the first issue of the Advertiser on November 1, and this was probably done, since the Morning Star (Houston) acknowledged receipt of the paper in its issue of November 9, 1841. In the issue of February 26 A.J. Yates and James Burke were listed as the editors. The Morning Star (Houston) of May 12, 1842, reported that publication of the Advertiser had "been suspended for a season, owing to want of paper." Apparently publication was not resumed. The Handbook of Texas has an interesting sketch of Yates.

DLC
1842: Feb. 26 (Vol. I, No. 85).

[Galveston] CIVILIAN AND GALVESTON GAZETTE
September 28? 1838-December 17, 1845+. Weekly at first; semi-weekly from about November 18, 1839, when an announcement of the change appeared in the Morning Star (Houston).
Title varies in issues located: Civilian and Galveston Gazette, October 19, 1838-July 27, 1842; Civilian and Galveston City Gazette, August 17, 1842-September 23, 1843; Civilian and Galveston Gazette, October 7, 1843-December 17, 1845.

According to the undated and unsigned prospectus, reprinted in the issue of January 11, 1839, the newspaper was "a combination of the Civilian, recently published at Houston, with the Gazette, a new paper which was about to be established at this place when the two were blended."

DLC
1838: Oct. 19 (Vol. I, No. 4).
1839: Jan. 11, May 17.
1840: Nov. 4.
1842: Apr. 16-Apr. 23, July 24-July 27, Aug. 17-Aug. 24, Sept. 7-Sept. 24, Oct. 1-Oct. 12, Oct. 22-Oct. 26, Nov. 2, Dec. 21, Dec. 28-Dec. 31.
1843: Jan. 7-Jan. 18, Jan. 28-Feb. 1, Feb. 8, Feb. 18-Feb. 25, Mar. 15, Mar. 22, Apr. 22-Apr. 26, Sept. 23, Oct. 7, Oct. 14, Oct. 18, Nov. 29, Dec. 2, Dec. 9, Dec. 20.
1844: Jan. 6, Jan. 24, Jan. 31, Apr. 17, July 13.
1845: July 19, Dec. [13].
*DNA
1842: Mar. 8-Mar. 12 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. I).
1844: June 8 (In Consular Despatches, Galveston, Vol. 2), July 13 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2).
ICN
1842: July 2, July 27, Aug. 10-Aug. 13, Oct. 1.
1843: Feb. 18, May 20, May 27, June 24.
TxGR
1842: Nov. 12.
1843: Jan. 4, Jan. 11, Jan. 21-Feb. 22, Mar. 4-Mar. 18, Mar. 25-Mar. 29, Apr. 5-Apr. 8, Apr. 15-Apr. 26, May 3, May 10, May 17, May 27-May 31, June 10; Saturday issues only, June 24-July 29, Sept. 2-Sept. 23, Oct. 7-Nov. 4, Nov. 18-Nov. 25, Dec. 9-Dec. 30.
1844: Saturday issues only, Jan. 6-May 11; Wednesday May 15; Saturday issues only, May 18-Nov. 2, Nov. 16-Dec. 28.
TxU
1844: June 1, June 12.
1845: Dec. 17.
*TWS
Extra: Mar. 21, 1842 (Entry No. 509).

[Galveston] COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE
Weekly. Before August 2, 1842-At least December, 1842.
The first number of the page was received at Houston on August 2, 1842 (Morning Star, August 4, 1842), and its statement of policy, as announced by its publisher, Samuel Bangs, was reprinted in the Telegraph of August 10, 1842. The Texan Times (Galveston) of December 21, 1842, speaks pleasantly of Bangs when it refers to him as "Editor, Printer, Publisher and Proprietor." The paper was "revived" on August 1, 1843, as the Independent Chronicle (Galveston). No copies have been located.

[Galveston] COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCER
Weekly. July, 1838-At least January 12, 1839.
This was the first Galveston newspaper. Its prospectus, reprinted in the issue of September 21, was dated, "Galveston City, July 1, 1838." The issue of July 27, 1838, the earliest located, was "Publishedby Samuel Bangs, for the Proprietors." Bangs may have continued as the printer of the paper, but by November 24, 1838, it was published by John S. Evans, "Editor and Proprietor," and he appeared as such in the issue of January 12, 1839, the latest located. That issue also carried a notice that in the future all accounts of the paper would be presented and receipted by George H. French, Although the Handbook of Texas says that the paper was published until late 1839 or early 1840, a letter from Evans to Mirabeau B. Lamar (Lamar Papers, No. 1354, Vol. V, p. 297-298), dated June 29, 1839, shows that the paper had been discontinued before the end of June, 1839. The Handbook makes no reference to the connection of Bangs with the paper. The anonymous sketch of printing in Galveston in the Galveston Directory for 1859-60, Galveston, 1859, says (at page 90) that the paper ceased to be issued early in 1839.

TxGR
1838: July 27 (copy not located Aug. 5, 1953; photostat at TxU).
*TWS
1838: Sept. 15 (Vol. I, No. 8), Nov. 24.
1839: Jan. 12 (Vol. I, No. 21).

[Galveston] Daily COURIER
April, 1840-May, 1841. Daily; tri-weekly during July, August and September, 1840, and perhaps later.
The first and second numbers had been received by the Telegraph by April 15, 1840, Joel T. Case was the first editor, but the contemporary papers do not name the first publisher. The Texas Sentinel (Austin) of May 9, 1840, in commenting on the recent appearance of the Galvestonian and the Daily Courier remarks that "Galveston is perhaps the only city in the world which at two years old could boast of two daily papers and one semi-weekly paper." The Morning Star (Houston) of May 26, 1840, noted that the paper had changed hands and was then being published by J.T. Case and D.E. Smith. A "Mr. Edmunds" is referred to as the pro tem. editor by the Morning Star of January 21, 1841. On May 19, 1841, the Morning Star reported that the Courier had "gone out, and given place to a new paper styled the Peoples Advocate." No copies of the Courier have been located.

[Galveston] CROAKER
A.C. Gray in his "History of the Texas Press" says that the Croaker was published for a short time in 1842. According to a list quoted by Stuart from the Civilian and Galveston Gazette of June 12, 1842, the Croaker was one of the papers begun and discontinued at Galveston within the four preceding years.

[Galveston] GALVESTONIAN, 1839
Tri-weekly. March 20? 1839-At least November, 1839.
This is the first of three papers of the same name published at Galveston. The earliest issue located, Volume I, No. 2, March 27, 1839, was published by John Gladwin, "proprietor, editor and printer." In it he pointed out that "some little delay will probably occur before the regular tri-weekly publication of the Galvestonian." The issue of May 16 was published by John Gladwin and William D. Mims. The paper survived at least into November, for the following reference appeared in the Morning Star (Houston) of November 18, 1839: "The publication of the Galvestonian, it appears, is not discontinued, as was imagined by the melancholy decease of its former editor, John Gladwin, Esq. It is now under the direction of David Davis, Esq., and makes its appearance in an enlarged form."

The article, "Printing in Galveston," in the Galveston City Directory, 1859, at page 89, which is followed by Mrs. Spell in her article on Bangs in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1932, Vol. XXXV, p. 267-278, incorrectly states that the Galvestonian "began to be issued from the office of Mr. Bangs" in the spring of 1839. Sam Acheson in his 35,000 Days in Texas, A History of the Dallas News and Its Forebears, New York, 1938, falls into the same error. It was the third paper called the Galvestonian, which began publication in March, 1841, that was published by Bangs.

IU
1839: May 16 (Vol. I, No. 15).
TxU
1839: Mar. 27 (Vol. I, No. 2).

[Galveston] GALVESTONIAN, 1840
Daily. March 23, 1840-At least June, 1840.
This, the second Galvestonian, was edited by Henry R. French a brother of George H. French and a brother-in-law of Samuel Bangs. It is quite possible that Bangs worked as a printer on the paper. The following account of the paper was printed in the issue of April 4, 1840: "The Daily Galvestonian has now been in operation just two weeks. When we commenced the publication of it, we had some scruples as to whether it would be advisable to print as large an edition as we had been accustomed to do, on the semi-weekly paper, as we thought it probable that some of our subscribers would not care to take a daily paper; our objections, were, however, overruled, and the usual number printed. The first week, finding our subscription list swelling a little, we printed 50 extra copies, and at the close of the present week, we find it necessary to put on an additional 50, in order that none of our subscribers might be neglected." No copies of the semi-weekly paper referred to have survived, and no evidence has yet been discovered indicating how long the publication of the daily and weekly continued. By June 15 the paper was owned by Davis & French, who on that date submitted a bill to the Secretary of State for advertising in the issue of June 9.

DLC
1840: Apr. 3-Apr. 4.

[Galveston] Galvestonian, 1841-1842
Daily. March 30. 1841-Early 1842.
A prospectus of this, the third Galvestonian, was printed in its second issue, March 31, 1841. The paper was published by Samuel Bangs and edited by his brother-in-law, George H. French, "late editor of the Houston Musquito." According to a contemporary newspaper, the appearance of the Galvestonian was "rather a la militaire; it has at its head Gen. Sam Houston for President, and Gen. M. Hunt for Vice President. However, we Texians are all generals, colonels, or majors." According to the Austin City Gazette of July 14, the editors by that date were G.H. and H.R. French. They also appeared as editors in the December issues, the latest located. The Galvestonian was certainly published through the beginning of 1842 for a carriers address for January 1, 1842, has been located (Entry No. 517), but it is unlikely that it continued after April 11, 1842, when G.H. French began the publication of the Daily News at Galveston.

DLC
1841: Mar. 31 (Vol. I, No. 2)-Apr. 1, Dec. 6-Dec. 7.

[Galveston] Weekly GALVESTONIAN, 1841-1842?
Weekly. May 8, 1841-Early 1842?
Only the first number of this paper, then printed and published by Samuel Bangs and edited by George H. French, has been located. It was probably published as the weekly edition of the third Galvestonian, and may have run until that paper was discontinued. Its full title, given at the head of the first column and the editorial column, was "Weekly Galvestonian and Ladies Saturday Evening Visiter [sic]."

DLC
1841: May 8 (Vol. I, No. 1).

[Galveston] Daily GLOBE AND GALVESTON COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE
Daily. November, 1845-December, 1845.
The earliest notice of the paper discovered thus far was printed in the Morning Star (Houston) of November 13, 1845. The Telegraph of November 19, 1845, reported that B.F. Neal was editor and Samuel Bangs the publisher. The Handbook of Texas points out that it must have ended in December, 1845, since Bangs was printing the Corpus Christi Gazette on January 1, 1846. No copies have been located.

Galveston Morning HERALD
Daily. December, 1840-Late April or early May, 1841.
This paper was printed at the office of the Civilian and Galveston Gazette. S.S. Callender appeared as publisher in a notice announcing a Houston agent for the paper which was published in the Morning Star (Houston) of December 8, 1840. The San Luis Advocate of December 10, 1840, reported that the paper had been started, and the Weekly Galvestonian of May 8, 1841, "regrets to announce to the public the death of the spicy little Herald." The obituary of John S. Evans in the issue of April 24, 1841, said that "he had been for some time back the able and talented assistant editor of the Herald." The Handbook of Texas quotes Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 to the effect that a Galveston Morning Herald started publication in April, 1841, and continued until July. This seems to be erroneous. A manuscript certificate in the Texas State Archives (Comptrollers Military Service Records) shows that Sidney Smith Callender "became a member of the New Orleans Volunteer Grays on the 22d October 1835. was elected Orderly Sergeant of the Corps," and was honorably discharged at Refugio on January 26, 1836.

*TWS
1841: Apr. 24 (in this copy only p. [2]-[3] were printed; p. [1] and [4] are blank). (From the paper of the family of John S. Evans, whose obituary is printed on page [2]. It may be that extra copies were printed, with pages [1] and [4] left blank, in order to give a wider distribution to the obituary.)

[Galveston] INDEPENDENT CHRONICLE
Weekly. August 1, 1843-At least January, 1844.
This paper was a revival of the Commercial Chronicle (Galveston). The prospectus, signed by Samuel Bangs, "Editor, Printer, Publisher & Proprietor," was reprinted in the issue of October 15, 1843. Contemporary newspapers reported the cut of a ship under full sail at the head of the editorial column and referred to Bangs as the "Commodore." The latest reference to the Chronicle noted appeared in the Northern Standard (Clarksville) of February 10, 1844, where it is referred to as "a small, lively, humorously edited sheet, [which] goes in strongly for the Navy in particular and for patriotism and the Constitution in general."

*MWA
Extra: Aug. 1, 1843; also designated Vol. I, 2d Qta., No. 1 (Entry No. 560).
*TxHSJM
October 15, 1843; also designated Vol. I, 2d Qta. No. 8.

[Galveston] Semi-weekly JOURNAL
Texas Newspapers,1813-1939 follows the Union List of Newspapers in suggesting that this paper may have begun publication in 1842. Since the earliest issue located, that for March 22, 1850, at the University of Texas, is Vol. I, No. 13, the newspaper apparently began publication in February 1850.

[Galveston] NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER
Weekly; semi-weekly. Before July 18, 1841-May? 1842.
The Intelligencer is described in the Colorado Gazette and Advertiser (Matagorda) of August 7, 1841, as being "from the ashes of the [Peoples] Advocate" (Galveston), which, as noted below, had had a life of only two or three months. The Morning Star (Houston) of July 18, 1841, reported the Intelligencer as having "lately made its appearance" and as being edited by A.J. Cody, continuing with the statement, "It supports David G. Burnet for President, and General M. Hunt for Vice-President." Not long afterwards the Morning Star of August 10 reported that A.J. Yates had succeeded Cody as editor and that the Intelligencer was to be issued twice a week. The Texas Centinel (Austin) for August 19 reported the change in editors and that for Vice-President the paper now supported Gen. Burleson. Burnet was still its candidate for President. Yatess prospectus of October 8, 1841, for issuing the Daily Advertiser from the same office as the Intelligencer beginning November 1 was reprinted in the Telegraph of December 22, 1841. The Intelligencer, either as a weekly or a semi-weekly, was certainly continued through the first part of 1842, for it is referred to in the Telegraph of August 10, 1842, as a paper "lately published" at Galveston. It may have been discontinued about May, 1842, at the same time as the Daily Advertiser. No copies have been located.

[Galveston] Daily NEWS
Daily. April 11? 1842-At least early May, 1842.
This paper has been incorrectly described in the Handbook of Texas in the article on the Galveston News and in Achesons 3500 Days in Texas, A History of the Dallas News, New York, 1938, as the forerunner of the Galveston News, which with its successors had a distinguished career in Galveston and later as the present Dallas News. Stuart makes it clear that the Evening News, which began in June, 1843, and not this Daily News, was the forerunner of the Galveston News. Stuart (p. 54-59) says this Daily News lasted only a month or so and refers to an article in the Galveston Civilian and Gazette of June, 1842, "where it is mentioned among the papers previously printed at Galveston that had ceased to exist, followed by the positive assertion that on that date (June, 1842) the Civilian and Gazette was the only newspaper printed in Galveston." On April 19, 1915, the Dallas Morning News issued a facsimile of Vol. I, No. 8, the April 19, 1842, issue of the Daily News. This is reproduced in part following page 30 of Mr. Achesons book cited above. Though Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939, Houston, 1941, locates an original of this April 19 issue at the University of Texas Library, their copy is a facsimile.

DLC
1842: Apr. 30 (Vol. I, No. 17).

[Galveston] Evening NEWS later Galveston NEWS
June, 1843-December, 1845+. Semi-weekly through the summer of 1843; tri-weekly from the fall of 1843.
The Civilian and Galveston City Gazette for June 24, 1843, reported: "Messrs. M. Cronican & Co. have commenced, in this city, the publication of a small semi-weekly paper, entitled The News." It was published on Tuesdays and Fridays. The Morning Star (Houston) of August 8, 1843, commented: "The defunct Times seems to be embodied forth again in the form of the News." This refers to the Texas Times, another Galveston paper, which, as noted here, was issued for the last time on May 16, 1843. The News had become a tri-weekly by December, 1843. The number of the first issued located, No. 120, May 11, 1844, suggests that the change took place in late September or early October, 1843. Ben Stuart says the type and press for publishing the paper were "rented from Samuel Bangs from whose office a half dozen ephemeral sheets had been issued during the preceding five years." The rent was four dollars a month.

A prospectus of the Galveston Weekly News to be issued from the same office, dated Galveston, December 9, 1843, and signed by Michael Cronican, Wilbur Cherry, and R.D. Sebring, was reprinted in the Telegraph of April 10, 1844. The weekly first appeared in February, 1844, as the Weekly News, but by August, 1845, its title had been changed to the Galveston Weekly News. The change in title probably occurred before May, 1845, for by May 6, 1845, the tri-weekly Evening News had become the Galveston News. R.D. Sebring was the editor of both papers until his death in July, 1844. Apparently he was editor of the Weekly Despatch (Matagorda) at some time between December, 1843, and his death. He was followed by B.F. Neal. The Stuart account says that Willard Richardson took temporary charge of the editorial columns late in 1844, and in 1845 became the regular editor and a partner of Cherry, Neal & Co., who then published the two papers. In November, 1845, the papers were published by Richardson & Lewis. According to Stuart (page 64) the partnership between Richardson and Lewis lasted until the outbreak of the Mexican War, when Lewis left Galveston for Corpus Christi.

*DNA
1844: May 11 (Vol. I, No. 120. In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2), May 23 (In Consular Despatches, Galveston, Vol. 2), May 25 (Vol. I, No. 125. In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2).
*TxU
1845: May 6 (Whole No. 227).

[Galveston] Weekly NEWS later Galveston Weekly NEWS
Weekly. February 17? 1844-December, 1845+.
See the note above on the Evening News.

TxU
1844: *Feb. 24 (Vol. I, No. 2), May 11.
1845: *Aug. 9, *Nov. 15 (Vol. II, No. 39).

[Galveston] PEOPLES ADVOCATE
Daily? May, 1841-June or July, 1841.
This short lived paper followed the Daily Courier (Galveston) and was followed by the National Intelligencer (Galveston). The Morning Star (Houston) of May 18, 1841, reported: "The Galveston Courier has gone out and given place to a new paper styled the Peoples Advocate." The prospectus of the Advocate was reprinted in the Austin City Gazette of June 9, 1841. The paper was published by John OBrian and edited by Charles W. Moore. Apparently it was a supporter of Sam Houston for president. No copies have been located.

[Galveston] TEXAS STATE PAPER
Semi-weekly? July, 1845-December, 1845+.
Receipt of the first number was acknowledged in the Telegraph of July 30, 1845, which said that the paper was published by Trigant & Pace. No other information on Trigant & Pace has been found and no copies of this newspaper have been located. According to Stuart "it appears to have ceased publication early in 1846."

[Galveston] TEXAS TIMES
Weekly. October 11? 1842-March 25, 1843.
This paper was a continuation of the San Luis Advocate. The last number of the Advocate (Vol. I, No. 41) was published at San Luis in April or early May, 1842, but regular publication was not resumed at Galveston until October, the printing equipment having been lost in the bay en route to Galveston. The second number of the Times was published at Galveston on October 18, 1842 (Vol. I, No. 43), and the first probably appeared on October 11. These, however, were preceded by an extra of September 20 (Entry No. 549). A prospectus of the paper appeared in issue No. 46, November 9, 1842 (misnumbered 49 and misdated November 6). This stated that the first eleven numbers of the Times would be sent to subscribers to the San Luis Advocate to complete the first volume of that paper. Ferdinand Pinckard, who in December, 1841, had become the editor of the San Luis Advocate, was the editor and proprietor of the Times. The Times was at first printed and published for Pinckard by D. Davis. In the issue of March 11, 1843, was a notice signed by G.H. French and G.L. Hamlin that they had assumed publication of the paper. A separate tri-weekly paper, the Times, was issued from the same office from about December 27, 1842, through March 25, 1843. After March 25 the separate weekly was discontinued, and the third number of the tri-weekly was made to include the first two, and was circulated in the country as the weekly newspaper. "In anticipation of dissolution" the "last will and testament of the dying Times" was published in the issue for Tuesday, May 16, 1843, where it was announced that the Telegraph would be sent in place of the Times to those who had paid in advance.

DLC
1842: Nov. 9 (Vol. I, No. 46; misdated Nov. 6, 1842, and misnumbered Vol. I, No. 49), Dec. 7.
1843: Apr. 22 (Vol. II, No. 17).
ICN
1842: Dec. 14-Dec. 31.
1843: Mar. 4-Apr. 22.
Tx
1842: Nov. 30.
TxU
1842: *Oct. 18 (Vol. I, No. 43), Nov. 2, *Nov. 16-Nov. 23.
*1843: Feb. 11-Mar. 11.

[Galveston] TIMES [Title at head of first column:] TRI-WEEKLY TIMES
Tri-weekly. December 27? 1842-May 16, 1843.
Issued from the office of the Texas Times. Prospectus published in the Texas Times of November 6, 1842. For the relation between the two papers, see the note above to the Texas Times. The Tri-Weekly Times is not referred to in the Handbook of Texas.

ICN
1843: Apr. 27 (Vol. I, No. 48), May 16 (Vol. I, No. 49).
*TxGR
1843: May 16.

[Galveston] TOWN
The following reference to the paper appeared in the Northern Standard (Clarksville) of April 24, 1844: "We have received the 6th number of a weekly paper, entitled The Town, published every Sunday, at Galveston. It is published by James Doddridge and edited by J.J. Harrison and seems to be devoted to humor, and chit-chat, generally and specially. The dimensions of The Town are just 10 inches by 12 when extended." No copies have been located.

[Harrisburg] TELEGRAPH AND TEXAS REGISTER
The Telegraph was published at San Felipe from October 10, 1835, through March 24, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 1-Vol. I, No. 21); one number was published at Harrisburg on April 14, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 22); publication was resumed at Columbia on August 2, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 23). The press was moved to Houston after the issue of April 11, 1837 (Vol. II, No. 14), where publication was resumed May 2, 1837 (Vol. II, No. 15). For a short note on the Telegraph see its entry under Houston.

TxH
1836: Apr. 14.

[Houston] BANNER OF THE LONE STAR
No copies have been located, and perhaps the paper, which was to have been a weekly, was never published. A prospectus, dated at Houston, January 22, 1838, and signed by James D. Cocke, was printed in the Telegraph of February 3, 1838. On January 21 Cocke wrote Mirabeau B. Lamar saying that it would be quicker for him to get materials from New Orleans than to move Lamars press from Velasco to Houston, and that the move would cost as much as the fixtures were worth in their damaged state (Lamar Papers, No. 665, Vol. II, p. 28-29). Lamars press was used from February through July, 1838, by Léger and Thompson in printing the People at Brazoria.
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Houston] CITIZEN
Semi-weekly. July 19? 1843-January, 1844.
A prospectus of the Citizen, dated July 8, 1843, and signed by John N.O. Smith and John Benson, was reprinted in the Northern Standard (Clarksville) of September 14, 1843. It announced support of Sam Houston, then president. The Red-Lander (San Augustine) of August 5, 1843, stated that the Citizen had been started in place of the Houstonian, whose "editor and publisher had absquatulated [sic] to Yucatan." The prospectus of July 8 referred also to a weekly edition, entry for which follows, to be published as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers was obtained. The semi-weekly Citizen was followed by the semi-weekly edition of the Texian Democrat (Houston).

*DNA
1843: Nov. 18 (Vol. I, No. 21. In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2).

[Houston] Weekly CITIZEN
Weekly. December 9, 1843-January, 1844.
This weekly edition of the Citizen was promised in the prospectus of July 8, 1843, as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers was obtained. The first issue, dated December 9, 1843, was published by [John N.O.] Smith, [John] Benson & [D.E.] Smith. It was followed, without change in volume or numbering, in January, 1844, by the Texian Democrat (Houston).

*TxU
1843: Dec. 9 (Vol. I, No. 1).

[Houston] CIVILIAN
Weekly. June 7, 1838-September, 1838.
The Handbook of Texas follows the Galveston Tri-Weekly Civilian of May 9, 1873, in saying that the Civilian first appeared at Houston on May 8, 1838, but according to the Telegraph of June 9, 1838, the first number was published on June 7. The paper was moved to Galveston in September and published there as the Civilian and Galveston Gazette. No copies published at Houston have been located.

[Houston] COURIER AND ENQUIRER
Frantz reports that the earliest reference to the paper he found was in the Telegraph of September 8, 1838, and read as follows: "The Courier & Enquirer of this city is now printed on a large double cylindered Napier press procured at great cost by its proprietors, and which strikes off six thousand of its enormous sheets per hour or one hundred every minute." The publishers may have been J.D. Cocke and G.W. Bonnell, for in a letter dated from Houston, January 21, 1838 (Lamar Papers, Vol. II, at p. 29), Cocke wrote to Lamar: "Col. Bonnell is expecting a complete printing establishment, which he some time since ordered from Cincinnati. He, too, contemplates publishing a paper on an Imperial sheet. He has proposed to unite his project with mine." The only other reference to the Courier and Enquirer which Frantz found was in the Civilian and Galveston Gazette of October 19,1838. No copies have been located.
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Houston] HOUSTONIAN
Tri-weekly. March 10? 1841-May or June, 1843.
That the first issue was published prior to March 11, 1841, is shown by a reference to it in the Morning Star (Houston) of March 11. The date of March 10 is arrived at by counting back from the earliest copy located, Vol. I, No. 70, August 18, 1841. The prospectus, dated February 18, 1841, and signed "D.E. & Jno. N.O. Smith, Publishers, for Joshua Burr, Proprietor," was reprinted in the Galvestonian of March 31, 1841. The paper was for Sam Houston for president. Joseph Baker, who had earlier been a partner of the Bordens in publishing the Telegraph was its first editor. The issue of May 5, 1843, listed S.E. Powers as editor, publisher, and proprietor. The note here to the Citizen, also published at Houston, shows that the Houstonian was followed by the Citizen in July, 1841.

*Tx
Extras: Two of March 15, 1842 (Entries No. 518 and 519).
*TxGR
1843: May 5 (Vol. 3, No. 12).
TxWFM
1841: *Aug. 18 (Vol. I, No. 70)-Aug. 20.
Extras: Aug. 16, 1841 (Entry No. 445), Aug. 18, 1841 (Entry No. 446).

[Houston] Weekly HOUSTONIAN
Weekly. April 8? 1841-May or June, 1843.
This paper was published in conjunction with the tri-weekly Houstonian. The earliest mention of the Weekly Houstonian noted is in the issue of the Colorado Gazette and Advertiser (Matagorda) for May 1, 1841.

DLC
1841: May 27 (Vol. I, No. 8), July 22.
Tx
1842: Jan. 27 (Vol. I, No. 34).

[Houston] MUSQUITO.
Tri-weekly. July 12, 1840-February or March, 1841.
As stated in the Handbook of Texas, the Musquito was edited by George H. French and printed by his brother-in-law, Samuel Bangs. French was also the publisher. By the end of March, 1841, French and Bangs had moved to Galveston where, on March 31, 1841, they issued the first number of what is referred to here as the third Galvestonian.

*TxU
1841: Feb. 7-Feb. 14 (Vol. I, Nos. 59-62).

[Houston] NATIONAL BANNER
April 25, 1838-November or December, 1838. Semi-weekly during sessions of Congress; weekly in the interim.
The title was given as Texas National Banner in the prospectus, signed by J.W.J. Niles, printed in the Matagorda Bulletin of March 28, 1838, but the title adopted, the National Banner, appeared in the reprinting of the prospectus in the Matagorda Bulletin of April 25, and at the head of the first issue, published the same day. Samuel Whiting began his printing career by acquiring an interest in the National Banner in June, 1838, and before October 5 had bought the entire interest of Niles. The Telegraph of December 15 reported that Whiting had discontinued the National Banner and had begun to issue in lieu of it "a new paper styled the National Intelligencer, whichdates its commencement from that of the new administration." Lamar was inaugurated on December 10.

DLC
1838: Apr. 25 (Vol. I, No. 1).
GEU
1838: Oct. 5 (Vol. I, No. 27).

[Houston] NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER
Weekly. About December 10, 1838-October, 1839.
Samuel Whiting having bought the National Banner (see preceding entry) changed its name to the National Intelligencer. Apparently the new paper was numbered in continuation of the old. Its editor was James S. Jones, formerly editor of the Matagorda Bulletin. A squib in the Morning Star (Houston) of August 3, 1839, reported the Intelligencer as having had eight editors since its commencement. In October, 1839, part of the equipment of the office was moved to Austin, where Whiting began the publication of the Austin City Gazette on October 30, 1839. The rest of the equipment was advertised for sale on February 17, 1840, and bought by A.H. Osborn and G.W. Lively, who began publication of the Daily Times at Houston on March 4, 1840.

DLC
1839: Mar. 1 (Vol. II, No. 7), Mar. 28, Apr. 18, May 2-May 9, July 4.
GEU
1839: June 27, Aug. 22 (Vol. II, No. 32).
NcD
1839: Apr. 18.
*TxHSJM
1839: July 18.
TxU
1839: June 20.

[Houston] Morning STAR
April 8, 1839-December 30, 1845+. Daily, April 8, 1839 through July 11, 1840; tri-weekly from July 14, 1840.
A notice in the Telegraph of April 3, 1839, referred to the coming publication of the Evening Star, but in the first issue the shift to morning publication was explained as made at "the suggestion of many friends." The Morning Star began publication as a daily newspaper on April 8, 1839, the publisher being Ezekial Humphreys and Company and the editor John W. Eldredge. It was printed at the Telegraph office. From at least April 18, 1839, through at least August 31, 1839, tri-weekly issues were published in addition to the daily issues. The paper was issued daily through the issue for Saturday morning, July 11, 1840, Vol. II, No. 68; and with No. 69, for Tuesday, July 14, it was published tri-weekly on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays through at least the year 1845. In the issue of November 13, 1839, Jacob W. Cruger, who had become publisher on Humphreys death shortly before, stated that the paper would only do business with subscribers and advertisers on a cash basis. The issue of January 9, 1841, announced that James. F. Cruger had succeeded his brother J.W. Cruger as publisher. In August 1841, D.H. Fitch retired as editor and was succeeded by Dr. Francis Moore. Apparently Moore continued as editor through 1845. Dr. Moore was also editor of the Telegraph, printed weekly at the same office.

DLC
1839: Apr. 15, Apr. 17, Apr. 19, Nov. 5.
*DNA
1840: June 20 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 1).
*MWA
1840: Apr. 3.
Tx
Apr. 9-Aug. 14, 1839; Jan. 3, 1843-Dec. 30, 1845.
Lacking: 1843: Nov. 30. 1844: Jan. 27, Feb. 15, May 14, June 22, Sept. 7, Oct. 12, Nov. 16, Nov. 26, Nov. 30, Dec. 7. 1845: Jan. 2, Jan. 28, Feb. 13, Feb. 16, Mar. 6, Mar. 20, Apr. 3, Apr. 8, Apr. 17, May 13, May 17, May 24, June 10, June 26, July 26 or July 29 (Vol. VII, No. 853), Sept. 13-Oct. 7, Oct. 14, Oct. 23-Oct. 28, Nov. 6, Nov. 15, Nov. 18, Dec. 4, Dec. 23, Dec. 27.
TxH
Apr. 8, 1839 (Vol. I, No. 1)-Oct. 26, 1844.
Lacking: 1839: May 17, Oct. 9-Oct. 11, Vol. I, No. 169 (published between Oct. 23 and Nov. 5), Nov. 21, Dec. 14. 1840: Jan. 23, May 4, Oct. 15, Dec. 1-Dec. 3. 1841: Apr. 8. 1842: Jan. 27, May 24, July 12, July 30, Dec. 8. 1843: Nov. 30, Dec. 5. 1844: Feb. 15, May 14, June 22, Sept. 7.
Tri-weekly composite issues: Apr. 10/11-Aug. 30/31, 1839. Except: Apr. 17/18, May 3/4, May 13/14, May 15/16, May 17/18, May 20/21, June 17/18, June 28/29, July 10/11, Aug. 21/22, Aug. 26/27, Aug. 28/29.
TxU
1839: June 3.
1840: Jan. 1-Jan. 9, Jan. 22, Jan. 25, Jan. 28, Jan. 31.

[Houston] STAR OF TEXAS
No copies have been located, and perhaps the paper, which was to have been a monthly, was never published. Frantz reports that a prospectus, dated June 7, 1837, was printed in the Telegraph as early as July 29, 1837, and in the Matagorda Bulletin as late as September 27. W.W. Hall was to have been the editor, and the main objects of the paper were to have been "the promotion of Religion, Virtue and Morality and the Diffusion of Learning."
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Houston] TELEGRAPH AND TEXAS REGISTER
Weekly. May 2, 1837-December 31, 1845+.
Two issues in the weeks of October 2, 9, and 16, and December 4, 1837; semi-weekly from April 18, 1838, through May 30, 1838, and from November 21, 1838, through January 26, 1839, covering the adjourned session of the Second Congress and the session of the Third Congress; weekly thereafter.

A prospectus for publishing the Telegraph and Texas Planter was printed in the Texas Republican (Brazoria) of February 14, 1835, but in the first issue, printed at San Felipe on October 10, 1835, the final "Planter" was changed to "Register." As mentioned in the "Sketch of Printing" the story of the Telegraph through 1836 is told in articles in the issues of August 2, 1836, and January 18 and 27, 1837. It was printed at San Felipe from October 10, 1835, through March 24, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 1-Vol. I, No. 21). A single issue was published at Harrisburg on April 14, 1836 (Vol. I, No. 22). Publication was resumed at Columbia on August 2, 1836, and continued there through April 11, 1837 (Vol. I, No. 23-Vol. II, No. 14). The issue of May 2, 1837 (Vol. II, No. 15) the first to be published at Houston, has an amusing account of the vicissitudes in moving the press from Columbia. The Telegraph was the first Houston newspaper. Dr. Francis Moore was the editor of the Telegraph for seventeen years from March, 1837, when he acquired his interest in the paper. From August, 1841, Moore was also the editor of the Morning Star, a tri-weekly which was printed at the Telegraph office. Mr. Winkler has an excellent sketch of the Telegraph in the Handbook of Texas, and Addie May Roy submitted a masters thesis, The History of the "Telegraph and Texas Register," 1835-1846, at the University of Texas in 1931. For listings of the locations of earlier issues see here under San Felipe, Harrisburg, and Columbia.

*CtY
1838: Apr. 18.
DLC
1838: May 12, May 30, Dec. 19, Dec. 29.
1839: Jan. 2-Jan. 23, Jan. 30, Feb. 6-Mar. 27, Apr. 10-Apr. 17, May 1, May 15-Aug. 14, Aug. 28-Oct. 2, Oct. 16-Oct. 23, Nov. 27-Dec. 25.
1840: Jan. 1, Apr. 8-Apr. 29, Nov. 4, Nov. 18.
1842: Aug. 24, Sept. 14, Oct. 26, Dec. 14-Dec. 21.
1843: Jan. 4, Jan. 25-Feb. 8, Mar. 15, May 31, July 19-July 26, Oct. 11-Oct. 18, Dec. 27.
1844: Jan. 3, Jan. 17-Jan. 24, Feb. 21, Mar. 6, June 26.
1845: Jan. 8, Apr. 23, Dec. 24-Dec. 31.
*DNA
1837: Oct. 21-Oct. 28 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 1).
1843: June 2, Oct. 4, Dec. 20 (In Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2).
GEU
1838: July 21, Aug. 25.
ICN
1843: Dec. 13.
MH
June 13, 1837-July 21, 1838.
Lacking: 1837: Sept. 30-Oct. 7. 1838: Jan. 6, Jan. 20, May 9, May 23, May 30, June 16.
Supplements to 1838 issues, publishing laws: No. 115 (Feb. 24), No. 117 (Mar. 10), No. 135 (May 30), No. 138 (June 23).
MWA
1837: *May 16, *May 30, *June 3, *June 13, *June 24-July 1, Dec. 16.
1843: Dec. 20.
MeBa
1844: Feb. 7.
NN
1837: Oct. 11, Oct. 21, Dec. 2-Dec. 9.
1838: Jan. 6, Feb. 24, May 12, May 19-May 26.
Tx
May 2, 1837-Aug. 4, 1838, May 29, 1839-Feb. 16, 1842, Jan. 4, 1843-Dec. 31, 1845.
Lacking: 1839: July 10, Aug. 14, Sept. 11, Sept. 25, Oct. 30, Nov. 27, Dec. 4.
1840: Jan. 1-Jan. 8, Feb. 5, June 24, Aug, 5, Sept. 9, Oct. 21, Dec, 2, Dec, 23, 1841: Jan. 6, Feb. 24, Mar. 3-Mar. 17, May 19, June 9, Aug. 18, Sept. 1, Sept. 15-Sept. 29, Dec. 15, 1842: Feb. 2-Feb. 9. 1843: Mar. 15.
Extra: Dec. 25, 1837 (Entry No. 194).
Supplements to 1838 issues, publishing laws: No. 115 (Feb. 24), No. 117 (Mar. 10), No. 135 (May 30), No. 138 (June 23). No. 143 (July 28), No. 144 (Aug. 4).
Advertising sheets: 1838: June 11, June 18, July 9, July 23, July 30, Aug. 6.
*TxDaHi
1837: Aug. 26, Dec. 23.
Advertising sheet: July 23, 1838.
*TxGR
May 2, 1837-Aug. 2, 1843.

Lacking: 1838: Aug. 11-Aug. 18, Nov. 21. 1843: Mar. 1, Mar. 15-Mar. 22.
Extra: July 15, 1837 (Entry No. 193).
Supplements to 1838 issues, publishing laws: No. 115 (Feb. 24), No. 117 (Mar. 10), No. 135 (May 30), No. 138 (June 23), No. 143 (July 28), No. 144 (Aug. 4).
Advertising sheets: 1838: June 11, June 18, July 2, July 9, July 16, July 23, July 30.
TxH
Aug. 11, 1838-Dec. 31, 1845.
TxSangM
1837: Oct. 7.
1838: Dec. 8.
TxU
May 2, 1837-Dec. 31, 1845.
Lacking: 1838: Nov. 21. 1839: Oct. 16, Oct. 23, 1841: Mar. 31.
Supplements to 1838 issues, publishing laws: No. 115 (Feb. 24), No. 117 (Mar. 10), No. 135 (May 30), No. 138 (June 23), No. 143 (July 28), No. 144 (Aug. 4).
Advertising sheets: 1838: June 11, June 25, July 2, July 16, July 23.
TxWFM
Aug. 11, 1838-Dec. 14, 1842.
Lacking: 1839: Sept. 18. 1840: July 8, Aug. 26. 1841: Jan. 27, Mar. 3, Aug. 25, Oct. 6, Oct. 20-Dec. 15.
*TWS
1843: Nov. 15

[Houston] TEXAS CIVILIAN
The entry in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 under this title is apparently for the newspaper entered here as the Civilian. No contemporary references to it as the Texas Civilian have been found.

[Houston] TEXIAN
No copies of this paper have been located and the first number, which was to have been issued on April 21, 1837, may never have appeared. A prospectus dated Columbia, December 10, 1836, and signed by Thomas Wilson, was printed in the Telegraph of December 17, 1836.
There is no account of this newspaper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Houston] TEXIAN DEMOCRAT
Semi-weekly. January, 1844-October, 1844.
The prospectus of the semi-weekly Texian Democrat, dated January, 1844, and signed by John N.O. Smith, John Benson, and D.E. Smith, was published in the weekly issue of January 20, 1844, and announced that publication of the semi-weekly had been commenced. This was followed by a note that "a sufficient number of subscribers having been obtained to justify incurring the additional expense," a weekly for the country was now issued. By November 2, 1844, the press had been sold to Miller & Cushney and was on its way to Washington, Texas, where it was used in publishing the Texas National Register, beginning December 7, 1844. No copies of the semi-weekly edition have been located.

[Houston] TEXIAN DEMOCRAT
Weekly. January, 1844-October, 1844.
See the note above to the semi-weekly Texian Democrat.

DLC
1844: Jan. 20 (Vol. I, No. 7), Mar. 16, May 15, June 19-June 26 (Vol. I, No. 28).
*Tx
Extra: May 10, 1844 (Entry No. 612).

[Houston] Daily TIMES
Daily. March 4, 1840--?
In February, 1840, A.H. Osborn (or Orsborn) and G.W. Lively bought the Houston National Intelligencer plant and issued a prospectus for publishing "a daily and weekly paperto be called The Times." The prospectus was reprinted in the Weekly Times of April 30,1840. According to the Morning Star (Houston) of March 6, 1840, the first issue of the Daily Times was published on March 4. A.M. Tomkins was its first editor, but the Morning Star of July 21, 1840, reported "A star has disappeared from the editorial galaxyGus Tomkins has quit the Times." He was succeeded by G.W. Lively. The Weekly Times was published from about April 2, 1840, through at least June 4, 1840, first by Osborn & Lively, and later by Osborn and Conger, with both firm names appearing in the headings of the issues of April 9 and April 30. In the Telegraph of September 3, 1840, the Times was described as a tri-weekly. Probably the tri-weekly took the place of both the daily and the weekly paper.
There is no account of any of these newspapers in the Handbook of Texas.

[Houston] TIMES
Tri-weekly. Before September 3, 1840--?
No copies located. See the note to the Daily Times.

[Houston] Weekly TIMES
Weekly. April 2? 1840-At least June 4, 1840.
See the note to the Daily Times.

DLC
1840: Apr. 30, June 4 (Vol. I, No. 9).
Tx
1840: Apr. 9 (Vol. I, No. 2).

[Huntsville] MONTGOMERY PATRIOT
Weekly? July or early August, 1845-December 1845+.
This paper was started at Montgomery in April, 1845, and moved to Huntsville in July or early August, certainly before August 21, 1845, when the move was mentioned in the Texas National Register (Washington). No copies published at Huntsville in 1845 have been located, but two published there in 1846 are known. John M. Wade is named in the Handbook of Texas as publisher of the paper at Montgomery. A manuscript printing bill in the Texas State Archives, dated Patriot Office, Huntsville, December 23, 1845, is in the name of Wade & Robinson.

La Grange INTELLIGENCER
Weekly. January 25? 1844-December 30, 1845+.
This paper was established by William P. Bradburn and James P. Longley, with Bradburn as editor and publisher. With the issue of February 15, 1844, Longley became the sole proprietor, and W.B. McClellan the editor. Prospectuses were published in the issues of February 1 and February 22. With the issue of May 30, 1844, Smallwood S.B. Fields became editor and proprietor. On July 7, 1845 (Vol. II, No. 24), Fields announced the sale of the paper to W.B. McClellan and W.D. Mims, who appear as publishers in the next issue located, that of August 19, 1845 (Vol. I, No. 2, for the new owners began a second Volume I). In September, 1845, the new owners, and not Fields as stated in the Handbook of Texas, made an urgent appeal for friends of the paper to contribute to its support.

Tx
Feb 1, 1844 (Vol. I, No. 2)-July 7, 1845, Aug. 19-Nov. 5, Nov. 18-Dec. 27, 1845, and Extra, Dec. 30, 1845 (completing the printing of President Polks message begun in the issue of Dec. 27).
*TxU
1844: July 4.

Lockhart MIRROR
Although Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 suggests that there was a newspaper of this name published at Lockhart in 1840, it must be mistaken as to the year since the town was not established until 1848.

[Marshall] HARRISON TIMES
Weekly? On or before February 10, 1844-About October 16, 1845.
The paper was begun on or before February 10, 1844, for Frantz cites a quotation from that issue in the Morning Star (Houston) of February 29, 1844. It was followed by the Soda Lake Herald (Marshall), whose publishers announced their purchase of the press of the Times in a prospectus dated October 16, 1845, reprinted in the Texas National Register (Washington) of December 6, 1845. No copies of the Times have been located

Marshall REVIEW
Weekly? December, 1842, or January, 1843-Fall? 1843.
The following appeared in the Red-Lander (San Augustine) of January 5, 1843: "The Marshall Review Under this cognomer [sic], the Sabine Advocate [of Pulaski] is again continued to its former subscribers." The Northern Standard of April 20, 1843, reports that the Marshall Review has lately changed hands "and the name of L.A.W. Laird appears as editor and proprietor." That the Review suspended some time in the fall of 1843 is suggested by the report in the Red-Lander of December 23, 1843, that the mail between Marshall and Shreveport had been suspended since the failure of the Marshall Review. No copies have been located.

[Marshall] SODA LAKE HERALD
Weekly. Before November 13, 1845-December, 1845+?
Followed the Harrison Times (Marshall). The prospectus, dated October 16, 1845, announcing the purchase of the press of the Harrison Times, was reprinted in the Texas National Register (Washington) of December 6, 1845. It was signed by E.C. Beazley the editor, and T.A. Harris and Zach. Wills the publishers of the paper. The first number was received by the Red-Lander (San Augustine) before November 13, 1845. The Telegraph of November 26, 1845, said that the new paper, like its predecessor, supported General Henderson for Governor and A.C. Horton for Lieutenant Governor. Frantz says that the latest quotation from the paper he found was in the Morning Star (Houston) of January 6, 1846. No copies have been located.

Matagorda BULLETIN
Weekly. August 2? 1837-May 9, 1839.
The issue of December 20, 1837, stated that J.W.J. Niles, who had started the paper about August 2, 1837, "had ceased to exercise any control, whatsoever, over the editorial columns of this paper" and that James S. Jones had purchased an interest in the paper with the understanding that he should have "exclusive control over its columns." In the issue of February 21, 1838, there was a notice that the partnership of Niles and Jones was dissolved, with Niles continuing the business. From a notice in the issue of June 28, 1838, signed by John G. Davenport, stating "the proprietorship and editorial department of the Matagorda Bulletin have changed hands," it would appear that Niles had no interest in the paper after that date. Davenport died in October, 1838, and the issue of January 31, 1839, named W. Donaldson as having become editor on January 24. The last issue was published on May 9, 1839, and was followed a week later by the first issue of the Colorado Gazette and Advertiser. Donaldson was the first editor of the new paper.

DLC
1838: Mar. 14.
Tx
1837: Sept. 6-Dec. 27.
1838: Jan. 3-Nov. 22, Dec. 6-Dec. 20. Next issue published Jan. 3, 1839.
1839: Jan. 3-Apr. 4, May 2-May 9 (Vol. II, No. 80).
TxU
1837: Aug. 9 (Vol. I, No. 2), Aug. 30-Oct. 4, Nov. 8-Dec. 27.
1838: Jan. 3-Mar. 14, Mar. 28-Apr. 4, Apr. 25.
1839: Feb. 7.
*TWS
1838: Apr. 25, and Extra of about May 21, 1838 (Entry No. 241).

[Matagorda] COLORADO GAZETTE AND ADVERTISER
Weekly. May 16, 1839-1843?
This followed the Matagorda Bulletin. The paper was printed and published by James Attwell, and was at first edited by W. Donaldson, who had been the editor of the Matagorda Bulletin. No editors name appeared in the issues from August 1, 1839, to the end of that year, but from January 4, 1840, through July 30, 1842, the date of the latest issue located, W.D. Wallach was listed as the owner and editor of the paper. From an item in the Austin City Gazette of December 25, 1839, it appears that by that time Wallach had taken over the paper. According to Grays "History of the Texas Press" the paper was issued regularly until 1843, and possibly until a later date. No contemporary references to its existence during 1843 have been found, but James Attwell, its printer and publisher, was the editor and proprietor of the next paper published at Matagorda, the Weekly Despatch, established about December 2, 1843.

DLC
1841: Mar. 27, Apr. 17.
Tx
1839: June 6 (Vol. I, No. 4)-Aug. 1, Aug. 22-Dec. 7, Dec. 21.
1840: Jan. 4-Feb. 8, Mar. 7-Mar. 14, Mar. 28, Apr. 11-May 9, May 23-Aug. 8, Aug. 22-Sept. 5, Sept. 19-Oct. 24, Nov. 7, Nov. 28-Dec, 5,Dec.19. Next issue published Jan. 23, 1841.
1841: Jan. 23-Feb. 27, Mar. 20-May 1, May 15-July 10, July 24-Aug. 7, Aug. 21-Sept. 11, Oct. 2, Oct. 31-Dec. 25. Next issue published Jan. 8, 1842.
1842: Jan. 8-Jan. 15, May 28, July 9, July 30 (Vol. III, No. 33).
TxGR
1840: Sept. 26.
*TxU
1839: Nov. 9-Nov. 16.
1842: June 4.
*TWS
1840: Sept. 5.

[Matagorda] Weekly DESPATCH
Weekly. December 2? 1843-December, 1845+.
James Attwell appears as editor and proprietor in all the issues located. He was apparently assisted by Richard Drake Sebring, for the obituary of Sebring in the issue of August 24, 1844, speaks of him as "the late editor of this paper." As shown below, the Rosenberg Library at Galveston has an excellent file for the year 1844. The latest reference to the Despatch noticed is that in the Morning Star (Houston) of December 13, 1845, cited by Frantz. According to the Handbook of Texas, the paper was published until June, 1846.

TxGR
1844: Jan. 6 (Vol. I, No. 6), Jan. 20-Nov. 23, Dec. 7 (Vol. 1, No. 52).
*TxU
1844: Oct. 12.

Matagorda LETTER-SHEET PRICES CURRENT
Monthly. February, 1838-Spring 1839?
No copies have been located, but the Letter-Sheet was advertised in the Matagorda Bulletin of February 28, 1838, as "just published, and for Sale at the office of the Bulletinto be issued monthly." No further references to it have been found in the contemporary newspaper, but it may have been published until May, 1839, when the Bulletin was discontinued.
There is no account of this Letter-Sheet in the Handbook of Texas.

[Matagorda] NAZARENE ADVOCATE
No copies have been located, and perhaps the paper, which was to have been issued monthly, was never published. A prospectus was printed in the Matagorda Bulletin of October 25, 1837, reading in part, "The avowed object of this publication is the revival of the best of the Nazarenes in primitive purity."
There is no account of the Nazarene Advocate in the Handbook of Texas.

Montgomery PATRIOT
Weekly? April, 1845-July or early August, 1845. Continued at Huntsville.
The Telegraph of April 9, 1845, reported the arrival of an issue of the Montgomery Patriot, "intended as a specimen number." The first two numbers were received by the Red-Lander (San Augustine) before May 22, 1845. No copies published at Montgomery have been located. The paper was moved to Huntsville in July or early August, certainly before August 21, 1845, when the move was mentioned in the Texas National Register (Washington).

[Nacogdoches] GACETA DE TEXAS
As stated in the Handbook of Texas, type for the single issue of this paper, dated May 25, 1813, was set at Nacogdoches, but it was printed at Natchitoches, Louisiana, early in June, Toledos forces having been forced to withdraw from Texas. The printer of the paper was Aaron Mower and not "Moore" as the Handbook has him. Godwin B. Cotton, later printer of the Texas Gazette at San Felipe, was one of Toledos officers, but no evidence has yet been discovered showing that he assisted Mower in printing the Gaceta. (For a fuller note on the paper, see the entry for it in the body of this bibliography, under Gaceta de Texas.)

DNA
1813: May 25 (In Archives of the Department of State, Special Agents Mss., William Shaler, 1810, II).

[Nacogdoches] MEXICAN ADVOCATE
Weekly? On or about September 4, 1829.
Printed in Spanish and English. The evidence for fixing the date of the first issue of the paper was presented by Mr. E.W. Winkler in a note in the Quarterly, Texas State Historical Association, for January, 1905, Vol. VIII, p. 272-275. No copies of the paper have been located, and no evidence has been discovered indicating how long it was published. Mr. Winkler showed that Milton Slocum, the editor and printer of the paper, arrived in Nacogdoches on June 27, 1829, and was listed as a printer as late as the census of June 30, 1831, but as a farmer in the census of 1832. The only piece printed by him entered in this bibliography is No. 21, a Circular of the Board of Piety of Nacogdoches dated March 10, 1831. According to the Handbook of Texas, Slocums press was used in 1835 and 1836 in printing the Texean [sic] and Emigrants Guide at Nacogdoches.

[Nacogdoches] EL MEXICANO
Although there is an entry for this newspaper under Nacogdoches in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939, it, like the Gaceta de Texas which it followed, was printed in Natchitoches, Louisiana. (For a discussion of these two papers, see the entry for the Gaceta in the body of this bibliography.)

[Nacogdoches] TEXAS CHRONICLE
Weekly. June 7? 1837-July or early August, 1838.
If not established by Isaac W. Burton and William W. Bell, the Chronicle was at one time published by them, for there is a notice of the dissolution of their partnership, dated February 1, in the only surviving issue of the paper, that of February 28, 1838. Burton was to continue as publisher, and it was stated that W.A. Ferris was authorized to transact the business of the office in his absence. In July or early August the newspaper was purchased by W.W. Parker, who moved the press to San Augustine, where he began the publication of the Red-Lander in September, 1838.

TxU
1838: Feb. 28 (Vol. I, No. 39).

[Nacogdoches] TEXAS REPUBLICAN
Weekly. August 14, 1819-September or October, 1819.
The history of this paper, established by the Long Expedition is summarized in Brighams History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, 1947. Vol. II, p. [1069]-1070, supplemented by his note in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April, 1848, Vol. LI, p. 366-369. Contemporary references to the issues of August 14-August 28, and September 11, 1819, have been found. Although Yoakum says that Horatio Bigelow was the editor, he is not mentioned in those references, but Eli Harris is named as the printer or publisher. No copies have been located. Publication of the paper must have been discontinued by October 28, 1819, when the Spanish forces under Colonel Pérez reached Nacogdoches.

[Nacogdoches] TEXEAN [sic] And EMIGRANTS GUIDE
Weekly. November 28, 1835-Not later than March 24, 1836.
According to the sketch of David E. Lawhon in the Handbook of Texas, this paper was printed on a press belonging to William G. Logan, a merchant, which had been used by Milton Slocum in printing the Mexican Advocate at Nacogdoches in 1829. The issue of January 2, 1836, is the latest located thus far. The paper had been discontinued by March 24, 1836, according to the Telegraph of April 14, 1836. In all surviving issues the first word of the title is spelled "Texean."

*Tx
1835: Dec. 19-Dec. 26 (Vol. I, Nos. 4 and 5).
*TxSaDR
1835: Nov. 28 (Vol. I, No. 1).
*TxU
1836: Jan. 2 (Vol. I, No. 6).

[Pulaski] SABINE ADVOCATE
Weekly. April or May, 1842-Summer or Fall, 1842.
The following notice of the paper appeared in the Telegraph of May 25, 1842: "Sabine Advocate. We have received by the last mail from the East, two numbers of a new paper with the above title, published weekly at Pulaski, Harrison county, by S.P. January & Co. It is a neat sheet, nearly of the size of the Redlander, and contains a large share of interesting reading matter." On January 5, 1843, the Red-Lander (San Augustine) described the paper as "continued to its former subscribers" as the Marshall Review (Marshall). No copies have been located.

San Augustine LITERARY INTELLIGENCER
The following appears in the entry for "Friday the 22d [of December, 1843]" in the "Diary of Adolphus Sterne," edited by Harriet Smither, in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for July, 1933, Vol. XXXVII, at page 45: "Mr Reed from San Augustin came from that place brought me several prospectuses for a Paper to be called the San Augustin Literary intelligencer, Edited or Fathered by L.A.L [i.e. W.] Laird and T.M. Flatau [i.e. Flateau], the Paper to be a Methodist Paper (oh! dear) - & to be under the management of a Son of Abraham verily I am tempted to believe in Parson Millers Doctrine ". No other contemporary references to the paper have been found, and it probably never appeared.

[San Augustine] RED-LANDER, 1838-1839
Weekly. September, 1838-December 16? 1839.
In July or early August, 1838, W.W. Parker bought the press of the Texas Chronicle of Nacogdoches and moved it to San Augustine, where he began the publication of the Red-Lander in September. The Austin City Gazette of May 6, 1840, stated that the Red-Lander "diedabout the month of December [1839]." By that time fifty-two numbers had been printed. As noted in the preceding entry, its press was next used to publish the Journal and Advertiser, beginning about May 28, 1840. The Handbook of Texas is quite in error in reporting that the Red-Lander and the Journal and Advertiser, which it correctly states was started in May, 1840, at San Augustine were competing publications, and that the two papers were merged in 1841.

*TxU
1839: Oct. 5 (Vol. I, No. 46), photostat, location of original not indicated.

[San Augustine] RED-LANDER, 1841-1845+.
Weekly. May 27, 1841-December 25, 1845+.

This is the second Red-Lander. The first ended in December, 1839, and was followed in May, 1840, by the Journal and Advertiser. With the completion of its first volume the Journal was renamed the Red-Lander. Both the Journal and this Red-Lander were edited and published by A.W. Canfield. J.A. Whittlesey was named as editor with Canfield in the issue of July 7, 1842, and Henry W. Sublett in the issues of May 13 and May 20, 1843. George W. Morris was named as printer in the issues of March 27 and April 15, 1843. How long each of them served after those dates is not known. The latest issue located for the period of the bibliography is that of December 25, 1845. At that time Canfield seems to have still been the editor and publisher.

In a bitter quarrel between Canfield and De Morse of the Northern Standard (Clarksville), the latter paper in its issue of September 21, 1843, charged that Canfield had recently brought back from New York large quantities of counterfeit and spurious money with which he had flooded East Texas. The article went on to say that Canfield had stolen a large quantity of jewelry in New York.

DLC
1843: Oct. 7.
Tx
1841: May 27 (Vol. 2, No. 1), June 10, July 1-July 8, July 22-July 29, Aug. 12-Aug. 19, Sept. 9-Oct. 14, Oct. 28-Dec. 2, Dec. 30.
1842; Jan. 6, Apr. 14, *May 5, Aug. 27-Sept. 15, Sept. 29-Nov. 17, Dec. 8-Dec. 22. Next issue published Jan. 5, 1843.
1843: Jan. 5, Jan. 26, Feb. 9-Feb. 16, Mar. 27, Apr. 15, Apr. 29, May 6-May 20, June 17-June 24, July 8, Aug. 5-Aug. 12, Sept. 2-Sept. 23, Oct. 7-Oct. 21, Nov. 4-Dec. 23. Next issue published Jan. 6, 1844.
1844: Jan. 6-Mar. 9, Mar. 23-Aug. 3, Aug. 17-Dec. 28.
1845: Jan. 4-Feb. 8, Feb. 22-Apr. 12, Apr. 26-May 29, June 12, Sept. 11
TxU
*1841: Sept. 9-Oct. 26.
*1842: May 19-May 26, July 7-July 23.
1845: Oct. 2-Nov. 13, Dec. 4-Dec. 18 (Vol. 6, No. 18).

[San Felipe] MEXICAN CITIZEN
Weekly. February 17? 1831-November or December, 1831.
This paper followed Volume I of the Texas Gazette (San Felipe), whose press was sold by Cotton to R.M. Williamson in January, 1831. The issues located thus far were published between March 17 and May 26, 1831, and were "Printedby [John] Aitken & [R.M.] Williamson." The numbers of those issues indicate that for that period, at least, the paper was issued regularly. At some time after May 26 the Citizen was sold to Stephen F. Austin, Oliver Jones, Francis W. Johnson, Luke Lesassier and Samuel M. Williams. The names of the proprietors are given in an undated contract (Ms., Howard Collection, Dallas Historical Society), under which John Aitken was "to conduct and manage the said paper until the fifth day of March 1832." The contract must have been signed after May 26 for it provided that the following was to be printed at the head of the editorial column, "Printed & published by J. Aitken for the proprietors," and that statement had not appeared by May 26. The Citizen was apparently published until November 24, the date of an advertisement (republished in the Texas Gazette of January 10, 1832) in which Cotton announced that he had "again assumed the proprietorship of the Paper at San Felipe de Austin" and would resume publication of the Gazette. It may have been published as late as December 10, the date of an advertisement in which the proprietors announced that Oliver Jones was authorized to collect monies due them.

CtY
1831: Mar. 17 (Vol. I, No. 5)-Mar. 24, Apr. 21, May 26 (Vol. I, No. 15).

[San Felipe] TELEGRAPH AND TEXAS REGISTER
Weekly. October 10, 1835-March 24, 1836. Continued at Harrisburg, Columbia, and Houston.
Moved from San Felipe to Harrisburg, where one number was published on April 14, 1836; publication was resumed at Columbia on August 2, 1836. The press was moved to Houston after the issue of April 11, 1837, where publication was resumed May 2, 1837. For a short note on the Telegraph see its entry under Houston.

*CtY
Oct. 17-Oct. 26, Nov. 7, 1835-Mar. 17, 1836.
DLC
1836: Feb. 20.
Tx
Oct. 10, 1835-Jan. 16, 1836.
*TxDaHi
Oct. 17, 1835, Jan. 9, Jan. 30-Feb. 27, 1836.
TxH
Oct. 10, 1835-Mar. 24, 1836 (Vol. I, Nos. 1-21).
Lacking: 1836: Mar. 17.
*TxSaA
1835: Oct. 31, Nov. 7.
1836: Mar. 12.
TxSaWi
1836: Mar. 12.
TxU
Oct. 10, 1835-Mar. 24, 1836.
Lacking: 1835: Dec. 26. 1836: Jan. 2, Mar. 5, Mar. 17.
*TWS
1835: Dec. 12.
1836: Mar. 24.

[San Felipe] TEXAS GAZETTE, Proposed
On April 2d, 1827, J.A. Bingham issued a prospectus for a weekly paper, the Texas Gazette, to be published in Texas, saying that "the precise town or place where the Gazette will be published, cannot, at this time, be deffinitely [sic] selected; but St. Philip is named." Publication was to begin as soon as possible after the money for 300 subscriptions had been deposited with Messrs. Burnett and Fullerton [David G. Burnet and Humphrey Fullerton] or Col. Austin. The prospectus is entered as No. 1097 in this bibliography. Apparently the paper was never published.
There is no account of this paper in the Handbook of Texas.

[San Felipe] TEXAS GAZETTE, Volume I
Weekly. September 25, 1829-January 15, 1831.
Publication of the paper was suspended from November 7, 1829, until January 23, 1830, to free the press for the printing of Austins Translation of the Laws, Orders and Contracts, on Colonization (Entry No. 12). In the last issue of Volume I (January 15, 1831) Cotton announced that he had sold the paper to R.M. Williamson. The latter began the publication of the Mexican Citizen (San Felipe) within the next few weeks. Charles A. Bacarisse had a good article on "The Texas Gazette, 1839-1831," in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1952, Vol. LVI, p. [239]-253.

TxU
1829: Oct. 13, Oct. 31-Nov. 7.
1830: Jan. 23-Jan. 30, Feb. 13, Mar. 13-Mar. 27, June 12-June 19, July 31, Aug. 21, Sept. 25, Nov. 6.
*TWS
Sept. 25, 1829-Jan. 15, 1831 (Vol. I, Nos. 1-52).
Lacking: 1830: Jan. 23, Feb. 20, May 1, Sept. 11, Sept. 18, and No. 51, published after Nov. 27, 1830, and before Jan. 15, 1831.

[San Felipe] TEXAS GAZETTE, Volume II
Weekly. December 27? 1831-March, 1832.
This paper followed the Mexican Citizen (San Felipe de Austin). In an advertisement (reprinted in the Gazette of January 10) headed "The Texas Gazette Resuscitated by G.B.M. Cotton," and dated November 24, 1831, Cotton announced that he had "again assumed the proprietorship of the Paper at San Felipe de Austin," and that the revived Gazette would be published "on a Royal Sheet with new type." The paper was numbered in continuation of Cottons original Gazette, with Volume II, No. 1, published sometime in December, 1831. The latest issue located is that of February 28, 1832, but it appears from advertisements in Volume I, No. 1 of the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser (Brazoria), April 14, 1832, that one more issue was published at San Felipe, on or soon after March 15, before Cotton moved his press to Brazoria. For a fuller account of Cotton and the Texas Gazette see the "Sketch of Printing" here.

CtY
1832: Jan. 10 (Vol. II, No. 3), Feb. 18.
*TWS
1832: Feb. 28 (Vol. II, No. 7).

San Luis ADVOCATE
Weekly. August 31? 1840-April or May, 1842.
Though the indicated date of the first issue of the Advocate is August 31, 1840, the first number was commented on in the September 1 issue of the Morning Star (Houston) and in the Brazos Courier (Brazoria) of the same date, so it was probably issued a few days earlier. The paper was printed and published by S[amuel] J. Durnett for T[od] Robinson & Co. According to the Handbook of Texas, Robinson and Matthew Hopkins, who was later the editor of the Planter at Columbia, were the editors of the Advocate. After a suspension of several months, publication was resumed late in December, 1841, with Ferdinand Pinckard as editor. On March 29, 1842, the Morning Star reported that the office of the Advocate was soon to be moved to Galveston, and on May 12 that "the new paperhad not made its appearance, owing to the loss of the printing materials. The vessel that was conveying them to Galveston was sunk in the bay, in about fourteen feet of water. They will probably be recovered soon." The "new paper" was the Texas Times. The last number of the Advocate at San Luis must have been Volume I, No. 41, for its subscribers were promised the first eleven numbers of the Times to complete that volume.

*DLC
1840: Sept. 14 (Vol. I, No. 3), Nov. 11.
1841: May 11.
*TxU
1840: Sept. 28, Oct. 6-Oct. 27, Nov. 11-Dec. 10.
1841: Jan. 22-Feb. 16, Mar. 2-Mar. 23, Apr. 13-Apr. 20, June 22 (Vol. I, No. 33).

[San Luis] MEDICAL AND SURGICAL JOURNAL
The following notice appeared in the San Luis Advocate of October 20, 1840:
Docts Richardson and Smith propose to edit a Medical and Surgical Journal, to be published in the office of the San Luis Advocate, at the city of San Luis. It is intended to present to the reader, in a condensed form, not only the improvements in the science, but a faithful portrait of the prevailing endemicks of Texas, their treatment and medical topography. The first number will appear in January next. It will be published quarterly, and contain about sixty-four pages, octavo.Being the first Journal wholly of a literary character, or devoted entirely to professional persuits [sic], which has been started in Texas, we feel much interest in its success, and commend the enterprize with our warmest advocacy.
I have suggested in the note to Entry No. 334 that Dr. Smith may have been Ashbel Smith. As far as I know the proposed journal was never published. It is not mentioned in the Handbook of Texas.

[Sarahville] TEXAS EMIGRANT
Dr. Malcolm D. McLean has called my attention to the "Prospectus of a Paper to be published in Sarahville, Texas, to be called the Texas Emigrant," signed by A[nderson] Buffington and D. Cameron, and printed in the National Banner and Nashville Whig (Nashville, Tennessee) of October 26, 1835. Sarahville de Viesca was located at the falls of the Brazos on the west bank of the river near present Marlin, and was the site of the land office for the Robertson Colony. The paper was to have been a weekly. No copies have been located and probably none were ever published. Dr. McLean says that while Buffington was sworn in as one of Robertsons colonists on January 10, 1836, there is no evidence that Cameron, the other partner, ever reached the Colony. For a sketch of Buffington see the Handbook of Texas. In April, 1841, he began the publication of the Tarantula in Washington, Texas. Neither the Texas Emigrant nor the Tarantula is mentioned in the Handbook of Texas.

Velasco HERALD
Weekly? Before March 14, 1837-Not later than January, 1838.
The Telegraph acknowledged receipt of the first number of the Velasco Herald in its issue of March 14, 1837. The press of the Herald was that which had been used by F.C. Gray at Brazoria until August, 1836. In 1837 it belonged to Mirabeau B. Lamar, for in later December, 1837, and early January, 1838, he attempted to sell it to J.D. Cocke (see Lamar Papers, No. 650, Vol. II, p. 13 and No. 665, Vol. II, p. 28-29). As this did not work out, Lamar on January 25, 1838, agreed to loan the press to Thompson and Léger (Lamar Papers, No. 666, Vol. II, p. 29), who used it from February through July, 1838, in publishing the People at Brazoria. The Herald may have been published as late as January, 1838, for it was listed in Niles National Register (Washington, D.C.) of February 10, 1838, as one of the "five weekly newspapers now published in Texas," but it probably ceased publication before Lamar began to negotiate for the sale of his press. The latest reference to the paper Frantz found in contemporary Texas newspapers was a credit line in the Telegraph of June 20,1837.

*TxSaA
Extra: April 21, 1837 (Entry No. 224).

[Washington] BRAZOS FARMER

The Handbook of Texas and Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939, are apparently mistaken in saying that there was a paper called the Brazos Farmer published at Washington early in 1842, which was combined in June, 1842, with the Weekly Texian (moved to Washington from Austin) to form the Texian and Brazos Farmer. No copies of a Brazos Farmer have been located, and no references to such a paper appear in the extant newspapers of the first half of 1842. Instead it appears from the Telegraph of July 6, 1842, that on the move to Washington on the Brazos the name of the Weekly Texian was changed to the Texian and Brazos Farmer. In 1843 the Texian and Brazos Farmer was occasionally referred to by other newspapers as the "Brazos Farmer."

[Washington] NATIONAL REGISTER
The entry under this title in the Union List of Newspapers and Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 should be for the Texas National Register (Washington).

[Washington] NATONAL VINDICATOR
Weekly. June 3, 1843-At least November 30, 1844. Suspended in September, October, and part of November, 1843.
At the beginning of June, 1843, Thomas Johnson renamed his Texian and Brazos Farmer the National Vindicator. His statement of policy on making the change is reprinted in the issue of July 1, 1843, where it is misdated June 3, 1842, for June 3, 1843. It appeared in successive issues and by June 1, 1844, was misdated March 3, 1842, for June 3, 1843. This accounts for Frantzs reference to a prospectus of the Vindicator dated March 3, 1842. Although the issue of November 30, 1844, is the latest located, the paper may have been published until early in 1845. Certainly the press was still in operation at Washington in January, 1845, for Nos. 620, 621, 631, and 634 here were all printed at the Vindicator office there in 1845, the two latest at some time after January 25. The Handbook of Texas is mistaken in suggesting that the Vindicator became the Texas National Register in December, 1844. The press on which the Register was printed, beginning in December, 1844, was not that of the Vindicator, but was brought from Houston, where it had been used until October in publishing the Texian Democrat.

DLC
1844: July 6.
*DNA
1843: July 1 (Vol. I, No. 5)-July 8.
1844: June 1, Nov. 30 (Vol. III, No. 9).
Extra published on or soon after June 15, 1843 (Entry No. 572). (All in Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2.)
*TxU
1843: Nov. 25 (Vol. I, No. 15)-Dec. 16, Dec. 30.
1844: Jan. 13, Feb. 3-Feb. 10, Apr. 13-Apr. 20, Aug. 17 (Vol. I, No. 51).
*TWS
Extra published on or soon after June 15, 1843 (Entry No. 572).

[Washington] TARANTULA
Weekly? Late March or early April, 1841-At least January, 1842.
The receipt of the Tarantula, described as a new paper, was reported in the Austin City Gazette of April 21, 1841. No reference to it in the contemporary papers later than that in the Daily Bulletin (Austin) of January 15, 1842, cited by Frantz, has been found. According to Laurence L. Hills Sixty Years on the Brazos, Los Angeles, 1930, at page 47, Mr. Alfred Brigance was a partner of Buffingtons in the enterprise. No copies of the paper have been located.

[Washington] TEXAS EMIGRANT
Weekly. July 6? 1839-August or September, 1840.
The Colorado Gazette and Advertiser of August 1, 1839, reported the establishment of the Emigrant by J. Warren J. Niles and continued, "We believe that this is the first paper ever published in that section of the republic." The Morning Star (Houston) of April 24, 1840, reported the paper as dead, but the Austin City Gazette of June 17, 1840, under the heading, "Resurrection from the Dead," announced that it "has suddenly burst the icy fetters of death-like trance and sprung again into existence." Its final demise was recorded in the Austin City Gazette of September 30, 1840.

Tx
1839: Aug. 31 (Vol. I, No. 9).

[Washington] TEXAS NATIONAL REGISTER
Weekly. December 7, 1844-October 9, 1845. Continued at Austin.
The prospectus of this paper, dated Washington, Texas, November 12, 1844, and signed by W.D. Miller and W.H. Cushney, was printed in the Telegraph of November 20, 1844. The press was brought from Houston where it had been used until October, 1844, in publishing the Texian Democrat. The first number was preceded by an extra of December 4, 1844 (Entry No. 606). The paper was sold to John S. Ford and Michael Cronican after the issue of October 9, 1845. They moved the press to Austin, where publication of the Register was resumed with the issue of November 15.

*DNA
1845: Apr. 24.
Extra: Apr. 16, 1845 (Entry No. 653). (Both in Diplomatic Despatches, Texas, Vol. 2.)
*Tx
1845: Sept. 18.
Extras: May 8, 1845 (Entry No. 654), June 6, 1845 (Entry No. 655).
*TxU
Dec. 7, 1844-Oct. 9, 1845 (Vol. I, Nos. 1-44).
Extras; Dec. 4. 1844 (Entry No. 606), Apr. 16, 1845 (Entry No. 653).
*TWS
Extras: Dec. 4, 1844 (Entry No. 606), June 6, 1845 (Entry No. 655).

[Washington] TEXAS REPORTER

A prospectus, dated Washington, January 14, 1836, and signed, Wm. W. Gant and Andrew J. Greer, for publishing there a weekly to be called the Texas Reporter, "publication to commence early in March next," was printed in the Texas Republican (Brazoria) of February 17, 1836. The fact that the Convention of March, 1836, was to assemble at Washington is given as one of the reasons for starting the paper. As far as it is known it was never published.
There is no account of this paper in the Handbook of Texas.

[Washington] TEXIAN AND BRAZOS FARMER
Weekly. June 25? 1842-May, 1843.
Followed the Weekly Texian of Austin, the office of that paper having been moved to Washington by G.H. Harrison, its owner, and the newspapers name changed to the Texian and Brazos Farmer. Thomas Johnson announced his purchase of the paper from Harrison in a prospectus dated November 12, 1842 (reprinted in the issue of April 15, 1843). Early in June, 1843, he changed the name of the paper to the National Vindicator.

DLC
1843: Apr. 15.
ICN
1843: Apr. 22 (Vol. I, No. 42).
TxU
1842: Sept. 10 (Vol. I, No. 12) missing in August, 1953.
1843: *Jan. 28.

No Place TEXIAN STAR AND JOURNAL OF COMMERCE AND NEWS
No copies have been located, and probably the paper was never published. Its prospectus, signed by W.M. Savage and dated Oxford, N.C., August 28, 1836, was reprinted in the Telegraph of October 25, 1836. The paper was to have been a weekly or semi-weekly, as the number of subscriptions determined. General Memucan Hunt was said to be associated with the enterprise. Savage claimed that he had received encouragement enough to insure the publication of the paper, but no place of publication was mentioned in his prospectus.
There is no account of this paper in the Handbook of Texas.

 

Appendix B: Unidentified Public Documents

This Appendix lists, in chronological order, imprints known through printers bills against the government of Texas for the years 1835 through 1845, but not there described sufficiently to permit their entry in the main list. It is based on the bills which could be found in the Archives of the Republic of Texas at the Texas State Library in the summer of 1954, and is included in the hope that the information given may contribute eventually to the identification of these imprints.

B1. Handbills "Information from Committee at San Felipe" $40.
Entered under October 12, 1835, in F.C. Grays bill for printing done from October 12, 1835, through July, 1836.

B2. Handbills Columbia Meeting, by order of Meeting $40.
Entered under October 20, 1835, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1.

B3. Express from Committee at San Felipe, in handbills $25.
First entry under November, 1835, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1.

B4. Handbills from Fannin "To the Georgia Battallion" $30.
Second entry under November, 1835, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1.

B5. Col. Gonzales proclamation to the troops of the permanent army 500 cop. E $40.
Item "E," entered under December 3, 1835, in Baker & Bordens bill for printing done from November 27 through December 24, 1835.

B6. 500 copies of long Handbills from Goliad calling men to Arms $50.
Fourth entry under December, 1835, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1.

B7. Archers address, as President of Consultation 300 Copies $30.
Fifth entry under December, 1835, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1. This was presumably a separate printing of Archers address of November 3, 1835, which is printed in No. 90 in the main list.

B8. Handbills from Col. Hall calling on Farmers for negroes $15.
First entry under January, 1836, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1.

B9. Handbills Brazoria Meeting R. Miles Chairman 100 copies $30.
Second entry under January, 1836, in Grays bill referred to in No. B1.

B10. Recruiting hand bills pr order of M.K. Snell, Captain $10.
F.C. Grays bill of August 31, 1836. Snell was the commanding officer of Company E, 1st Regiment of Infantry, Texas Army.

B11. 200 proclamations in Spanish $20.
Entered under December 2, 1837, in Cruger & Moores bill for printing done from August 12 through December 2, 1837. This may have been a printing of Houstons proclamation of November 25, 1837, calling for elections in San Augustine County (Writings of Sam Houston, Vol. II, pp. 161-162).

B12. 500 copies royalty report 4 pages 1st 250 $15 2nd 250 $10 $25.
Seventh entry in Niles & Co.s bill of May, 1838. This report was printed for the Department of State.

B13. 300 Copies Statement of Collectoral Expenses (full Sheet folio post Rule & figure work) at $100 for 1st hundred and $50 for Each Succeeding hundred - $200.
Entered under May 18, 1838, in Cruger & Moores bill for printing done from April 28 through May 24, 1838. This may be No. 302 in the main list.

B14. 200 hand bills of proclamations $30.
Fourth entry in Niles & Cos bill of July 7, 1838.

B15. 200 Proclamations on Letter Sheet paper $62.50.
Entered under February 15, 1839, in Whitings bill for printing done for the State Department on February 15 and February 22, 1839.

B16. 200 Proclamations by order of President $75.
First entry in Whitings bill of February 15, 1839.

B17. 200 Proclamations To the People of Texas $75.
Second entry in Whitings bill of February 15, 1839.

B18. 100 Copies of Genl Ordr. No. 9 $30.
Whitings bill of August, 1839, for printing done for the Adjutant Generals Department.

B19. 100 Brigade orders No. 1 $30.
Entered under March 1, 1840, in bill of Osborn & Conger, Proprietors of the Daily Times, for printing done for General Edwin Morehouse, Brigadier General, Second Brigade, Texas Militia, from March 1 through April 27, 1840.

B20. 50 hand bills $15.
Cruger & Bonnells bill of May 20, 1840, for printing done for the Adjutant and Inspector General of the Republic of Texas.

B21. Fifty Notices $25.
Cruger & Bonnells bill of May 26, 1840, for printing done for the Adjutant & Inspector General of the Republic of Texas.

B22. 50 Artillery notices $20.
Cruger & Bonnells bill of June 5, 1840, for printing done for the War Department.

B23. 50 Hand Bills calling for Volunteers $15.
Cruger & Moores bill of June 22, 1840, for printing done for the War Department.

B24. 150 circulars "To Chief Justices of Counties" $65.
Cruger & Wings bill of April 22, 1841, for printing for the Commissioner of the General Land Office.

B25. 50 Bills "Santa Fé Expedition" $40.
First entry in Whitings bill of May, 1841, for printing done for the Quarter Masters Department.

B26. 100 Muster Rolls "Santa Fé Pioneers" $80.
Second entry in Whitings bill of May, 1841, for printing done for the Quarter Masters Department.

B27. 100 copies of Address to post up $25.
Fourth entry in Whitings bill of June 16, 1841, for printing done for the Department of State in preparation for the Santa Fé Expedition.

B28. Hand bills addressed to citizens $15.
Entered under March 10, 1842, in Whitings bill for printing done for the War Department from March 10 through March 18, 1842.

B29. Hand bills addressed to citizens when Mexicans left Bexar $15.
Entered under March 12, 1842, in Whitings bill referred to in No. B28.

B30. 200 Proclamations, issued first at Galveston $15.
Entered under March 18, 1842, in Whitings bill referred to in No. B28.

B31. 150 Handbills "Mail Routes" $10.
Entered under January 15, 1843, in Thomas Johnsons bill of February 4, 1843, for printing done for the Bureau of the General Post Office.

B32. Circular to assessors $8.33.
Entered under April 24, 1844, in Thomas Johnsons bill for printing done for the Treasury Department on April 13 and April 24, 1844.

B33. 500 circulars $25.
Entered under February 8 in Miller & Cushneys bill of July 24, 1845, for printing done for the General Post Office.

B34. 20 copies of various acts relative to Treasury Department $5.
Entered under February 10, 1845, in Miller & Cushneys bill of June 13, 1845, for printing done for the Treasury Department.

B35. 50 copies of Circular to County Treasurers $5.
Entered under February 20, 1845, in Miller & Cushneys bill of June 13, 1845, for printing done for the Treasury Department.

Appendix C: Data on the Journals of the Convention of March, 1836, Entered as No. 162 in This Bibliography

That the Journal was both rare and incomplete in 1841, or only five years after the Convention, is shown by a letter, now in the Franklin Papers at the University of Texas, which Acting Secretary of State Roberts wrote on June 29, 1841, to Benjamin C. Franklin. This was in answer to a request Franklin had made of President Lamar (Lamar Papers, No. 2048, Vol. V, p. 479) to get for him a "copy of the Journals of the Genl Convention that met the 1st of March 1836" saying, "there was a no. [i.e. number] printed at the Telegraph office in 1836 at Columbia." I owe the text of this Roberts letter to the characteristic willingness of Mr. Winkler to pass on to others the results of his own researches. The Roberts letter read in part:

"I have accordingly ascertained by examination in the State Department that there is but one printed copy of the journals of the Convention in the dept This was printed in 1836 at Columbia and brings the proceedings only to the night of the 15th March The proceedings of the two last days (16 & 17) are on file in the office [in manuscript] as well as the proceedings up to the night of the 10th [in manuscript] The journal (the original I mean) of the intermediate days viz the 11th, 12, 13 & 14th are not on file and I am informed by the Chief Clerk have never been in the office since he has had any acquaintance with the department An authentic record therefore of those days cannot be had Mr. Waples informs me that you can get at the Telegraph office a printed copy such as we have which contains the proceedings up to the night of the 15th & not of the 13th as you seem to imagine The last two days making about eight pages of foolscap I have employed a clerk to copy for you."

On August 5, 1841, Roberts again wrote Franklin enclosing "a certified copy of the last two days of the proceedings of the Convention" with the clerks bill for copying.

These unqualified statements of Franklin and Roberts that the Journals were printed at Columbia in 1836 are confirmed, to the extent at least that they were printed on the press which Baker and Bordens established at Columbia in August, 1836, by an examination of the typographical setup of the Journals made for me by an expert in such matters, my friend John C. Wyllie, Curator of Rare Books at the University of Virginia Library. It may be inferred that this printing was after November 12, 1836, for on that day a resolution was introduced in the Senate, but laid on the table, which authorized the printing of "the proceedings ofthe convention of March last."

There are references to printing of the ordinances and laws passed by the Consultation, the Provisional Government and the Convention in the later journals (Senate Journal for November 14, 1836; House Journal for November 7, 1837, and November 6, 1838), but I find no further reference to the printing of the Journal of the Convention, either in the Journals of Congress or anywhere else until the fall of 1840. By September 25, 1840, Harvard had received her copy, the gift of Mr. Justice Story.

On November 6, 1840, a motion for printing "the Journals of the Convention in 1836" was voted down in the House. That the Journal as already printed did not include a record of the March 16 and 17 proceedings is indicated by the fact that on November 10, 1840, a motion was passed instructing the Committee on Public Printing "to contract with messrs. Cruger & Moore for the completing of the journals of the convention, in such manner as may be necessary for their distribution, the printing of which has been paid for by the government." No bills for this printing have been found. This resolution for completing the Journal presumably applied to the proceedings for March 16 and 17 which were still in manuscript form.

While the evidence is conclusive that the Journals entered here were not printed at San Felipe, it should be recorded that the Baker and Bordens account approved July 6, 1836 (Ms., Texas State Library), has under date of March 22, 1836, a charge of $75 for printing 1000 copies of the "Eight first pages of proceedings of the Consultation [i.e. Convention]." No copies of these eight pages are now known but it may be surmised that on March 22, the Convention having then adjourned, Baker and Bordens started the printing as a result of a resolution offered by S.H. Everitt and passed by the Convention on March 15 (Gammel, Vol. I, p. 897) "that a committee of three be appointed to superintend the making out and publishing a copy of the proceedings of this house, and that said committee be authorized to have 500 copies printed and distributed to the members of the house for the benefit of their constituents, and that they have power to forward documents by express riders." The disappearance of these eight pages is easy to understand in view of the fact that the last issue of the Telegraph printed at San Felipe was that of March 24, and that shortly afterwards the press was moved to Harrisburg, where, after a few copies of the next issue, that of April 14, had been printed, Harrisburg was evacuated and the press thrown into Buffalo Bayou by the Mexicans.

Though this note is already long, I think some reference should be made to the manuscript sources and to the Gammel text of 1898. The status of the manuscript records in the Texas Archives, now in the State Library, is briefly referred to by Dr. Rupert Richardson in the bibliography following his interesting article, "Framing the Constitution of the Republic of Texas," in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for January, 1928, Vol. XXXI, p. [191]-220 at p. 218. Dr. Richardson says in part:

"Among the journals there is a record of each days proceedings kept on separate sheets for each day. Also, there is an enrolled copy of the journal covering the first ten days of the convention but left off entirely for the time thereafter."

Thanks to the kind coöperation of Miss Harriet Smither, my assistant at Austin, Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean, was able to make a thorough examination of the same manuscript records and gave me a careful report of their contents. I am inclined to think that the enrolled copy which Dr. Richardson refers to is probably the same as the proceedings "up to the night of the 10th," which Secretary of State Roberts mentioned in his letter to Franklin. It is a manuscript draft in two handwritings, on pages numbered through 44, for the sessions through part of March 10 where the manuscript breaks off in the middle of a sentence. There are scattered sheets for each of the sessions from the first through that of March 15 and at the Grand Lodge a record for the proceedings of March 16 and 17, which Secretary of State Roberts had certified for Franklin. This certified copy, incidentally, is laid in the Grand Lodge copy and is the text which Gammel follows for these two days in his 1898 reprint.

Mrs. McLean finds that the forty-four-page manuscript draft for the period March 1-10, which Dr. Richardson refers to as the "enrolled copy," differs in many respects from the text of the original printed Journals, but that the scattered manuscript sheets for the different days do check fairly well with the printed Journals, though for some of the text of the Journals no corresponding manuscript can be found.

It further appears that there was a separate manuscript for the "Rules of the Convention" which are given in the printed record of the March 2 session, but no separate manuscript for the Declaration of Independence, though this was in the "enrolled copy" for the period March 1-10, and that the archives contain some interesting manuscripts on the session of March 15, the contents of which are lacking in the 1836 printed Journal. These include resolutions offered by Sydney O. Penington and George C. Childress, and a record that Sterling C. Robertson addressed the convention. This was presumably to present a petition from his colonists to the convention that the land office in the colony be opened. The original of this petition is among the Robertson papers held by his descendants. For the sessions of Wednesday and Thursday, March 16 and 17, which were not reported at all in the 1836 Journal, there are in the archives records of the election of the officers of the interim government on March 16 and a detailed undated memorandum showing how each member voted. There is none of this in the report of "the two last days making about eight pages of foolscap," which Roberts had certified for Franklin and which Gammel printed in his 1898 publication of the Journal.

One of the most important acts of the last two days of the Convention was the passage on March 16 of the Executive Ordinance, with its fourteen resolutions, setting up the organization of the interim government which was to govern Texas until the permanent government provided for in the constitution began to function. There is no mention of the Executive Ordinance in the Journal of the Convention published by Gammel, but it was printed in the Telegraph and Texas Register for August 16, 1836, and in the Ordinances and Decrees of the Consultation, Provisional Government of Texas and the Convention, Houston, 1838, it being the only ordinance of the Convention printed in the Ordinances and Decrees. Miss Harriet Smither has found the original manuscript of this ordinance in Letter Book No. 3 [II/5] manuscript, p. 119-120, Texas State Archives. Another ordinance passed by the Convention on March 16, but not mentioned in the Gammel Journal or in Ordinances and Decrees referred to above, was an Ordinance Granting Bounties of Land to Volunteers. This is printed in the Telegraph for August 23, 1836, with a note saying that it had been previously printed "in the only number of our paper issued at Harrisburg"; this was the issue of April 14, 1835. The Journal as printed by Gammel also fails to record the organization of the interim government or the adoption of the Constitution, both of which, according to Grays diary in his From Virginia to Texas, 1835, Houston, 1909, took place at a late hour the night of Wednesday, the 16th.

The authorities at the University of Texas Library have kindly sent to me for examination their photostat of the Grand Lodge printed copy. It appears from the photostat that the missing printed pages in the Grand Lodge copy, that is, pages 19-26, 35-42, 75-90, are supplied in manuscript. The first two gaps are said by Mr. Winkler to be in the handwriting of William Fairfax Gray, and the manuscript for the pages 75-90 gap bears a notation that it is by his son, Peter W. Gray. In the University of Texas photostat of the Grand Lodge copy are photostats from the Harvard Law School copy of pages 35-42, 75-90 of the original printed Journals, but for some reason there is no photostat of Harvards printed pages 19-26.

The Peter W. Gray draft for the last two days, though not giving as much information as the manuscript records in the Archives, does record the election of the officers of the interim government on March 16, but as said above Gammel followed the certified copy from which this important feature was omitted.

Recently Mr. Arthur C. Pulling, Director of the Harvard Law School Library, was kind enough to have made for me a comparison of that part of the Gammel reprint which was made from the manuscript part of the Grand Lodge copy, with the original printed pages at the Harvard Law School Library. This comparison showed that though there are a great many minor differences between the original printed copy and the Gammel reprint in spelling of names, wording of action on resolutions and the like, the only important ones are the interpolation in the Gammel reprint of the proceedings for March 15 of the Fisher "Report on the African Slave Trade" (Gammel, Vol. I, p. 896), and another interpolation at the end of the record of the session of March 15, "A Letter from Genl. Sam Houston, announcing the fall of the Alamo, was read by the President." These two interpolations are called for by the Peter W. Gray manuscript. The "Report on the African Slave Trade" was ordered printed, but no copy is known to have survived. See No. 164 for its entry here.

Whoever edits a new edition of the Journal will probably spend some time in considering a manuscript record of the sessions of the Convention given to the Dallas Historical Society. This breaks off abruptly, as does the "enrolled copy" in the Texas Archives, in recording the session of March 10, and, like the "enrolled copy," is said to differ in many respects from the printed Journals. Possibly it is another copy of the "enrolled copy."

Years ago I had some experience with this particular manuscript, as it was suggested to me by Valta Parma, then Curator of Rare Books at the Library of Congress, that I buy it for my collection. I remarked that I only felt like paying enough for the manuscript to have the fun of studying it and trying to decide what importance should be given to it, for it seemed to me that if it developed that the manuscript was what might be called "official," I would be in duty bound to turn it over to the State of Texas, who would have legal title to it, if it was "official"; and if not "official," it was of no great commercial value. As it was, I did make quite a study of the manuscript and came to the conclusion that it was not in the handwriting of any of the secretaries of the Convention and was probably a copy of some early draft. I learned later that the authorities at the University of Texas had come to a similar conclusion.

This did not sit very well with Mr. Parma and the owners of the manuscript, and subsequently an elaborate brochure, undated and without imprint, was put out on the manuscript with the title reading: The Most Important Texas Historical Document in Existence. The Only Extant Formal Manuscript Journal of the Convention Which Declared the Independence of Texas in 1836. This reproduced a letter from Mr. Parma to Frank Glenn of Kansas City extolling its value and saying, "there is evidence that a record answering the description of this Journal was at one time in the archives at Austin." As the brochure describes the manuscript as "Bound in the original marble boards and calf, lettered on backstrip Journal of Convention 1836," Mr. Parma may well have been correct.

In this note I have referred to the copy of the Journal at the State Department and to copies at the Telegraph Office in 1841, both of which only recorded the proceedings to the night of March 15. David G. Burnet in his Review of the Life of Gen. Sam Houston by J.T. Towers, Galveston, 1852, says, p. 4, "I refer to the Journals of that Convention they are extant; I have a copy, but it is not before me." All three of these copies have disappeared unless one of them is the copy now at the Grand Lodge at Waco. The other surviving copy, that at Harvard, could not be one of these copies, for, as I have stated above, their copy came to them on September 25, 1840, the gift of Mr. Justice Story.

Mexican Imprints Relating to Texas

As I assembled the material for this bibliography of Texas through 1845, it soon became evident that clarity would be gained by presenting it in three sections. Mexican Imprints lists separately the pieces relating to Texas printed in Mexico. Accordingly, here gathered in one place are publications in Mexico on what was first a remote and almost unpopulated province of New Spain; next one of the Mexican states which was becoming increasingly attractive to emigrants from the United States; then a Mexican state in revolt; and finally an independent republic. The Mexican imprints provide an interesting supplement and contrast to the Texan material and a comparison of specific accounts of the same event written from the two opposing viewpoints is often illuminating.

For the first twenty-five years or so of our period, Texas was a remote part of New Spain, of little interest to the Spanish authorities at Mexico except for its uncertain boundaries with the United States and the occasional expeditions of foreigners into its territory. As stated in the Introduction to Texas Imprints, "At the opening of the period covered by this bibliography, there were perhaps 4,000 people of European blood in the vast region now included in the State of Texas, and there were only three settlements of any importance: San Antonio de Bexar, La Bahía (Goliad), and Nacogdoches. In the next twenty-five years or so under Spanish rule, there was little change except that by 1820 Nacogdoches had become almost a deserted village." The status of Texas is shown by an address printed at Monterrey in 1820 (No. 683 here), which refers to "the then unhappy state of the four Internal Provinces, their vast deserted stretches of country, their inhabitants victims del furor de los Indios barbaros, agriculture ruined, the limited industry almost annihilated, and the government treasury empty." In view of the foregoing it is not surprising that there are only three entries here of Mexican imprints for the period ending in 1810. There are only seven more for the next nine years, but some of these are of great importance, relating as they do to the Mina occupation of Galveston Island in 1817, followed by his expedition into Mexico.

The five-year period beginning in 1820 is marked by the success of the revolt of Mexico from Spain. This resulted first in Iturbides rule as Emperor for a few months in 1822, followed by a provisional government, and then in 1824 by the Federal Republic of Mexico. Under Spanish rule, Texas had been one of the Four Internal Provinces of the East, along with Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Nuevo Santander (later known as Tamaulipas). In 1824, the two Mexican states of Texas and Coahuila were joined into one state of the same name with its capital at Saltillo (or Leona Vicario as it was called for a few years), and then at Monclova, both in what is now the Mexican state of Coahuila. In July, 1820, the first of several imprints relating to Texas as one of the Internal Provinces of the East was published at Monterrey, the capital of Nuevo Leon, within a few months of the beginning of printing there, and for the next five years most of the Monterrey imprints on Texas are of this nature. Items on colonization, which though general in form were intended for Texas, constitute most of the Mexico City printing on Texas at this time.

Although there are several Mexican imprints for the next ten years relating to interesting events occurring in what is now Texas while it was a part of the Mexican republic, most of the entries for the period are imprints of the capital of Coahuila and Texas, concerning the functioning of the state government and its relationship with affairs in Texas. These include pamphlets relating to the adoption by Coahuila and Texas of the constitution which governed Texas until the 1835 revolution and such laws of the State Congress directly relating to Texas as were given by title only in Kimballs Laws and Decrees. The original edition of certain other laws, though reprinted in Kimball or in collections of Mexican laws, are also entered when they are collectors items, such as the laws establishing Texas towns and regional divisions of Texas. Another interesting lot in this period is made up of the Nota Estadisticas, reporting to the Central Government on the events in the state, and Memorias of state governors on the same subject.

Entries from July, 1835, through the year 1837 primarily relate to the Mexican reaction to the Texas revolution and Mexicos efforts to defeat it. The revolt of Texas might be said to have begun with the June 22, 1835, meeting at San Felipe reported in No. 80 of Texas Imprints though through the summer Texas opinion was still divided. On July 5 General Cós warned the Texans in a proclamation at Matamoros (No. 827 here) that war was apt to follow their "badly conceived zeal;" and that hostilities had actually begun in October is shown by a circular of the Mexican Secretary of State published at Saltillo on October 31, 1835 (No. 840 here), proclaiming that the "perfidious and ungrateful Texans" had revolted and that troops were being sent against them.

The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged. This was finally put down at the battle of Saltillo late in October, 1840, though Colonel Jordan of Texas and his Texas troops made a brilliant escape back into Texas.

There are interesting entries under the year 1841 relating to the capture of the vanguard of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition; and for 1842 on the two occupations that year of San Antonio by the Mexicans, the first in March by General Vasquez and the second in September by General Woll. In todays language, the term "cold war" might well be applied to the relations between Mexico and Texas for the final three years, 1843-1845, covered here. For four months in the spring of 1844, this was interrupted by an armistice, and in the first six months of 1845 there are several entries relating to efforts of prominent Mexicans to bring about a treaty of peace.

The entries as a whole, presenting as they do the Mexican point of view on Texas happenings, make an interesting and rather unusual group, for the vast majority of which there has not been until now a bibliographical record. Of the 377 numbered entries and sub-entries here, Raines in his pioneer Bibliography of Texas, Austin, 1896, only records seven, and Rader in his South of Forty from the Mississippi to the Rio Grande, Norman, 1947, only nine. Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.

In a regional bibliography such as this, there is always a question as to what to include and what to omit. In the case of laws of Spain and later of the different governments of Mexico, the general theory has been to include laws which directly relate to Texas and exclude those relating to Mexico as a whole. For example, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico and its various amendments have been omitted, while the early colonization laws of Mexico and projects for such laws, though general in terms, in fact were intended primarily for Texas and have been included. By the same token, laws on elections of the four Internal Provinces of the East, of which Texas was one, are included; while election laws of the Central Government relating to Mexico as a whole have been excluded, though Texas may be one of the states mentioned. Where no separate original printing or contemporary republication of a Mexican law relating to Texas has been located, the entry is made from modern collections of laws such as Dublan y Lozanos Legislacion Mexicana, Mexico, 1876. In title entries, it has been intended to follow the use of accents on the title page of the original. This sometimes results in the same word being both accented and not accented in the same entry.

At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals. Usually, if the original publication at Mexico City is entered here, subsequent republications, or publications of the same general tenor, are not given a separate entry and are mentioned, if at all, in the note to the first publication. They are not included in the census of copies. Examples of this procedure are the comments in the note to No. 884, the proclamation of May 19, 1836, of the interim president of Mexico, José Justo Corro, announcing the capture of Santa Anna. To the same effect see note to No. 892, the proclamation of the Secretary of State of May 31, 1836, asking for contributions to the national treasury.

There are no entries for regular issues of newspapers, but special issues or extras are intended to be entered when the contents primarily relate to Texas. The Mexicans were as fond of publishing extras of newspapers as they were of issuing proclamations and there must be many not here entered which will come to light from time to time. Recent information also indicates that further searches in the leading Mexican libraries will almost certainly disclose additional separately published material relating to Texas.

While there are no entries for regular issues of newspapers, it has seemed worth while to record here in Appendix A lists of the issues as far as now known of the official records of proceedings and the like of the government of Coahuila and Texas which were published at Leona Vicario and Monclova in the period 1829-1835, as such listing may well result in reports of other issues. The appendix gives data on the Gazeta Constitucional, published by the government at Leona Vicario in 1829-1830 and the Gaceta del Gobierno Supremo del Estado de Coahuila y Tejas, published for a short time at Leona Vicario and then at Monclova, in 1833-1835. There is also a listing of an issue of the Diario del Gobierno of April 16, 1835, and of a few copies of the Boletin Oficial del Estado de Coahuila y Texas, published at Monclova in April-May 1835.

The introduction to Texas Imprints listed the number of entries in Mexican Imprints and the holdings of certain libraries. Since then new entries have been added to Mexican Imprints and others removed so that while there were formerly 333 numbered entries and 3 sub-entries, there are now 356 numbered entries and 21 sub-entries. There are 325 entries located in one or more copies, and 53 entries for which no present locations have been found. Locations at the six Texas institutions represented by the greatest number of entries are:

University of Texas 138
Texas State Library 58
Spanish Archives at Court House, San Antonio 20
Texas Land Office 13
Baylor University Library 6
Rosenberg at Galveston 4

For the six largest collections not in Texas the locations recorded here are:

Yale 71
Bancroft 50
Biblioteca Nacional, Mexico 37
California State Library-Sutro 21
Library of Congress 19
Streeter 192

Since there has been considerable interest in the list of Texas Imprints of the fifteen books which might be first chosen for a Texas collection, I shall make a similar attempt here, but limit it to ten publications. It is really a fascinating task for a private collector or institutional librarian to formulate such a list, though all of us realize the pitfalls. My own selections, which are quite tentative, follow. The arrangement is chronological.

No. 677, Boletin I de la Division Ausiliar de la Republica Mexicana, [1817]. This is the first published account of Minas expedition in the spring of 1817 from Galveston Island to Soto la Marina in Tamaulipas to aid the Mexican revolt from Spain. On the way a temporary landing was made at the mouth of the Rio Grande. Proclamations of Mina preceding and during the expedition are given in Texas Imprints, where they are listed as the first and second Texas imprints. No location for either of these proclamations is now known, so this Boletin, though without an imprint, is also either the first or second surviving publication of Samuel Bangs, the pioneer Texas printer. Copies are located in the National Museum of Mexico and in my collection.

No. 692, Texas Association Memorial, 1822. This petition to the Mexican Congress for a grant of land for the colonization of Texas is dated at Mexico City, May 17, 1822, and signed by such well known later citizens of Texas as Sam Houston, Ira Ingram, and Sterling C. Robertson. It is the earliest petition in printed form now known for a Texas colonization grant. The only copy located thus far is in my collection.

No. 694, the Mexican Colonization Law of January 4, 1823. This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823. Shortly afterwards Iturbide abdicated, but this, his only colonization decree, was confirmed by the new government which later passed new legislation for colonization grants. Copies have been located in the Archives of the Surveyor Generals Office of New Mexico, the Texas Land Office, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.

No. 713, the Fiorenzo Galli map of Texas, Mexico, 1826. This is the earliest separately printed map of Texas to be entered in any of the three parts of this bibliography. There is no entry in Texas Imprints for a map printed in what is now Texas, and in U.S. and European Imprints the first map showing primarily Texas is the Austin Map of Texas with Parts of the Adjoining States, published first in Philadelphia in 1830. The only copy of the Galli map located thus far is at the University of Texas Library.

No. 708A, Constitucionde Coahuila y Tejas, Mexico, 1827. This is the first publication in full of the fundamental law which governed Texas until the Texas Revolution. Copies have been located at the Huntington Library at San Marino, the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.

No. 742, Ordnanzas [sic] Municipales parala Ciudad de San Antonio de Bejar, Leona Vicario, 1829. These are the first published regulations for the government of what is now one of the great cities of Texas. They are listed in Kimball only by title. Copies have been located at the University of Texas Library and in my collection.

No. 865, Santa Annas report, sent off at eight in the morning of March 6, 1836, of the capture of the Alamo three hours before. This includes the statement that among the six hundred slain Texans were Bowie, Travis, and Crockett. The heroic attempt to defend the Alamo is one of the cherished memories of Texas. The only copy of this located thus far is in my collection.

No. 852, Filisolas Manifesto of July 12, 1836, telling of the defeat and capture of Santa Anna at San Jacinto, an event which made the independence of Texas a reality. Copies have been located in the Biblioteca Nacional at Mexico, in the Yale Library, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.

No. 963, Proclamation of Governor Conde of Chihuahua giving a report dated September 28, 1841, of the Commandant at Villa del Paso. This is probably the first separate account in print of the capture of the vanguard of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition. The capture and subsequent imprisonment in Mexico of the members of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition of 1841 is one of the significant events in Texas history. Copies have been located at the New York Public Library and in my collection.

No. 989, Wolls Expedicion hecha en Tejas, por una Partas de la 2.a Division del Cuerpo de Egercito del Norte, Monterrey, 1842. As late as the year 1842 Mexico continued to assert its claims to the Texas country with a raid on San Antonio by General Vasquez in March, and an occupation of the city in September by Wolls well organized expedition. Court was in session and several prominent Texans were taken as prisoners into Mexico. This was the last invasion of Texas by Mexico, and indeed the end of actual hostilities between the two countries. Copies have been located at the Bancroft, Yale, and University of Texas libraries, at the Biblioteca Nacional at Mexico City, and in the collection of Mr. Everett D. Graff.

These ten entries which might be selected for the treasure room of a Texas collection by no means include all the interesting and important items in Mexican Imprints. Most collectors would rejoice to have No. 675, Joaquin Infantes Cancion Patriotica with its earliest surviving Samuel Bangs imprint thus far recorded. The first general colonization law of Mexico, which became effective on August 18, 1824 (No. 703), is a fundamental piece. Other items directly relating to Texas and published while Texas was still a Mexican state include the Breve Apologia of Gutiérrez de Lara, Monterrey, 1827 (No. 721), reporting on the Gutiérrez-Magee expedition of 1812-1813 across Texas and its capture of San Antonio de Bexar; the Puelles Informe, Zacatecas, 1828 (No. 734), regarding the Texas boundary; the Informe of Bishop Marin (No. 758), on his visit to Nacogdoches in 1805; Berlandiers Memorias, Matamoros, 1832 (No. 781), telling of his travels in Texas in 1828; two medical items, Instruccion Formada para Ministrar la Vacuna, Leona Vicario, 1830 (No. 760), and Ignacio Sendejas Metodo Curativo de la Colera Morbo, Monclova, 1833 (No. 793); Victor Blancos account of the November, 1833, meeting of Austin with Santa Anna, Monclova, 1833 (No. 786), and Austins Esposicion al publico, Mexico, 1835 (No. 817).

Important pieces on the Mexican campaign of 1836 against Texas include Urreas Noticias Intersantes (No. 896), giving the reports of his engagements with the Texans in March, 1836, which ended triumphantly with the surrender of Fannin, and Santa Annas defense of his conduct of the campaign in his Manifesto Que de Sus Operaciones en la Campaña de Tejas, Veracruz, 1837 (No. 930). In the following year Urrea published a lengthy defense of his military operations in his Diario de los Operaciones Militares de la Division Que al Mando del General Jose Urrea Hizo la Campaña de Tejas, Victoria de Durango, 1838 (No. 940), which was answered by General Filisola in his Analisis del diario Militar del General D. José Urrea, Matamoras, 1838 (No. 936).

In the Introduction to Texas Imprints, I expressed my thanks to the many who had helped on this bibliography. To several of them I am again indebted for help with Mexican Imprints and I must mention especially Miss Llerena Friend, Librarian of the Barker Texas History Center at the University of Texas, who has cheerfully and promptly answered the many questions I have had to ask for Mexican Imprints. There are several new names to add to the list of those who have helped. Professor Carlos E. Castañeda of the University of Texas has aided me on the Mexican background, and he and his former graduate student, Mr. Charles A. Bacarisse, now of the University of Houston, have kindly straightened out for me many obscure points in the history of the state government of Coahuila and Texas. Miss Nettie Lee Benson of the Latin American Collection at the University of Texas, Mrs. Virginia H. Taylor, Archivist of the Texas State Library, and the staff of the Diplomatic Records Branch of the National Archives at Washington, D.C., have all been most kind in passing on information from their respective institutions. Mr. Archibald Hanna of the Yale Library, Mrs. Eleanor Bancroft of the Bancroft Library of the University of California, and Mr. Carey S. Bliss of the Huntington Library, who were thanked for their help in Texas Imprints, have made new checks for Mexican Imprints items in their respective institutions, and Mr. James H. Boudreau of the Simmons College Library has done this for the Harvard libraries and the Boston Public Library. Mr. Fred R. Cotten of Weatherford, Texas, has informed me of the results of interesting investigations made for him in Mexican libraries. My thanks go to these ladies and gentlemen.

On my own staff, Joseph G. Roberts, a recent graduate of the University of Michigan and its Library School, has replaced my former librarian, Howell J. Heaney, to whom this bibliography owes so much. A few months ago Mr. Heaney went on with my blessing to an important post on the staff of the Free Library of Philadelphia. Mr. Roberts has been most helpful on what seems to be the almost endless amount of checking which should be done in a work of this kind and he also bears the main responsibility for the Index. As was the case for Texas Imprints, my secretary, Miss Marian Griffin, continues to be a tower of strength. Again I wish to record my most sincere thanks to these members of my staff who have helped me so much.

Thomas W. Streeter
Morristown, New Jersey

 

Books referred to in Mexican Imprints by author or short title

Actas del Congreso Constitucional del Estado Libre de Coahuila y Texas. I, II, IV, VII, and IX, typed transcript in University of Texas Library.

Arrillaga, Basilio Jose, compiler. Recopilacion de Leyesde la Republica Mexicana. Formada porel lic. Basilio Jose Arrillaga1828-[1838]. 13 vols. Mexico, 1834-1842.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of Mexico, San Francisco, 1886-1888. 6 vols. (Vols. 9-14 of his Works.)

______. History of the North Mexican States and Texas, San Francisco, 1886-1889. 2 vols. (Vols. 15-16 of his Works.)

Barker, Eugene C. The Life of Stephen F. Austin, Nashville, Dallas, 1925.

Barker, Eugene C., editor. The Austin Papers. 3 vols. in 4. (Vol. I in two parts, Washington, 1924, and Vol. II, Washington, 1928, as the second volumes of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1919 and 1922; Vol. III, Austin, 1927).

Bustamante, Cárlos María de. Cuadro Histórico de la Revolucion Mexicano. Second edition, Mexico, 1843-1846. 5 vols.

Coleccion de los Decretos y Ordenes del Soberano Congreso Constituyente Mexicano desde su instalacion en 5. de noviembre de 1823 hasta 24 de diciembre de 1824 Mexico, 1825.

Coleccion de Leyes y Decretos, publicados en el ano de 1839 [and 1840], Mexico, 1852.

Coleccion de Ordenes y Decretos de la Soberano Junta Provisional Gubernativa y Soberanos Congresos Generales de la Nacion Mexicana. Tomo I [-IV]Second edition, Mexico, 1829.

Dublan, Manuel and Lozano, Jose M., compilers. Legislacion Mexicana ó Coleccion Completa de las Disposiciones Legislativas expedias Desde la Independencia de la Republica. Ordenada porManuel Dublan y Jose Maria Lozano. Edicion Oficial. Tomo I [-V]. Mexico, 1876.

Gammel, H.P.N., compiler. The Laws of Texas, 1822-1897, Austin, 1898. 10 vols.

Garrison, George P., editor. Diplomatic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas, Washington, 1908-1911. 3 parts in 3 vols. (Part I as Vol. II of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1907; Parts II and III as Vol. II (1) and Vol. II (2) of the Annual Reportfor1908.)

Gulick, Charles Adams, Jr., Elliott, Katherine, Allen, Winnie, and Smither, Harriet, editors. The Papers of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, Austin, 1921-1927. 6 vols. in 7.

Herández y Dávalos, Juan E., compiler. Colección de Documentos para la Historia de la Guerra de Independencia de México de 1808 a 1821, Mexico, 1877-1882. 6 vols.

Kimball, John P., compiler. Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas, Houston, 1839.

Leduc, Alberto and Lara y Pardo, Luis, editors. Diccionario de Geografía, historia y Biografía Mexicanas, Paris and Mexico City, 1910.

Rader, Jesse L. South of Forty from the Mississippi to the Rio Grande: A Bibliography, Norman, Oklahoma, 1947.

Raines, C.W. A Bibliography of Texas, Austin, 1896.

Sabin, Joseph. A Dictionary of Books relating to America, New York, 1868-1936. 29 vols.

Wagner, Henry R. The Spanish Southwest, 1542-1794, Albuquerque, 1937. 2 vols. (Vol. VII, Parts I and II of the Quivira Society Publications.)

Webb, Walter Prescott, Carroll, H. Bailey, Friend, Llerena B., and others, editors. The Handbook of Texas, Austin, 1952. 2 vols.

Other Works Cited

American Imprints Inventory. Check List of New Mexico Imprints and Publications 1784-1876, Michigan Historical Records Survey, 1942.

Austin, Stephen Fuller. Translation of the Laws, Orders and Contracts on Colonization San Felipe de Austin, 1829 (Part I, No. 12.)

Bacarisse, Charles A. The Baron de Bastrop, unpublished Masters thesis, University of Texas, 1955.

Bustamante, Cárlos María de. El Gabinete Mexicano durante el segundo periodo de la Adminstracion del Exmo. Señor Presidente D. Anastasio Bustamante Mexico, 1842. 2 vols.

Castañeda, Carlos E. The Mexican Side of the Texan Revolution (1836) by the Chief Mexican Participants, Translated with Notes by Carlos E. Castañeda, Dallas, 1928.

______. Our Catholic Heritage in Texas, 1519-1936, Austin, 1936. 6 vols.

______. Report on the Spanish Archives in San Antonio, Texas, San Antonio, 1937.

______. Three Manuscript Maps of Texas by Stephen F. Austin, Austin, 1930.

Chovel, Rafael and Berlandier, Jean Louis. Diario de Viage de la Comision de Limites Mexico, 1850.

Clagett, Helen L. Law and Legal Literature of the Mexican States, Washington, D.C., 1947.

Coleccion de Constituciones de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Mexico, 1828. 3 vols.

Communication Forwarded from San Felipe de Austin, Relative to Late Events in Texas, Mobile, 1832. (In U.S. and European Imprints.)

Constitution of the United Mexican States; the General Colonization Law and the Colonization Law of the State of Coahuila and Texas, Natchez, 1826. (In U.S. and European Imprints.)

Documentos para la Historia de la Guerra de Tejas, Mexico, 1952.

Documentos para la Historia de la Litografia en Mexico, Mexico, 1955.

Edward, David B. The History of Texas, Cincinnati, 1836. (In U.S. and European Imprints.)

Filisola, Vicente. Evacuation of Texas. Translation of the Representation addressed to the Supreme Government by Gen. Vicente Filisola, in Defence of His Honor, and Explanation of His Operations as Commander-in-Chief of the Army against Texas, Columbia, 1837. (Texas Imprints, No. 191.)

______. Memorias para la Historia de la Guerra de Tejas, Mexico, R. Rafael, 1848-1849. 2 vols. Continued through the campaign of 1837 in Filisolas work of the same title published by Ignacio Cumplido at Mexico City in 1849, in two volumes.

Fisher, George. Memorials of George Fisher, late secretary to the Expedition of Gen. José Antonio Mexia, against Tampico, Houston, 1840. (Texas Imprints, No. 384.)

Garcia, Genaro, editor. Documentos Historicos Mexicanos, Mexico, 1940.

Garrett, Julia K. Green Flag Over Texas, New York, 1939.

Geiser, Samuel W. Naturalists of the Frontier, Second edition, Dallas, 1948.

Gouge, William M. The Fiscal History of Texas, Philadelphia, 1852.

Hackett, Charles W., editor. Pichardos Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas, Austin, 1931-1946. 4 vols.

Hill, Jim Dan. The Texas Navy, Chicago, 1937.

Jones, William Carey. Land Titles in California. Argument before the Commission on Private Land Claims in California, in the Case of Cruz Cervantes San Francisco, 1852.

Kendall, George W. Narrative of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, New York, 1844. (In U.S. and European Imprints.)

Laws of Colonization passed by the Supreme Government of Mexico and by the Provincial Government of Coahuila and Texas, London, 1828. (In U.S. and European Imprints.)

Marshall, Thomas M. A History of the Western Boundary of the Louisiana Purchase, 1819-1841, Berkeley, 1914.

Martineau, Harriet. Society in America, London, 1837. 3 vols.

Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Vol. I, No. 1, July, 1897 Vol. XV, No. 4, April, 1912. Continued as the Southwestern Historical Quarterly.

Rives, George L. The United States and Mexico 1821-1848, New York, 1913. 2 vols.

Robinson, William D. Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution; Including a Narrative of the Expedition of General Xavier Mina, Philadelphia, 1820. (In U.S. and European Imprints.)

Robles, Vito Alessio. Bibliografia de Coahuila, Mexico, 1927.

______. Coahuila y Texas desde la Consumacion de la Independencia hasta el Tratado de Paz de Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico, 1945-1946. 2 vols.

______. La Primera Imprenta en las Provincias Internas de Oriente, Texas, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León y Coahuila, Mexico, 1939.

Sayles, John, and Sayles, Henry, compilers. Early Laws of Texas, St. Louis, 1888, 3 vols.

Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVI, No. 1, July, 1912, to date. A continuation of the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association.

Valades, José C. Santa Anna y la Guerra de Texas, Mexico, 1936.

Wooten, Dudley G., editor. A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685 to 1897, Dallas, 1898, 2 vols.

Yoakum, Henderson K. History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846, New York, 1855.

 

Key To Location Symbols

Note: The total number of imprints through 1845 located in Mexican Imprints in each of the libraries and collections listed below is given following their names, with the number of apparently unique imprints included in the totals shown in parentheses.

United States Libraries
C-S: California State Library, Sutro Branch, San Francisco, California. 21
CSmH: Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California. 18 (2)
CU-B: Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California. 50 (4)
CtY: Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut. 71 (12)
DLC: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 19
DNA: National Archives, Washington, D.C. 8 (5)
ICJ: John Crerar Library, Chicago, Illinois. 1
ICU: University of Chicago Library, Chicago, Illinois. 1
M: Massachusetts State Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 1
MBAt: Boston Athenæum, Boston, Massachusetts. 1
MH: Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 4
MWA: American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts. 4
MiU-C: William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 8
NmSt-Asg: Archives of the Surveyor General, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 1
NN: New York Public Library, New York, New York. 7
PPAmP: American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1
Tx: Texas State Library, Austin, Texas. 58 (7)
Tx-LO: General Land Office, Austin, Texas. 13
TxDaM: Southern Methodist University Library, Dallas, Texas. 1
TxGR: Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas. 4 (1)
TxSa-Court House: Spanish Archives in the Office of the County Clerk, Bexar County, San Antonio, Texas. 20
TxU: University of Texas Library, Austin, Texas. 138 (33)
TxWB: Baylor University Library, Waco, Texas. 6

Mexican and European Libraries
BM: British Museum, London, England. 4
BNM: Biblioteca Nacional de México, Mexico City, Mexico. 36
Durango: Biblioteca Pública del Estado, Durango, Durango, Mexico. 1
MxCty-SREag: Archivo General de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, Mexico City, Mexico. 8 (4)
Saltillo-AHE: Archivo General de Historia del Estado, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 14
San Luis Potosí-AgE: Archivo General del Estado, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. 5 (3)
Zacatecas: Biblioteca Pública del Estado, Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico. 7

Private Collections
Graff: Everett D. Graff, Winnetka, Illinois. 2
TWS: Thomas W. Streeter, Morristown, New Jersey. 192 (76)

 

Mexican Imprints Appendix A: Official Government Periodicals of Coahuila and Texas

In the period 1829-1835, the government of Coahuila and Texas issued at least four official periodicals. In order of publication these were:

Gazeta Constitucional de Coahuiltejas, Leona Vicario, 1829-1830.

Gaceta del Gobierno Supremo del Estado de Coahuila y Tejas, Leona Vicario, later at Monclova, 1833-1835.

Diario del Gobierno, Monclova, April, 1835.

Boletin Oficial del Estado de Coahuila y Texas, Monclova, April-May, 1835.

An account of these periodicals and a listing of their locations, as far as now known, follow. As many individual copies have obviously not been located, it is hoped that those knowing of issues not recorded, and of other locations of recorded issues, will advise me of them at Morristown so that they can be listed in an appendix in U.S. and European Imprints.

Taking up these periodicals in order, the first is:

Gazeta Constitucional de Coahuiltejas. Leona-Vicario, Jueves 3 de Septiembre de 1829. [At end:] Impreso en la oficina del Supremo Gobierno del Estado en Palacio, á cargo del C. Jose Manuel Bangs. 4-page folder. 31 cm.

This was issued from September, 1829, to June, 1830. The last number recorded here is No. 40 of June 3, 1830, but there is evidence of an issue, No. 41, of June 10. None of the issues after that of April 29, 1830, except the issue of May 20, has an imprint. The extras and supplements are usually in broadside form.

There is at the University of Texas a circular letter soliciting subscriptions to this periodical, dated September 5, 1829, and signed at the end, Jesus Maria de Ybarra. The subscription price, payable in advance, is "cinco reales por cada cuatro números."

It might be stated that there is hardly any Texas interest in the issues so far seen of this publication, which are listed below. The earlier numbers and extras have much about the Spanish invasion of Mexico, and the issues of March and April, 1830, report in rather abbreviated form the proceedings of the state legislature, but have nothing of Texas interest. No discussion was noted on Decree 128, passed April 1, 1830, especially relating to Texas and giving regulations on surveys of land.

The locations so far as now known of the various issues of the Gazeta Constitucional are as follows:

Saltillo Archives
1830: No. 35, April 29.

Texas State Library (Nacogdoches Archives)
1829: Supplement to No. 5, Oct. 1; Supplement to No. 10, Nov. 5; No. 14, Dec. 3.

University of Texas (Bexar Archives)
1829: No. 1, Sept, 3; No. 2, Sept. 10; Extra, Sept. 15; No. 3, Sept. 17; No. 14, Dec. 3.
1830: No. 28, March 11; Supplement, March 11; No. 29, March 18; Supplement, March 18; Supplement to No. 33, April 15

Streeter
1829: Extra, Sept. 15
1830: Supplement, March 18; Nos. 32-33, 34, 35, April 8, 15, 22, 29; Nos. 36, 37, 38, 39, May 6, 13, 20, 27; No. 40, June 3.

Others Privately owned
1829: Extra, undated, ca. Sept. 4; Extra, Sept. 15; Supplement to No. 10, Nov. 7; No. 16, Dec. 17.
1830: Supplement, April 1.

The next official periodical in point of time is:

Gaceta del Gobierno Supremo del Estado de Coahuila y Tejas. [Leona Vicario, then Monclova.] [At end:] Imprenta del Gobierno á cargo del C. Sisto Gonzalez. 4-page folder. 31 cm. 1833-1835.

The first issue of this periodical is dated Friday, January 11, 1833. Leona Vicario was then the capital of the state of Coahuila and Texas and continued as such until March 9 when by Decree No. 214 (Kimball, p. 207) it was voted to move the capital to Monclova. Issues of the Gaceta after that date were published at Monclova. This first issue of January 11 was preceded by an undated prospectus saying the paper would be issued on Monday and Friday of each week, the subscription price being "un peso cada mes, para la capital, y diaz reales para afuera franco de porte." Soon this twice-a-week publication was changed to weekly, with publications on Mondays. By March 19, 1834, the publication day had been changed to Wednesdays. Though the issues from January 11, 1833, to and including August 12, 1835, are numbered consecutively 1-99, it appears that there was a long interval between dates of publication in 1835, the issue of April 9, 1835, being numbered 96 and that for July 29, No. 97. There were also earlier gaps. I have not tried to locate any issues of the Gaceta after that of August 18, 1835, as by that time, and indeed somewhat earlier, there were no relations between the state government at Monclova and Texas.

There is a letter in the Nacogdoches Archives from Ramon Musquiz to the Alcalde of Nacogdoches dated January 26, 1833, enclosing a copy of the prospectus noted above, in which the discontinuance in 1830 of the previous Gazeta is noted and the ayuntamientos are ordered to subscribe to the new publication.

The Gaceta, unlike the previous Gazeta, has references to Texas matters in many of its issues. Some which might be mentioned are an article by Miguel Muldoon in No. 9, the May 27, 1833, issue, giving a general description of Texas; various statements in No. 19 of August 5, 1833, regarding the attitude of the De Witt Colony at Gonzalez to the convention held at Austin in April, 1833; accounts of Indian attacks in Nos. 44, 47, 48, and 49, in February, March and April, 1834; details of Texas elections in No. 76, the October 15, 1834, issue; comment on Almontes visit in No. 77, the October 22 issue, and letter of Thomas Jefferson Chambers on the judiciary system of Texas in No. 86, the December 24, 1834, issue. The issues from January to April, 1835, have considerable background material on the controversies in Coahuila between what might be called the Federalist group at Monclova, friendly to Texas, and the Centralist group at Leona Vicario.

Though the Gaceta was issued in March, and as late as the beginning of April, 1835, it began to be superseded, probably in March, by another government publication, of which only one issue has so far been located Diario del Gobierno, No. 6, which is dated April 16, 1835. An account of that periodical follows here, after the listing of locations of the Gaceta.

The locations so far as now known of the various issues of the Gaceta del Gobierno are as follows:

Saltillo Archives
The undated prospectus.
1833: Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, January 11, 14, 18, 21; Extra to No. 3; No. 9, May 27; Nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, June 3, 10, 17, 24; Nos. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29; Extra to No. 16; No. 19, Aug. 5; No. 33, Dec. 9.
1834: Extra to No. 67, Aug. 13.
1835: No. 97, July 29; No. 98, Aug. 5.

Texas State Library
The undated prospectus.

University of Texas (Bexar Archives)
1833: No. 22, Aug, 26; No. 23, Sept. 2; Extra to No. 23.
1834: No. 40, Jan. 29; No. 42, Feb. 12; Extra to No. 76, Oct. 15; No. 77, Oct. 22; No. 79, Nov. 5; Nos. 84, 85, 86, Dec. 10, 17, 24.
1835: No. 88, Jan. 7; No. 91, Feb. 4; No. 96, April 9.

Yale
1833: Extra, Sept. 2.
1834: Extra, Aug. 17.

Streeter
1833: No. 19, Aug. 5.
1834: Nos. 41, 44, Feb. 5, 26; No. 47, March 19; Nos. 48, 49, April 2, 9; Extra, Aug. 17; Nos. 70, 71, 72, 73, Sept. 3, 10, 17, 24; Nos. 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, Oct. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29; Nos. 79, 80, 81, 82, Nov. 5, 12, 19, 26; Nos. 83, 84, 86, 87, Dec, 3, 10, 24, 31.
1835: Nos. 88, 89, 90, Jan. 7, 21, 28; No. 91, Feb. 4; No. 92, March 11; No. 94, March 25; No. 95, April 1; Supplement to No. 96, April 8; No. 98, Aug. 5.

Others privately owned
1833: No. 3, Jan. 18; Extra to No. 3; No. 16, July 15; No. 18, July 29; No. 32, Dec. 2.
1834: No. 37, Jan. 8; No. 79, Nov. 5; Nos. 81, 82, Nov. 19, 26; No. 87, Dec. 31.
1835: Extra to No. 95, April 1 (See No. 846 here); No. 97, July 29; No. 99, Aug. 12.

Diario del Gobierno. [Monclova.] Imprenta del gobierno, del Estado de Coahuila y Texas á cargo del C. Sisto Gonzalez. 4-page folder. 31 cm.

The only copy of the Diario which has been thus far located is dated April 16, 1835, a Thursday, with the statement "Numero 6" in parenthesis following the title. If this was a weekly its first issue was in March, 1835. This issue gives Agustin Viescas inaugural address delivered on April 15, No. 819 here, and other proceedings at the inauguration not given in No. 819.

An Aviso at the end says, most incorrectly as events turned out, that the internal troubles of the state, set in motion by the gefe, of the comandancia militar, were happily settled. It continues by saying that this Diario, which was started to keep the public informed of the acts of the military and political authorities, is now being discontinued and that in the future it will be issued in a different form and title.

The continuation just referred to is the Boletin Oficial, a brief account of which follows.

Locations of Diary del Gobierno:
Bancroft Library
1835: No. 6, April 16.

Boletin Oficial del Estado de Coahuila y Texas. Monclova, 27 de Abril de 1835 (Num 1). [At end, on p. 4:] Imprenta del Gobierno á Cargo del C. Sisto Gonzalez. 4-page folder. 23 cm.

There were two issues of the Boletin in April, 1835, No. 1 on April 27, and No. 2 on April 29, and three issues in May, Nos. 3, 4, and 5, on May 4, 8, and 13. All were 4-page folders except the last which was a broadsheet.

This publication, like its two predecessors, the Gaceta del Gobierno and the Diario del Gobierno, represents what I refer to previously in this appendix and in entries such as No. 818 here, as the Federalist group. These issues of the Boletin have to do with the controversy with the revolting Centralists of Leona Vicario whose representatives had withdrawn from the State Congress.

In issue No. 4 of May 8, Agustin Viesca, the governor, attacks the commanding general, Cós, for his interference in state affairs. In a broadside dated May 12, 1835, No. 825 here, Cós charges that Viescas governing group at Monclova were showing tendencies subversive to the central government at Mexico. The controversy became more and more bitter and on May 25, 1835, as stated in the note to No. 819 here, Viesca retired from Monclova and on June 5 he was captured by the Centralists and imprisoned.

 

United States and European Imprints Relating to Texas

My interest in Texas began with a business visit there in the spring of 1913 after examining oil properties in Mexico. As these visits to Texas continued, and as I gradually became somewhat familiar with its history, I became more and more fascinated with the flowering in the short period of fifty years of a little known, remote, sparsely settled Spanish province into the thriving Republic of Texas, and with the great events of that period; the colonization of Texas by Americans under the leadership of Stephen F. Austin, the drama of the Texas Revolution, and the many-sided struggle ending with annexation by the United States.

The history of the Texas region for this fifty-year period beginning in 1795 seemed to me more colorful and glamorous than any fifty-year period of any of our states, except perhaps Massachusetts from 1620 to 1670, and to constitute an important part of the general history of the entire United States. I then began in a modest way to collect books relating to Texas. This led to a long and close friendship with Henry R. Wagner, and to talks with him about his recently completed The Spanish Southwest 1542-1794, Berkeley, 1924, where the Texas region as well as that of the entire southwest is so magnificently covered. It was with his blessing, and in the valor of ignorance, that I began in 1927 to gather material and draft notes for a bibliography in the Wagner style, which for Texas alone would carry his work forward another fifty years. Thirty-three years later that work is, happily for me, finished.

The completion of this project has suffered from many delays. The depression of the early 1930s and an active business life that continued until late in 1939 left little time for this bibliography, and after 1939 many other activities, among them the collection of historical Americana in fields other than Texas, took much time and energy.

The first part of this bibliography, Texas Imprints, was finally completed for publication in two volumes in 1955. Texas imprints for the early years, ending in 1845, sometimes even by the mere fact of their being printed, throw light on the history of their region, and many are in themselves important in Texas history. In Texas Imprints an attempt is made to describe them adequately, as well as to record them. Mexican Imprints Relating to Texas was published in 1956 and describes and locates imprints recording the Mexican point of view on its varying relationships with Texas. Little attention had previously been given to this field and many of these Mexican imprints could be located only in a single copy, and only occasionally could more than two copies be located. With the growing interest in these imprints, new items are being found, together with new locations for entries already made.

U.S. and European Imprints completes the bibliography. It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845. The numbering is continuous with Mexican Imprints, the opening entry here being No. 1027, for a book printed in 1795, and the final entry is No. 1631, for an undated broadside entered under Texas. Navy Insignia. (Eight entries have been added to U.S. and European Imprints and twenty-two to Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints, making the final entry No. 1661.)

Before proceeding to general comments on some of the interesting entries in U.S. and European Imprints, attention should be called to a new feature in regional bibliographies present here. That is the emphasis placed on maps. It is thought that a contemporary map of a little-known region calls for record and description, just as much as a contemporary book about the region. Here, out of 613 main entries, there are 60 main entries for maps. Among such classic regional bibliographies as Thomsons Bibliography of Ohio, Cincinnati, 1880, Wagners Spanish Southwest 1542-1794, Berkeley, 1924, and Miss Baers Seventeenth Century Maryland, Baltimore, 1949, only Miss Baer enters printed maps. There she goes so far as to say (p. xv) that in addition to entries for maps with a descriptive text, "in one or two instances maps, without text, have been entered because of their great historical importance to Maryland." Even Wagner, interested in and learned as he was in cartography, pays little attention to describing the maps present in the books entered in his Spanish Southwest. The principles followed here as to the classes of maps to be entered are stated in a later part of this Introduction, dealing with the general subject of the policy followed on entries. In addition to maps given separate entry, maps in books included here are described in full in the notes to the entries for the books in which they appear.

Comments now follow on some of the interesting books and maps in U.S. and European Imprints. Those marked with an asterisk I regard as especially desirable for a Texas collection.

Life, Travel, and Exploration

In the general field of life, travel and exploration in Texas, there are two important accounts of explorations of the Red River region, one by Dr. John Sibley, the other by Thomas Freeman, both ordered by Jefferson shortly after the Louisiana Purchase. Dr. Sibleys account of the region and of the Indian tribes of Texas which accompanies Jeffersons Message of February 19, 1806* (No. 1038), seems to be the first description of any part of Texas, in English, other than that of Pagès (No. 1027) which, even if authentic, is of little value. Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards. His report is given in An Account of the Red River, in Louisiana, Drawn up from the Returns of Messrs. Freeman & CustusWho Explored the Same, in the Year 1806,* [Washington? 1807?] (No. 1040). Two other important narratives of travel in Texas are found in books which relate only in part to Texas. One is Zebulon Pikes An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the MississippiAnd a Tour through the Interior Parts of New Spain,* Philadelphia, 1810 (No. 1047). The other is Josiah Greggs Commerce of the Prairies: or The Journal of a Santa Fé Trader,* New York, 1844 (No. 1502). Though Pikes day-by-day reports on his journey across Texas in 1807 and of his weeks stay in San Antonio occupies only fourteen pages, and his account of Texas in an appendix only five pages, its early date and its writer make it a foundation piece. While the Sibley narrative concerned only the Red River region, the account of Texas in the appendix to Pike is the first, in English, for Texas as a whole. Three of its maps show Texas. Greggs classic Commerce of the Prairies, with its account of his trading expedition across the Texas Panhandle, and then through El Paso to Chihuahua in 1839, is not only a narrative at first hand of travel in Texas, but it gives us also an indispensable background for the Texas Santa Fé Expedition. For the first published account of a journey in modern times across the Texas Panhandle, one should read Albert Pikes Prose Sketches and Poems,* Boston, 1834 (No. 1150). One of my favorite books on life and travel in Texas is Mrs. Holleys Texas. Observations,in a Series of Letters,* Baltimore, 1833 (No. 1135), a charming description of a journey in the lower Brazos River region in the fall of 1831. Her later 1836 Texas (No. 1207) is primarily a guide book and is of much less interest. Dealing with the same period is Dunts Reise nach Texas,* Bremen, 1834 (No. 1144), describing the life of a German farmer in Texas in the winter of 1831-1832. Still another picture of life in Texas in 1831 is by the anonymous author of A Visit to Texas,* New York, 1834 (No. 1155). The plates in this fresh and lively narrative are thought to be the earliest to show sporting scenes in the West. An interesting account of a journey across southeastern Texas in 1834, from Copano to the Rio Grande, is given in a day-by-day fashion by Ludecus in his Reise durchTexas im Jahre 1834,* Leipzig, 1837 (No. 1280). Castros narrative of leading his little band of colonists in the summer of 1844 from San Antonio to the settlement he was about to establish at Castroville, and of life there in its beginning days, published in his Le Texas en 1845,* Anvers, 1845 (No. 1570), is one of the great Texas books.

Projects for Colonization

In reviewing the many entries in U.S. and European Imprints relating to the colonization of Texas, one is struck by the fact that the efforts to establish his colonies by Stephen F. Austin, the greatest colonizer of all, are represented by only a single printed form (No. 1082*). That entry, with its 1821 date, seems to be the first separate piece of printing relating to the Austin colonies. It was put out by him after his return to Louisiana from his survey of Texas in the summer of 1821, and gives the General Regulations of his colony, including a permit authorizing the individual to be named in the form to settle there. There are of course several items relating to the Austin colonies in Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints, but they are all of later date. Another choice item for a Texas collection is what seems to be the first publication of a plan for the colonization of Texas. This is the Memoria* of Richard Raynal Keene to Ferdinand VII of Spain, dated Madrid, January 1, 1815 (Nos. 1056, 1056A), asking for a grant to colonize Texas along the lines of the grant of Louis XIV to Crozat in 1712. It was a grandiose scheme, but nothing came of it. Keene merely had a vision, but the Napoleonic exiles who established the short-lived Champ-dAsile Colony near the mouth of the Trinity River in the spring of 1818 actually established the first non-Spanish colony in Texas. Three books relating to that colorful episode in Texas history were published in Paris in 1819, of which the most sought after is Hartmann and Millards Le Texas, ou Notice Historique sur le Champ dAsile,* Paris, Juin 1819 (No. 1069). It is in the form of two diaries, one by Hartmann, the other by Millard. Three or four more entries on colonization appear in the later years of the 1820s, the most attractive in my opinion being the prospectus of an empresario grant to the English soldier of fortune, General Arthur Wavell, the title reading, A Statement of the Advantages to Be Derived from the Employment of 50,000, upon the Security of Lands in the Mexican Province of Texas,* London, [1828] (No. 1105). There are many entries for large-scale promotion of Mexican empresario contracts for Texas land held by the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company, and for those held by John Charles Beales, entries for the activities of the latter being given under headings for the Arkansas and Texas Land Company, the New Arkansas and Texas Land Company, the Colorado and Red River Land Company, and the Rio Grande and Texas Land Company. There are also several entries relating to the settlement under colonization contracts with the Republic of Texas by two groups, one representing what became known as the Peters Colony and the other the Mercer Colony. The literature, much of it ephemeral, of these four undertakings is extensive, and because of its rarity has been recorded here with notes that perhaps should be more brief. Necessary as the items are for a scholar interested in any one of the four enterprises, only one calls for special attention here. It is Emigration to Texas.

There are 613 main entries and 207 sub-entries in U.S. and European Imprints. They include 60 main entries and 38 sub-entries for maps. "Sub-entries" are for later editions or issues of the original edition of the books or maps represented here by "main entries." All but ten of the sub-entries entered have locations. The 613 main entries include 44 entries where no copy could be located, and the entries have been supplied from some reference. Congressional documents for the Fifteenth or later Congresses (72 in all) have not been located as they are present in most large libraries. Out of a total of 820 main and sub-entries, 694 carry locations.

As the holdings of American libraries of contemporary books and maps relating to Texas, published in the 1795-1845 period, are a matter of general interest in the book and library world, their various locations scattered through U.S. and European Imprints have been assembled and, subject to possible inconsequential errors in the assembling process, are as follows:

Nine Texas Libraries

University of Texas
Books, Etc. Entries: 220; Sub-Entries: 77
Maps Entries: 11; Sub-Entries: 10
Totals 318

Texas State
Books, Etc. Entries: 120; Sub-Entries: 40
Maps Entries: 5; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 170

Baylor
Books, Etc. Entries: 51; Sub-Entries: 18
Maps Entries: 1; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 75

Rosenberg (Galveston)
Books, Etc. Entries: 47; Sub-Entries: 18
Maps Entries: 2; Sub-Entries: 2
Totals 69

Houston
Books, Etc. Entries: 40; Sub-Entries: 12
Maps Entries: 3; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 55

San Antonio
Books, Etc. Entries: 39; Sub-Entries: 13
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 52

Southern Methodist
Books, Etc. Entries: 37; Sub-Entries: 9
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 1
Totals 47

*Fort Worth
Books, Etc. Entries: 15; Sub-Entries: 4
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 19

Dallas
Books, Etc. Entries: 15; Sub-Entries: 1
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 16

Libraries Outside of Texas

Streeter
Books, Etc. Entries: 281; Sub-Entries: 85
Maps Entries: 37; Sub-Entries: 19
Totals 422 (a)

Library of Congress
Books, Etc. Entries: 156; Sub-Entries: 62
Maps Entries: 31; Sub-Entries: 20
Totals 269

New York Public
Books, Etc. Entries: 147; Sub-Entries: 62
Maps Entries: 14; Sub-Entries: 2
Totals 225

Yale
Books, Etc. Entries: 128; Sub-Entries: 41
Maps Entries: 7; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 181 (a)

Harvard
Books, Etc. Entries: 107; Sub-Entries: 40
Maps Entries: 9; Sub-Entries: 6
Totals 162

*New-York Historical
Books, Etc. Entries: 98; Sub-Entries: 32
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 130

Huntington
Books, Etc. Entries: 65; Sub-Entries: 26
Maps Entries: 7; Sub-Entries: 4
Totals 102

Boston Public
Books, Etc. Entries: 58; Sub-Entries: 22
Maps Entries: 9; Sub-Entries: 3
Totals 92

Newberry
Books, Etc. Entries: 54; Sub-Entries: 27
Maps Entries: 4; Sub-Entries: 3
Totals 88

Bancroft
Books, Etc. Entries: 55; Sub-Entries: 22
Maps Entries: 3; Sub-Entries: 3
Totals 83

American Geographical
Books, Etc. Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Maps Entries: 9; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 14

*Including Law Library:

(a) In 1956, after talks initiated by Mr. James T. Babb, Librarian of Yale University, my collection of some 2,000 odd items relating to Texas was sold to Yale, thus solving what would otherwise have been the difficult problem for my executors of disposing of a large special collection, which by its nature required sale as a whole. After allowing for duplication, and as a result of this purchase, a count indicates Yale has 395 of the entries and sub-entries for the books and 58 of the entries and sub-entries for the maps located in U.S. and European Imprints, or 453 of the 694 entries having locations.

In Texas Imprints, Mexican Imprints, and U.S. and European Imprints, there are a total of 1,661 main entries and 252 sub-entries.

The Texas Revolution and the Santa Fé and Mier Expeditions

As might be expected there are many entries that deal either directly or indirectly with the Texas Revolution. Most of these are broadsides or folders, sometimes longer accounts, published in 1835 and 1836, telling of pro-Texas meetings, calls for recruits, and the like. For the revolution as a whole the most sought-after book is Joseph E. Fields Three Years in Texas. Including a view of the Texan Revolution, and an account of the Principle Battles,* Greenfield, Massachusetts, 1836 (No. 1202). Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836. For the Battle of San Jacinto, Houstons report is a must. The title reads Documents of Major Gen. Sam. Houston, Commander in Chief of Texian Army, to His Excellency David G. Burnet,containing a Detailed Account of the Battle of San Jacinto,* New Orleans, 1836 (No. 1239).

The most sought-after account of the Texan Santa Fé Expedition is that of Thomas Falconer, an English barrister and former editor of the Westminster Review, who accompanied the expedition as an invited guest, but suffered all its hardships. Its title reads, Expedition to Santa Fé. An Account of Its Journey from Texas through Mexico, with Particulars of its Capture,* New Orleans, 1842 (No. 1412). The standard account is that of George Wilkins Kendall, Narrative of the Texan Santa Fé Expedition, comprising a description of a Tour through Texasand final Capture of the Texans, and their march, as prisoners, to the City of Mexico,* New York, 1844 (No. 1515).

The unauthorized so-called Mier expedition into Mexico in December, 1842, by a group of hot-headed Texans, is best remembered by the dramatic ceremony of drawing the black bean at Salado in February, 1843, when one out of ten of the captured Texans was immediately shot. There are two well-known accounts of the expedition, Greens Journal, and Stapps Prisoners of Perote, both published in 1845; but certainly the most desirable and probably the best, for he was the only one of the three who was a member of the expedition until the final release, is that of Thomas W. Bell, known only by the unique copy in the University of Texas Library, A Narrative of the Capture and Subsequent Sufferings of the Mier Prisoners in Mexico,* Printed for the Author, De Soto County, Mississippi, 1845 (No. 1563).

Maps

Six of the maps entered here are especially desirable for a Texas collection. At the opening period of this bibliography even the coast line of Texas was little known and its none too good delineation by a chart of the Deposito Hidrografico de Marina of Spain entitled, Carta Esferica que comprehende las costas del Seno Mexicano,* [Madrid? 1799.] (No. 1029), represents a real advance. It is the first of two or three early maps showing the Texas coast line and the lower courses of its rivers. This Carta Esferica was one of the authorities used by Humboldt in constructing his highly acclaimed Carte Générale du royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne,* Paris, [1809] (No. 1042), the best to that date for the Texas region. The map of Texas I most prize is the Map of Texas with Parts of the Adjoining States Compiled by Stephen F. Austin,* Philadelphia, 1830 (No. 1115). This, by the founder of present-day Texas, shows on a large scale, and for the first time, the result of American emigration into Texas. It goes only as far north as the Red River. Another landmark in Texas cartography is the Burr map of Texas,* New York, 1833 (No. 1134), showing all of Texas to the Arkansas River, the first large-scale map of Texas alone, as distinguished from a general map including Texas. The set of six maps* (Nos. 1438-1443) published in 1842 by the Joint Commission for Marking the Boundary between the United States and Texas is of prime importance. Prior to this publication of the Joint Commission, the actual boundary was so poorly known that Miller County, claimed by Arkansas, turned out to be part of the Republic of Texas. That Arkansass claim was contested is shown by the entry (No. 1263) for a proclamation of the Governor of Arkansas to the citizens of Miller County, made in March, 1837, stating that unless they paid their taxes he would call out the militia. The set of maps of the Joint Commission shows, on a scale sometimes as large as two miles to the inch, the boundary between Texas and the United States, from the mouth of the Sabine River to the Red River. As the Humboldt map is the best in showing the Texas region as it was at the beginning of the 1795-1845 period, the excellent large-scale map, A New & Correct, Map of Texas Compiled from the most recent Surveys & Authorities to the Year 1845 by James T.D. Wilson,* New Orleans, [1845] (No. 1627) seems to be the best of Texas as it was just before annexation.

Other Books and Pamphlets

There are many pamphlets entered here relating to the annexation of Texas. Taken as a whole they are an interesting lot, but it is difficult to single out any particular one for special mention. Perhaps the most significant is Letters of Messrs. Clay, Benton, and Barrow, on the subject of the Annexation of Texas to the United States,* [Washington? 1844] (No. 1488), for that appears to be the first edition of Clays Raleigh letter, dated April 17, 1844, a letter that probably cost him the presidency in the 1844 election. A second choice would be Annexation of Texas, Opinions of Messrs. Clay, Polk, Benton & Van Buren, on the immediate Annexation of Texas, [Washington? 1844] (No. 1487). This contains Van Burens Lindenwald letter of April 20 on annexation, a letter that almost certainly caused him to lose the Democratic nomination for president to Polk in the spring of 1844.

All those interested in Texas novels for the period we are considering are indebted to Sister Agatha Sheehan for her study, The First Four Novels of Texas, Washington, D.C., 1939. Sister Agatha lists, with discriminating comment, LHéroïne du Texas, Paris, 1819 (No. 1068); Flints Francis Berrian, Boston, 1826 (No. 1091); Ganilhs Mexico versus Texas, Philadelphia, 1838 (No. 1310); and Sealsfields Das Cajütenbuch,* Zurich, 1841 (No. 1396). The choice of a Texas novel for special mention should be limited, in my opinion, to one by Sealsfield, the only one of the four novelists listed by Sister Agatha who enjoys an international reputation, and since much of the scene of his first novel, Tokeha; or The White Rose, Philadelphia, 1829 (No. 1111), is laid in Texas, I would suppose that, chronologically speaking, it, rather than Das Cajütenbuch, was one of the first four Texas novels. Das Cajütenbuch, though later, has perhaps more of the real Texas flavor. A choice between the two is difficult, but probably Das Cajütenbuch would be generally regarded as the most desirable Texas novel to acquire.

What are known as "Indian Captivities" have a fascination for many, especially if they are fact rather than fiction. There are eleven entries here for Mrs. Hoflands The Stolen Boy. A Story, Founded on Facts, London, [1829?] (No. 1107). Another Indian captivity, that is out and out fiction, is Capture of Virginia, the Beautiful Texian, by the Comanche Indians, Troy, New York, 1837 (No. 1265), and there are two others that are probably fiction, the Caroline Harris captivity, New York, 1838 (No. 1312), and the Clarissa Plummer narrative, New York, 1838 (No. 1320). A Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Horn, and Her Two Children, St. Louis, 1839 (No. 1347), a book sought after by collectors of Western Americana, is in part an account of an actual journey across south Texas to the Beales colony. Most sought after of all the Texas captivities and the most desirable is, I think, that of Rachel Plummer, included as an appendix in Parkers Narrative of the Perilous Adventures, Miraculous Escapes and Sufferings of Rev. James W. Parker,* Louisville, 1844 (No. 1525). Rachel was Parkers daughter.

In the field of early views of Texas, a copy of Moores Map and Description of Texas,* Philadelphia, 1840 (No. 1363), with the eight plates showing Texas towns and missions, is a most desirable piece. In an entirely different classification is the first prospectus for a company with capital stock to carry on an industrial business in Texas. This is given in the broadsheet, Proposals for a Colonization & Mining Company, &c,* [Cincinnati? 1829] (No. 1114). For the first prospectus for a Texas railroad there is the short pamphlet, Brazos and Galveston Rail Road,* New Orleans, [1839] (No. 1344).

The Scope of U.S. and European Imprints

Some of the principles followed in determining whether a periodical or a book or a broadside should be entered here are easy to state. Newspapers or other periodicals are not entered, but an extra of a newspaper primarily devoted to Texas matters is included; see for example Arkansas GazetteExtra (No. 1406). After some hesitation it was decided to include sheet music if such words as "Texas" or "The Alamo" or "San Jacinto" appear in the title. They do show a contemporary interest in Texas and need only a brief description. It has seemed to me that separately published lithographs and engravings of Texas scenes and of men of the period of the bibliography are entitled to a monograph of their own, and they have not been included. It also seems obvious that no record should be made of the flood of petitions, memorials, and resolutions printed in United States public documents that poured in upon Congress, first in 1836 and 1837, when recognition of Texas was being considered, and later in 1844 and 1845, when annexation was being debated. Separate entries for the ninety or so Congressional speeches on annexation that were separately printed in Washington in 1844 and 1845 would be cumbersome. Instead, separate Washington printings of these speeches are given in Appendix A, set up for me by my former librarian, Mr. Howell J. Heaney. He has gone through the Congressional Globe for the years 1836-1845, and has listed in Appendix A the few speeches on recognition of Texas delivered in Congress in the early days of the Republic of Texas, and the many on annexation delivered in the years 1844 and 1845. Note is made of instances of printings of these annexation speeches outside of Washington and they are entered here in their regular places.

Contemporary accounts of travels in a new country are almost always of interest, but a general book of travel with an unimportant reference of a few pages to Texas is not entered. On the other hand, the brief narrative of his journey across Texas in 1807 in Zebulon Pikes An Account of Expeditions, Philadelphia, 1810 (No. 1047), is important enough to justify its entry, even if this were not desirable because of its maps. Travelers guides to our western states published after 1826 for the benefit of European emigrants are apt to have short sections on Texas. These guides are not entered unless the word "Texas" appears in the title, as for example Traugott Brommes Hand-und Reisebuch fur Auswanderernach den Vereinigten Staatenund Texas, Beyreuth, 1840 (No. 1360).

Considerable thought has been given to the problem of what maps to include and what to exclude, for an entry for every map for the period showing all or part of Texas would result in utter confusion. The object has been to present adequately the cartographic history of Texas for the period, without including so much material that the outlines of that history would be blurred. As the earliest map featuring Texas, and with Texas in the title, is the Linati map of 1826 (No. 713 in Mexican Imprints), and as there are only a few such maps until after 1836 (e.g. the Austin map of 1830, No. 1115, and the Burr map of 1833, No. 1134), we have to rely for the period ending in 1836 mostly on "general" maps, usually found in atlases, where Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States. Another factor to be considered is that the main geographical features of Texas had become fairly well known by the time it became an independent republic in 1836, and that maps published after that time are mainly useful for showing internal changes, such as the creation of counties and the spread of towns. Still another factor applying to general maps is that if they are on a scale of approximately fifty miles or more to the inch their lack of detail impairs their usefulness for study. With these considerations in mind, two general rules have been arrived at for entering maps. One is to enter all "general" maps dated 1836 or earlier that show Texas as far west as the vicinity of the meridian of Galveston, and are on a scale of fifty miles or less to the inch. An example of such a general map is Robinsons Map of Mexico, Louisiana and the Missouri Territory, Philadelphia, 1819 (No. 1073), showing all of Texas on a scale of about forty miles to the inch. General maps dated after 1836 are not entered as their place is taken by separately published maps featuring only Texas. John Calvin Smiths Map of the United States including Canada and a large portion of Texas, New York, 1843, showing Texas to beyond the Galveston meridian on a scale of only twenty-five miles to an inch and separately published, is an example of a "general" map dated after 1836 that is not entered.

Secondly, it is intended to enter all separately published maps for the period 1795-1845, irrespective of their scale, that feature Texas and have "Texas" or such words as "City of Houston" in the title. This requirement of separate publication of maps featuring Texas excludes maps in atlases, unless such atlas maps were also separately published. Examples of atlas maps also separately published and hence entered are the Map of Texas, London, 1841, in the Arrowsmith London Atlas, London [1832-1846] (No. 1373), and that dated London, 1843, in his London Atlas, 1842[-1850] (No. 1373A). Examples of atlas maps not separately published, and so not included, are Texas from the Latest Authorities, scale about seventy miles to the inch, found in the 1842 Greenleaf Atlas.

In order to show how vague was the knowledge of the Texas coast line at the opening of the nineteenth century, charts showing the coast line and charts of Galveston Bay and St. Bernards Bay published not later than 1809 have been entered. The North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico, from St. Marks to Galveston, New York, 1842 (No. 1408), is also entered as Galveston appears in the title. Maps present in books entered in the bibliography are not given a separate entry, but they are described in full as part of the entries for the books in which they appear. In the entries for maps I have followed the practice of leading institutional libraries, outlined in Boggs and Lewiss The Classification and Cataloging of Maps and Atlases, New York, Special Libraries Association, 1945, of giving measurements in height by width, instead of the reverse. Though scales are not usually stated in bibliocartographical lists, they are recorded here, even when they have to be supplied, for they serve to tell the reader at a glance how much detail he may expect to find, an important bit of information often conveyed by a record of dimensions. As most of us think in inches, scales are given in inches, but as dimensions can be recorded more easily and accurately in centimeters than in fractions of an inch, they are given in centimeters. Maps are entered under their cartographers, if known, or under publishers, or if neither the cartographer nor the publisher is known, under title. The first edition of a map is listed under the year of its publication, with later editions or issues listed immediately after the first edition. If not otherwise stated, the prime meridian is Greenwich.

Location of Copies

It is important for one engaged in research in Texas history or interested in learning the whereabouts of original copies of great Texas books, broadsides, and maps for the fifty-year period ending in 1845 to know in what libraries the material entered here may be found. Accordingly, except for documents of the Fifteenth and later Congresses, it has been intended to locate copies of items given main or sub-entry in the bibliography that are present in the following nine Texas libraries: University of Texas, Texas State Library, Baylor University, Rosenberg Library (Galveston), Houston Public, San Antonio Public, Southern Methodist University, Fort Worth Public, and Dallas Public; and in the following ten libraries situated outside of Texas: Library of Congress, New York Public, Yale, Harvard, New-York Historical Society, the Henry E. Huntington Library, Boston Public, the Newberry Library at Chicago, the Bancroft Library at the University of California, and the library of the writer. When copies are located in several of the nineteen libraries mentioned in the census, copies in other libraries are not located. The holdings of U.S. and European Imprints maps at the American Geographical Society have also been located. The holdings of all the libraries named, except Forth Worth, were checked some years ago, and in the past three years they have been rechecked, either in part or in whole, in most cases by persons recommended to me by their respective librarians. In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked. In the case of all the other libraries, some sixty odd entries added to the bibliography since the earlier checking have been listed in short title form and sent around for rechecking. Also, as broadsides and maps present cataloguing difficulties and are not always catalogued, a short title list of all U.S. and European Imprints entries for broadsides and maps has been checked at the nineteen libraries listed above. Notwithstanding this rather elaborate procedure, there are doubtless errors and omissions in the locations, and broadsides and maps in the libraries not following the practice of cataloguing them may well have escaped notice in checking the separate lists sent around. However, a map or broadside present in a library, but difficult for a student to find, is not especially useful.

There are 613 main entries and 207 sub-entries in U.S. and European Imprints. They include 60 main entries and 38 sub-entries for maps. "Sub-entries" are for later editions or issues of the original edition of the books or maps represented here by "main entries." All but ten of the sub-entries entered have locations. The 613 main entries include 44 entries where no copy could be located, and the entries have been supplied from some reference. Congressional documents for the Fifteenth or later Congresses (72 in all) have not been located as they are present in most large libraries. Out of a total of 820 main and sub-entries, 694 carry locations.

As the holdings of American libraries of contemporary books and maps relating to Texas, published in the 1795-1845 period, are a matter of general interest in the book and library world, their various locations scattered through U.S. and European Imprints have been assembled and, subject to possible inconsequential errors in the assembling process, are as follows:

Nine Texas Libraries

University of Texas
Books, Etc. Entries: 220; Sub-Entries: 77
Maps Entries: 11; Sub-Entries: 10
Totals 318

Texas State
Books, Etc. Entries: 120; Sub-Entries: 40
Maps Entries: 5; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 170

Baylor
Books, Etc. Entries: 51; Sub-Entries: 18
Maps Entries: 1; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 75

Rosenberg (Galveston)
Books, Etc. Entries: 47; Sub-Entries: 18
Maps Entries: 2; Sub-Entries: 2
Totals 69

Houston
Books, Etc. Entries: 40; Sub-Entries: 12
Maps Entries: 3; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 55

San Antonio
Books, Etc. Entries: 39; Sub-Entries: 13
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 52

Southern Methodist
Books, Etc. Entries: 37; Sub-Entries: 9
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 1
Totals 47

*Fort Worth
Books, Etc. Entries: 15; Sub-Entries: 4
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 19

Dallas
Books, Etc. Entries: 15; Sub-Entries: 1
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 16

Libraries Outside of Texas

Streeter
Books, Etc. Entries: 281; Sub-Entries: 85
Maps Entries: 37; Sub-Entries: 19
Totals 422 (a)

Library of Congress
Books, Etc. Entries: 156; Sub-Entries: 62
Maps Entries: 31; Sub-Entries: 20
Totals 269

New York Public
Books, Etc. Entries: 147; Sub-Entries: 62
Maps Entries: 14; Sub-Entries: 2
Totals 225

Yale
Books, Etc. Entries: 128; Sub-Entries: 41
Maps Entries: 7; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 181 (a)

Harvard
Books, Etc. Entries: 107; Sub-Entries: 40
Maps Entries: 9; Sub-Entries: 6
Totals 162

*New-York Historical
Books, Etc. Entries: 98; Sub-Entries: 32
Maps Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Totals 130

Huntington
Books, Etc. Entries: 65; Sub-Entries: 26
Maps Entries: 7; Sub-Entries: 4
Totals 102

Boston Public
Books, Etc. Entries: 58; Sub-Entries: 22
Maps Entries: 9; Sub-Entries: 3
Totals 92

Newberry
Books, Etc. Entries: 54; Sub-Entries: 27
Maps Entries: 4; Sub-Entries: 3
Totals 88

Bancroft
Books, Etc. Entries: 55; Sub-Entries: 22
Maps Entries: 3; Sub-Entries: 3
Totals 83

American Geographical
Books, Etc. Entries: 0; Sub-Entries: 0
Maps Entries: 9; Sub-Entries: 5
Totals 14

*Including Law Library:

(a) In 1956, after talks initiated by Mr. James T. Babb, Librarian of Yale University, my collection of some 2,000 odd items relating to Texas was sold to Yale, thus solving what would otherwise have been the difficult problem for my executors of disposing of a large special collection, which by its nature required sale as a whole. After allowing for duplication, and as a result of this purchase, a count indicates Yale has 395 of the entries and sub-entries for the books and 58 of the entries and sub-entries for the maps located in U.S. and European Imprints, or 453 of the 694 entries having locations.

In Texas Imprints, Mexican Imprints, and U.S. and European Imprints, there are a total of 1,661 main entries and 252 sub-entries.

 

Acknowledgments

The author of a regional bibliography such as this must rely on aid from many sources. It would be quite impractical, for example, for one individual to check the nineteen institutional libraries whose holdings have been recorded here in tabular form. That is only the beginning, for once an entry has been set up a new field of inquiry is opened. As was the case in Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints, the help cheerfully given me from time to time by Miss Llerena Friend, Librarian of the Eugene C. Barker Texas History Center at the University of Texas, has been invaluable. My calls for aid from Miss Winnie Allen, Archivist at the Center, have been infrequent for U.S. and European Imprints, but when made have been handled with her usual promptness and efficiency. The late Mr. E.W. Winkler, former Librarian and later Bibliographer of the University of Texas Library, whose encyclopedic knowledge of Texas imprints and their background was of such help many years ago in assembling Texas Imprints, gave me at that time helpful suggestions since followed with profit in U.S. and European Imprints. Mr. Alexander Moffit, Librarian, and Mr. Fred W. Folmer, Associate Librarian, University of Texas, have likewise personally aided the Universitys participation in the bibliography. Miss Nettie Lee Benson, Librarian, Latin American Collection, University of Texas Library, was helpful in calling to my attention various items in her charge as was Miss Mildred Stevenson, Reference Librarian of the Rosenberg Library. The careful notes of Dr. and Mrs. Malcolm D. McLean made for me several years ago in checking Texas libraries were most useful in the final check of the U.S. and European Imprints entries and notes. Further checking in the last three years has shown what a thorough job was done by them. Mr. Andrew Forest Muir, a scholar unusually well informed on the history of the Texas coast region in the early days of the Republic of Texas, has been good enough to straighten me out on obscure points relating to that region. I am indebted to Mr. Fred R. Cotten of Weatherford, Texas, for information on new entries in Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints, and to Mr. W.H. Morrow of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, for photostats of interesting material in his collection.

In recording the help given me in Texas, I would be remiss if I did not speak of the Handbook of Texas, Austin, 1952, and the Southwestern Historical Quarterly, both publications of the Texas State Historical Association. Both are a must for anyone working in the field of Texas history, the Handbook for quick and almost always reliable reference, and the Quarterly for authoritative articles on every phase of Texas history. The Association is to be congratulated on its present project of continuing the General Index now ending with the issue of April, 1937. In this it is setting an example which historical societies in many other states might follow to the great benefit of all those using their publications.

The considerable efforts recorded elsewhere in this Introduction to list correctly the U.S. and European Imprints holdings of the leading Texas libraries could not have been carried out without the full coöperation of their top staffs. I am indebted to Mr. Dorman H. Winfrey, State Archivist, to Mrs. Harriet Dickson Reynolds, Director, Houston Public Library, and to Mr. Guy B. Harrison, Director, Texas History Collection, Baylor University, with whom my correspondence dates back to 1941, for interesting information on items in their respective collections; and to them and to Miss Lois Bailey, Librarian, Southern Methodist University; Mr. W.E. Holman, Librarian, San Antonio Public Library and to Mrs. Mary E. Perez, his assistant; Mrs. Maxine Holmes, Administrative Assistant, Dallas Public Library; Mr. Roy M. Fry, Librarian, Rosenberg Library; and Mr. Arlis B. Nixon, Librarian, Fort Worth Public Library, for facilitating the checking of their libraries. I have had extensive correspondence with Mrs. Elizabeth N. Kemp, who checked the holdings of the University of Texas Library and the Texas State Library, and Mrs. Grace Hirsch who checked the Rosenberg Library for me, and I am especially indebted to those two ladies. For the complete rechecking of the holdings of the Library of Congress I was fortunate in securing the off-time services of Mr. Johannes L. Dewton, Assistant Chief, Union Catalog Division, Library of Congress. A thick file of correspondence is evidence of the help Mr. Dewton has given me on bibliographical points and the background of various books and maps. Another even thicker file of correspondence is evidence of the valuable help given me, much of it on her own time, by Miss E. Marie Becker, Reference Librarian, New-York Historical Society. I owe to the late Albert H. Allen, usually referred to as Major Allen, the locations here for material in mid-western libraries. Mr. William A. Jackson, Librarian, Houghton Library, Harvard University, was kind enough to have the supplemental lists checked at Houghton and Mr. Roger E. Stoddard, his assistant, discovered there for me the rare 1809 edition of Humboldts Carte Généralede la Nouvelle Espagne (No. 1042), and made a special check of the Houghton collection of Texas annexation material. Mr. John Alden of the Boston Public Library; Mr. Archibald Hanna, Curator of the Western Americana Collection, Yale University Library; Mr. Lewis M. Stark, Chief, Rare Book Division, New York Public Library; Mr. Frederick R. Goff, Chief, Rare Books Division, Library of Congress, and Mr. John C. Wyllie, Librarian of the University of Virginia Library, helped me on many points. Mr. Howard H. Peckham, Director, Clements Library, and Mr. Christian Brun, Curator of Maps, in reporting on the maps in the Clements Library told me of an edition of the Arrowsmith New Map of Mexico and Adjacent Provinces, London, 1810, not previously recorded (No. 1046D). Mr. Stanley Pargellis, Librarian, Newberry Library, had the supplemental lists checked at Newberry, in the process reporting three new locations, and Mrs. Ruth Lapham Butler, Custodian of its Ayer Collection, cleared up a troublesome point on the British Admiralty map, The Coast of Texas (No. 1500). Mr. Carey S. Bliss, Assistant Curator of Rare Books at the Huntington Library, and Mrs. Carol A. Cockel on the staff of that library, were most helpful in answering my inquiries about Texas material at the Huntington Library. Until shortly before her death, Mrs. Eleanor Bancroft answered questions and made suggestions about the holdings of the Bancroft Library with the skill and cheerfulness she always displayed on questions arising in Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints.

I have left to the last an expression of the debt I owe to members of my present and former staff. Miss Elizabeth G. Greene, a former assistant editor of Sabin, came to me as my librarian in 1936 and continued in that capacity until her retirement in July, 1947, a period during which the greater part of the entries for Texas Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints were made and Mexican Imprints was well along. In the Introduction to Texas Imprints, I pay her a deserved tribute. She was succeeded as librarian by Mr. Howell J. Heaney, who left me in September, 1955, with my affectionate good wishes to join the staff of the Free Library of Philadelphia as Bibliographer in the Rare Book Department. In the Introduction to Texas Imprints, I tell of his services and of the wise advice he gave on the countless minor decisions which have to be made in compiling a bibliography such as this. I have still relied on him for advice on major matters involved in completing U.S. and European Imprints, and I am indebted to him for the research required to set up Appendix A on annexation speeches. Mr. Joseph G. Roberts, who succeeded Mr. Heaney, was helpful in the endless checking required in a project of this kind until he returned to Michigan in January, 1958. At that time Miss Marian Griffin, who had become my secretary in 1947 and whose services are spoken of highly in the Introductions to Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints, became my librarian as well as secretary. Shortly afterward, Mrs. Esther Behnke became my part-time secretary. To Miss Griffin, with the efficient help of Mrs. Behnke, has been entrusted the difficult task of rechecking what seem like innumerable references, of checking the notes, often written at long intervals, for repetitions and inconsistencies, and for trying to secure a passable uniformity of style on the very minor but troublesome questions of punctuation, capitalization, and so on. Only those who have struggled with compiling notes for entries can realize how easy it is to make some obvious misstatement of fact and then to pass blithely over it in successive rereadings. If there is a reasonable absence of such errors here, the credit will be primarily due to her. Again I wish to renew my thanks to the present and former members of my staff to whom I owe so much.

Thomas W. Streeter
Morristown, New Jersey
May 13, 1960

 

Books referred to in U.S. and European Imprints by author or short title

Allen, Albert H. Arkansas Imprints 1821-1876, Bibliographical Society of America, New York, 1947.

American Imprints Inventory. A Preliminary Check List of Missouri Imprints 1808-1850, Washington, 1937.

______. Check List of New Mexico Imprints and Publications 1784-1876, Michigan Historical Records Survey, 1942.

Arrillaga, Basilio Jose, compiler. Recopilacion de Leyesde la Republica Mexicana, Formada porel lic. Basilio Jose Arrillaga1828 [-1838]. Mexico, 1834-1842. 13 vols.

Barker, Eugene C. The Life of Stephen F. Austin, Nashville, Dallas, 1925.

Barker, Eugene C., editor. The Austin Papers. 3 vols. in 4. (Vol. I, in two parts, Washington, 1924, and Vol. II, Washington, 1928, as the second volumes of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1919, and 1922; Vol. III, Austin, 1927).

Biographie Universelle, ancienne et moderne. Tome 1[-52], [et Supplément], Paris, Michaud frères, 1811-1862. 85 vols. Nouvelle éd.[2d ed.], Paris, 1854[-1865]. 45 vols.

Brown, John Henry. History of Texas from 1685-1892, St. Louis, 1892-1893. 2 vols.

Buck, Solon Justus. Travel and Description 1765-1865, Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 1914.

Carroll, H. Bailey, and Gutsch, Milton R., compilers. Texas History Theses. A Check List of the Theses and Dissertations Relating to Texas History Accepted at the University of Texas 1893-1951, Texas Historical Association, Austin, 1955.

Catalogue Général des Livres Imprimés de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1924-1955, 183 vols.

Catalogue of Printed Books in the Library of the British Museum, London, 1881-1900. 58 vols. (Supplement, London, 1900-1905. 10 vols.)

Catalogue of the Printed Maps, Plans and Chartes in the British Museum, London, 1885. 2 vols.

Claussen, Martin P., and Friis, Herman R., compilers. Descriptive Catalog of Maps Published by Congress 1817-1843, Washington, 1941.

Dexter, Franklin Bowditch. Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College, New York, 1885-1919. 6 vols.

Dictionary of American Biography, Published under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies, New York, 1943-1944. 20 vols. (Also Index and Supplement.)

Dictionary of National Biography, London, 1921-1922. 21 vols. (Also Supplement.)

Dublan, Manuel and Lozano, Jose M., compilers. Legislacion Mexicana ó Coleccion Completa de las Disposiciones Legislativas expedias Desde la Independencia de la RepublicaEdicion Oficial. Tomo I [-V], Mexico, 1876.

Elliott, Claude, compiler. Theses on Texas History. A Check List of Theses and Dissertations in Texas History Produced in the Departments of History of Eighteen Texas Graduate Schools and Thirty-three Graduate Schools Outside of Texas, 1907-1952, Texas State Historical Association, Austin, 1955.

Field, Thomas W. An Essay towards an Indian Bibliography, New York, 1873.

Gammel, H.P.N., compiler. The Laws of Texas, 1822-1897, Austin, 1898. 10 vols.

Garrison, George P., editor. Diplomatic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas, Washington, 1908-1911. 3 parts in 3 vols. (Part I as Vol. II of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1907; Parts II and III as Vol. II (1) and Vol. II (2) of the Annual Reportfor 1908.)

Gregory, Winifred, editor. American Newspapers 1821-1936; A Union List, New York, 1937.

Gulick, Charles Adams, Jr., Elliott, Katherine, Allen, Winnie, and Smither, Harriet, editors. The Papers of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, Austin, 1921-1927. 6 vols. in 7.

Harding, George L. A Census of California Spanish Imprints, 1833-1845. (Reprinted from the Quarterly of the California Historical Society, Vol. IXII, No. 2, June, 1933).

Heller, Otto, and Leon, Theodore H. Charles Sealsfield. Bibliography of his Writings, together with a classified and annotated Catalogue of Literature relating to his works and his life, Washington University Studies, St. Louis, 1939.

Johnson, Francis W. A History of Texas and Texans Edited and Brought to Date by Eugene C. Barker with the Assistance of Ernest William Winkler, Chicago and New York, 1914. 5 vols.

Kennedy, William. Texas: The Rise, Progress and Prospects of the Republic of Texas, London, 1841. 2 vols.

Kimball, John P., compiler. Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas, Houston, 1839.

Larousse, Pierre. Grand dictionnaire universel du xixe siècle français, historiquebiographiquebibliographique, Paris, 1865-1890. 17 vols.

Lowery, Woodbury. The Lowry Collection. A Descriptive List of Maps of the Spanish Possessions within the present limits of the United States 1502-1820, Edited with notes by Philip Lee Philips, Washington, 1912.

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Early Printing in New Orleans 1764-1810, New Orleans, 1929.

______. Preliminary Check List of Mississippi Imprints 1798-1810, Chicago, 1834.

______. "The History of Early Printing in New Mexico1834-1860," in New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 4, No. 4, October, 1929.

______. Rochester Imprints 1819-1850, Chicago, 1935.

Monaghan, Frank. French Travellers in the United States 1765-1932, New York Public Library, 1933.

Narratives of Captivity Among the Indians of North America. A List of Books and Manuscripts on this subject in the Edward E. Ayer Collection of the Newberry Library, Chicago, 1912 (and Supplement, 1928).

National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, James T. White & Co., New York, 1892-1918. 16 vols. (Also Index and Supplements.)

Nouvelle Biographie Générale Par M M. Firmin Didot frères, sous la direction de M. Hoefer, Paris, 1852-1868. 46 vols.

Paullin, Charles O. Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, by Charles O. PaullinEdited by John K. Wright. Published Jointly by Carnegie Institution of Washington and the American Geographical Society of New York, 1932.

Peters, Harry T. America on Stone, Garden City, N.Y., 1931.

Phillips, John C. A Bibliography of American Sporting Books, Boston, 1930.

Phillips, Philip Lee.A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress, Washington, 1909-1920. 4 vols.

______. A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress, Washington, 1901.

Rader, Jesse L. South of Forty from the Mississippi to the Rio Grande, Norman, Oklahoma, 1947.

Raines, C.W. A Bibliography of Texas, Austin, 1896.

Rusk, Ralph Leslie. The Literature of the Middle Western Frontier, New York, 1925. 2 vols.

Sabin, Joseph. A Dictionary of Books relating to America, New York, 1868-1936. 29 vols.

Stauffer, David McNeely. American Engravers Upon Copper and Steel, The Grolier Club of the City of New York, 1907. 2 vols.

Wagner, Henry R. New Mexico Spanish Press 1834-1845. (Separate from the New Mexico Historical Review for January, 1937.)

_______. The Plains and the Rockies: A Bibliography of Original Narratives of Travel and Adventure, 1800-1865, Third Edition, Revised by Charles L. Camp, Columbus, Ohio, 1953.

_____. The Spanish Southwest, 1542-1794, Albuquerque, 1937. 2 vols. (Vol. VII, Parts I and II, of the Quivira Society Publications.)

Webb, Walter Prescott, Carroll, H. Bailey, Friend, Llerena B., and others, editors. The Handbook of Texas, Austin, 1952. 2 vols.

The Weekly Register Containing Political, Historical, Geographical,Essays and Factsand a Record of theTimesH. Niles, editor, Vol. I, Baltimore, [1812] [-Vol. LXXV, 1849]. (Name changed to Niles National Register with Vol. VII, 1815, and continued as such through Vol. XLLV; last volume printed in Philadelphia.) 75 vols.

Wheat, Carl I. 1540-1861. Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. I, San Francisco, 1957-

Williams, Amelia W., and Barker, Eugene C., editors. The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813-1863, Austin, 1938-1943.8 vols.

Wilson, James Grant, and Fiske, John, editors. Appletons Cyclopaedia of American Biography, New York, 1886-1899. 6 vols.

Winkler, Ernest W. Check List of Texas Imprints, 1846-1860, Austin, 1949.

______. Manuscript Letters and Documents, of Early Texians, 1821-1845, Selected and Annotated by E.W. Winkler, Austin, 1937.

Wright, Lyle H. American Fiction 1774-1850, Revised Edition, San Marino, California, 1948.

Yoakum, Henderson K. History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846, New York, 1856. 2 vols.

Other Works Cited

Abel, Annie Heloise, and Klingberg, Frank J., editors. A Side-light on Anglo-American Relations, 1839-1858, Furnished by the Correspondence of Lewis Tappan and Others With the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, [Lancaster, Pa.] The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1927.

Agatha, Sister M. (Sheehan). A Study of the First Four Novels of Texas, Washington, D.C., 1939. (Thesis, typescript.)

______. Texas Prose Writings, Dallas, 1936.

Austin, Stephen Fuller. Translation of the Laws, Orders and Contracts on Colonization, San Felipe de Austin, 1829.

Biesele, Rudolph Leopold. The History of the German Settlements in Texas 1831-1861, Austin, 1930.

Brooks, Philip C. Diplomacy and the Borderlands, the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, Berkeley, California, 1939.

Callcott, Wilfred Hardy. Santa Anna; The Story of an Enigma Who Once Was Mexico, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1936.

Carroll, H. Bailey. The Texian Santa Fe Trail, Panhandle-Plains Historical Society, Canyon, 1951.

Castañeda, Carlos E. Our Catholic Heritage in Texas, 1519-1936, Austin, 1936. 6 vols.

Chase, Mary Katherine. Négociations de la République du Texas en Europe 1837-1845, Paris, Librairie Ancienne Honore Champion, 1932.

Clarke, Asa Bement. Travels in Mexico and California, Boston, 1852.

Connor, Seymour V. The Peters Colony of Texas, Austin, 1959.

Coues, Elliott. Birds of the Colorado Valley, Washington, 1878. (Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories, Miscellaneous Publications, No. 11.)

______. The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery PikeReprinted in Full from the Original of 1810, with Copious Critical Commentary, in Three VolumesNew York, 1895.

Damon, S. Foster. Thomas Holley Chivers, Friend of Poe, New York, 1930.

Diccionario de Geografia, y Historia y Biografia Mexicanas, Mexico City, 1910.

Dickinson, Lucy. Speculations of John Charles Beales in Texas Lands, (Thesis, University of Texas Library.)

Faust, A.B. Charles Sealsfield, Materials for a Biography, Baltimore, 1922.

Filisola, Vicente. Memorias para la Historia de la Guerra de Tejas, Mexico, R. Rafael, 1848-1849, 2 vols. Continued through the campaign of 1837 in Filisolas work of the same title published by Ignacio Cumplido at Mexico City in 1849. 2 vols.

French, B.F. Historical Collections of Louisiana, Part I [-Part V], New York, 1846 [-1853].

Hatcher, Mattie Austin. Letters of an Early American Traveller; Mary Austin Holley, Her Life and Her Works, 1784-1846, Dallas, 1833.

______. "The Opening of Texas to Foreign Settlement 1801-1821," University of Texas Bulletin No. 2714, April 8, 1927.

Hispanic American Historical Review, Baltimore, Md., 1918-1922; Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 1926, to date.

Hodge, F.W. Letters and Notes on the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, New York, 1930.

Humboldt, Alexander. Essai Politique sur le Royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne, Paris, 1811.

______. Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions, Philadelphia, 1815.

______. Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, London, 1811.

James, Edwin. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, Philadelphia, 1823.

James, Marquis. The Raven; A Biography of Sam Houston, Indianapolis, 1929.

Jones, Herschel V. American Collection of Herschel V. Jones. A Check List, New York, 1938.

Journal of Southern History, Southern Historical Association, Baton Rouge, 1935, to date.

Kemp, Louis Wiltz. The Signers of the Declaration of Independence, Houston, 1944.

Life, Letters and Papers of William Dunbar, Mississippi Society of Colonial Dames of America, Jackson, Mississippi, 1930.

The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, including his journeys to Texas and Mexico, Philadelphia, 1847.

Loomis, Noel. The Texan-Santa Fe Pioneers, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, [1958].

Magazine of History, with Notes and Queries, New York, 1905-1922.

Manning, William R. Early Diplomatic Relations between the United States and Mexico, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1916.

Margry, Pierre. Découvertes et Établissements de FrancaisMémoires et Documents Inèdits, Paris, 1879 [-1888], 6 vols.

Marshall, Thomas M. History of the Western Boundary of the Louisiana Purchase, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1914.

May, Samuel J. Some Recollections of our Antislavery Conflict, Boston, 1869.

New-York Historical Society. Dictionary of Artists in America, 1564-1860, New Haven, 1957.

Norona, Delf, and Shetler, Charles. West Virginia Imprints 1790-1863, West Virginia Library Association, Moundsville, W.Va., 1958.

Olmsted, F.L. Journey Through Texas, New York, 1857.

Paul, James C.N. Rift in the Democracy, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951.

Peeler, Anderson J., and Maxey, Samuel B. History and Statement of Mercer Colony Case (Preston V. Walsh), in U.S. Circuit Court at Austin, Texas, as prepared by Messrs. Peeler & Maxey, of Counsel for Defendant, Austin, State Printing Office, 1882.

Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Vol. I, No. 1, July 1897-Vol. XV, No. 4, April 1912. (Continued as the Southwestern Historical Quarterly.)

Ratchford, Fannie E., editor. The Story of Champ dAsile, Dallas, 1937.

Reeves, Jesse S. The Napoleonic Exiles in America1815-1819, Baltimore, 1905 (Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series XXIII, Nos. 9, 10.)

Rister, Carl Coke. Comanche Bondage. Dr. John Charles Bealess Settlement of La Villa de Dolores, Glendale, California, 1955.

Rives, George Lockhart. The United States and Mexico 1821-1848, New York, 1913. 2 vols.

Rourke, Constance. Davy Crockett, New York, 1934.

Ruthven, A.S. Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Texas, 1837-1857, Galveston, 1857. 2 vols.

Sage, Rufus. Scenes in the Rocky Mountains andTexas, Philadelphia, 1846.

Schmitz, Joseph William. Texas Statecraft 1836-45, San Antonio, 1941.

Selter, H. Foure. LOdysée DUne Famille Française le Docteur Antoine Saugrain, Baltimore, 1936.

Smith, Justin H. Annexation of Texas, New York, 1919.

Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVI, No. 1, July, 1912, to date. A continuation of the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association.

Tiling, Moritz. History of the German Element in Texas from 1820-1850, Houston, 1913.

Uhlendorf, B.A. "Charles Sealsfield, Ethnic and National Problems in his Works," in Deutsch-Amerikanischen Geschichtsblätter, Jahrgang, 1920-1921, University of Chicago Press, 1922.

Warren, Harris Gaylord. The Sword Was Their Passport; A History of American Filibustering in the Mexican Revolution, Baton Rouge, 1943.

Waugh, Julia Nott. Castro-Ville and Henry Castro, Empresario, San Antonio, 1934.

West Texas Historical Association Year Book, Abilene, Texas, 1925, to date.

Winsor, Justin. Narrative and Critical History of America, Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1889. 8 vols.

 

Key To Location Symbols

Note: The total number of Texas imprints through 1845 located in U.S. and European Imprints in each of the libraries and collections listed below is given following their names, with the number of apparently unique imprints included in the totals shown in parentheses. (See paragraph on "Location of Copies" in the Introduction.)

C-S: California State Library, Sutro Branch, San Francisco, California. 4
CSmH: Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California. 102 (2)
CSt: Stanford University Library, Stanford, California. 1
CU: University of California, General Library, Berkeley, California. 6
CU-B: University of California, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California. 83
CtY: Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut. 181 (7)
DLC: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 269 (26)
DNA: National Archives, Washington, D.C. 13 (6)
DSC: Supreme Council of the Thirty-Third Degree Library, Washington, D.C. 3
ICN: Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois. 88
ICU: University of Chicago Library, Chicago, Illinois. 23
IHI: Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, Illinois. 1
IU: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, Illinois. 13 (1)
IaCrM: Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 1
IaU: State University of Iowa Library, Iowa City, Iowa. 1
KyLo: University of Louisville Library, Louisville, Kentucky. 2 (1)
KyLx: Public Library, Lexington, Kentucky. 1
LNH: Howard Memorial Library, New Orleans, Louisiana. 2 (1)
MB: Public Library of the City of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts. 92 (4)
MBAt: Boston Athenæum, Boston, Massachusetts. 33 (1)
MBFM: Massachusetts Grand Lodge, F. & A.M. Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 2
MH: Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 154 (3)
MH-L: Harvard Law School Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 8
MHi: Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 11
MWA: American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts. 22 (4)
MiU: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 14 (1)
MiU-C: University of Michigan Library, William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 15
MnHi: Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 7 (1)
MnU: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 4
MoS: Public Library of the City of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri. 2
MoSM: Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Missouri. 26 (1)
MoSU: St. Louis University Library, St. Louis, Missouri. 1
NhD: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, New Hampshire. 1
NjP: Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey. 12 (1)
NmSt-ASg: Archives of the Surveyor General, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 1
NHi: New-York Historical Society, New York, N.Y. 130 (3)
NN: New York Public Library, New York, N.Y. 225 (8)
NNA: American Geographical Society Library, New York, N.Y. 14
NNC: Columbia University Library, New York, N.Y. 1
NNFM: Grand Lodge of New York, F. & A.M., New York, N.Y. 1
NcD: Duke University Library, Durham, North Carolina. 2
OCL: Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland Ohio. 1
OkTG: Thomas Gilcrease Foundation, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 1 (1)
PHi: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 4
PP: Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1
PPAmP: American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2
PPAN: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1 (1)
PPFM: Pennsylvania Masonic Grand Lodge Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2
PPL: Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 11 (1)
PPM: Mercantile Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1
RHi: Rhode Island Historical Society Library, Providence, Rhode Island. 2
RPB: Brown University Library, Providence, Rhode Island. 2
RP-JCB: John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode Island. 1
Tx: Texas State Library, Austin, Texas. 170 (14)
TxAbH: Hardin-Simons University Library, Abilene, Texas. 1
TxAm-CA: Catholic Archives of Texas, Bishops House, Amarillo, Texas. 1
TxAuDR: Daughters of the Republic of Texas Museum, Austin, Texas. 1
TxAuTM: Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, Texas. 1
TxAu-USDC: United States District Court, Austin, Texas. 3 (3)
TxDa: Public Library, Dallas, Texas. 16
TxDaHi: Dallas Historical Society, Dallas, Texas. 17 (2)
TxDaM: Southern Methodist University Library, Dallas, Texas. 46 (1)
TxDaM-L: Southern Methodist University, Law Library, Dallas, Texas. 1
TxFw: Carnegie Public Library, Fort Worth, Texas. 19
TxGR: Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas. 69 (3)
TxH: Public Library, Houston, Texas. 55 (1)
TxHSJM: San Jacinto Museum of History, San Jacinto Monument, Houston, Texas. 2
TxLO: State Land Office, Austin, Texas. 2 (1)
TxNacT: Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College Library, Nacogdoches, Texas. 1 (1)
TxNbPf: Pfeuffer Collection, New Braunfels, Texas. 12
TxSa: San Antonio Public Library, San Antonio, Texas. 52
TxSaA: Alamo Museum, San Antonio, Texas. 1
TxU: University of Texas Library, Austin, Texas. 318 (43)
TxW: Public Library, Waco, Texas. 6
TxWB: Baylor University Library, Waco, Texas. 75 (1)
TxWFM: Texas Masonic Grand Lodge Library, Waco, Texas. 10

 

U.S. and European Imprints Appendix A: Speeches on Texas in the Congress of the United States, 1836-1845
Printed in the Appendix to the Congressional Globe; compiled by Howell J. Heaney

During the years from 1836 through 1845 the Texas question frequently occupied the attention of Congress, beginning with a few speeches in 1836 and 1837 on recognition, and ending with a great flood in 1844 and 1845, when annexation was being debated. Reports of most of these speeches appeared in the Daily Globe, a Democratic paper published at Washington by Blair and Rives. The speeches then appeared in condensed form in their Congressional Globe, as part of the report of the daily proceedings of the two Houses of Congress. They appeared next in the Appendix to the Congressional Globe, which included "all the long speeches of members of Congress, written out or revised by themselves." If a member did not care to submit copy or revise the report already printed in the Congressional Globe, his speech was omitted from the Appendix. Both the Congressional Globe and its Appendix appeared as rapidly as material was accumulated for a number of sixteen pages, the Globe at the rate of about one number a week during the first four weeks of a session and at the rate of two or three numbers a week during the balance of the session, the Appendix less frequently at the start and more frequently than the Globe at the close of a session. Finally many of the speeches were printed as pamphlets for general distribution, usually by Blair and Rives for Democratic members and by Gales & Seaton for Whig members. In every instance noted, the separate printings by Blair and Rives at the Globe Office are from the setting of type used in printing the speech in the Appendix, and in most instances that same setting of type had been used earlier to print the speech in the Congressional Globe and even before that in the Daily and Semi-weekly Globe. Other printers at Washington who published the speeches in pamphlet form were Jacob Gideon, J. and G.S. Gideon, J. Heart, and Harris & Heart.

The list that follows includes all the speeches relating to Texas that were printed in the Appendix to the Congressional Globe between 1836 and the end of 1845. Speeches not printed in the Appendix have been entered if a separate printing of them has been located. References are given to printings in the Appendix by session and page, and to separate printings at Washington found in the Yale University Library, including printings that came to them with Mr. Streeters collection. Cross references are also given to entries in the Bibliography proper for separate printings made outside Washington, since they are entered in U.S. and European Imprints. Doubtless a few more speeches than those indicated were printed separately, but since the texts of most if not all of them are readily available in the Appendix to the Congressional Globe, Mr. Streeter thought it not worthwhile to search further for them. For the full record of the debates on Texas, and for abstracts of such speeches as members did not take the trouble to submit or revise for publication in the Appendix, one must consult the volumes of the Congressional Globe itself.

1836
On the recognition of Texas.

Senate
A 1: Benton, Thomas Hart, of Missouri, July 1. Cong. Globe, 24 Cong., 1 sess., App. 529-532.

A 2: Niles, John Milton, of Connecticut, July 1. Cong. Globe, 24 Cong., 1 sess., App. 529.

A 3: Southard, Samuel Lewis, of New Jersey, July 1. Cong. Globe, 24 Cong., 1 sess., App. 541.

House
None

1837
On the recognition of Texas.

Senate
None

House
A 4: Bynum, Jesse Atherton, of North Carolina. Cong. Globe, 24 Cong., 2 sess., App. 229-236. Also printed separately by the Globe Office at Washington, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1264.

A 5: Hamer, Thomas Lyon, of Ohio, February 28. Cong. Globe, 24 Cong., 2 sess., App. 213-214.

A 6: Huntsman, Adam, of Tennessee, March 2. Cong. Globe, 24 Cong., 2 sess., App. 226-228.

A 7: Mason, Samson, of Ohio, February 27. Not printed in the Congressional Globe or its Appendix, but printed as a pamphlet by Gales and Seaton at Washington, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1281.

1838

Senate
A 8: Prentiss, Samuel, of Vermont, January 16. Not printed in the Congressional Globe or its Appendix, but printed as a pamphlet by Gales and Seaton at Washington, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1321.

A 9: Preston, William Campbell, of South Carolina, April 24. Cong. Globe, 25 Cong., 2 sess., App. 555-558. Also printed separately by Gales and Seaton at Washington, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1322.

House
A 10: Adams, John Quincy, of Massachusetts, June 16-July 17. Not printed in the Congressional Globe or its Appendix, but printed as a pamphlet by Gales and Seaton at Washington, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1305.

1842

Senate
None

House
A 11: Linn, Archibald Ladley, of New York, April 13. Cong. Globe, 27 Cong., 2 sess., App. 513-518. Also printed separately by Gales and Seaton at the National Intelligencer Office, Washington, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1420.

1844

Senate
These speeches are on the Treaty with Texas, submitted by President Tyler to the Senate on April 12, 1844.

A 12: Archer, William Segar, of Virginia, May, 1844. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 693-696, where it is dated June 8. Also printed separately, with the Gales and Seaton imprint, in 22 p.

A 13: Benton, Thomas Hart, of Missouri, May 16, 18, and 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 474-486. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 21 p., plus continuation in 8 p.; and with the Gideon imprint, in 28 p. Separate printings, at Little Rock and at New York, including other speeches by Benton are entered in the Bibliography as No. 1478 and No. 1479.

A 14: ______. June 1. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 497-499.

A 15: ______. June 12. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 568-576. Also printed at New York, with other speeches by Benton, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1479.

A 16: ______. June 15. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 607-611. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 17. Berrien, John MacPherson, of Georgia, June 8. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess. App. 701-704. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 15 p.

A 18: Breese, Sidney, of Illinois, June 3. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 537-544. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 15 p.

A 19: Buchanan, James, of Pennsylvania, June 8. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 720-727. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 15 p.

A 20: Jarnagin, Spencer, of Tennessee, June 6. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 682-689. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 32 p.

A 21: McDuffie, George, of South Carolina, May 16, 18, and 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 451-452.

A 22: ______. May 23. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 529-533. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 23: ______. June 15. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 588-590.

A 24: Miller, Jacob Welsh, of New Jersey, May 23. Not printed in the Congressional Globe or its Appendix, but printed as a pamphlet by Gales and Seaton at Washington in 25 p. Also printed, without imprint, in 23 p.

A 25: Rives, William Cabell, of Virginia, June 6. Not printed in the Congressional Globe or its Appendix. A notice "To the Subscribers to the Congressional Globe and Appendix," Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 784, points out that the editors have not received copy of this speech for publication. Printed separately, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 26: Sevier, Ambrose Hundley, of Arkansas. June 7. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 557-560.

A 27: Walker, Robert James, of Mississippi, May 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 548-557. Also printed, somewhat abridged, with the Heart imprint, in 8 p., including "Gen. Jacksons Indiana Letter," dated at the Hermitage, June 24, 1844, at the end.

A 28: Woodbury, Levi, of New Hampshire, June 4. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 760-775. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 30 p.

House
A 29: Belser, James Edwin, of Alabama, May 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 520-525. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 13 p.

A 30: Giddings, Joshua Reed, of Ohio, May 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 704-708. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 15 p. and in another issue of 16 p.

A 31: Owen, Robert Dale, of Indiana, May 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 696-701. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 32: Tibbatts, John Wooleston, of Kentucky, May 7. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., App. 444-451. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 16 p.

1845

Senate
A 33: Archer, William Segar, of Virginia, February 28. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 326-330. Also printed separately, with the Gales and Seaton imprint, in 16 p.

A 34: Ashley, Chester, of Arkansas, February 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 282-288. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 12 p.

A 35: Barrow, Alexander, Louisiana, February 19. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 390-394. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 36: Berrien, John MacPherson, of Georgia, February 25. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 383-387. Also printed separately, with the Gales and Seaton imprint, in 24 p.

A 37: Colquitt, Walter Terry, of Georgia, February 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 252-256. Also printed separately, with the Harris and Heart imprint, in 14 p.

A 38: Dayton, William Lewis, of New Jersey, February 24. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 387-390.

A 39: Dickinson, Daniel Stevens, of New York, February 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 321-326. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 13 p.

A 40: Haywood, William Henry, Jr., of North Carolina, January 14. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 154-159. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 13 p.

A 41: Henderson, John, of Mississippi, February 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 406-410. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 16 p.

A 42: Huntington, Jabez Williams, of Connecticut, February 21 and 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 397-402. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 16 p.

A 43: Johnson, Henry, of Louisiana, February 27. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 223-224.

A 44: Merrick, William Dunhurst, of Maryland, February 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 229-233. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 45: Miller, Jacob Welsh, of New Jersey, February 25. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 351-355. Also printed separately by the Daily Advertiser Office at Newark, New Jersey, and entered in the Bibliography as No. 1601.

A 46: Rives, William Cabell, of Virginia, February 15. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 378-382. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 16 p.

A 47: Woodbury, Levi, of New Hampshire, February 17. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 233-238. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 13 p.

House
A. Speeches in January and February 1845

A 48: Barnard, Daniel Dewey, of New York, January 24. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 347-351. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 49: Bayly, Thomas Henry, of Virginia, January 7. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 122-128. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 15 p.

A 50: Belser, James Edwin, of Alabama, January 3. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 41-44, including appendixes 1-3. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 8 p., including appendixes 1-3. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 16 p., including appendixes 1-7.

A 51: Bowlin, James Butler, of Missouri, January 15. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 92-95. Also printed, without imprint, in 7 p.

A 52; Brengle, Francis, of Maryland, January 9. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 84-85.

A 53: Brinkerhoff, Jacob, of Ohio, January 13. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 120-122. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 8 p.

A 54: Brown, William John, of Indiana, January 14. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 96-98. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 8 p.

A 55: Caldwell, George Alfred, of Kentucky, January 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 146-151. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 13 p.

A 56: Cary, Shepard, of Maine, January 9. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 61-62. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 4 p.

A 57: Chappell, Absolom Harris, of Georgia, January 26. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 270-274. Also printed separately, with the Harris and Heart imprint, in 12 p.

A 58: Cobb, Howell, of Georgia, January 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 200-202. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 8 p.

A 59: Collamer, Jacob, of Vermont, January 23. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 402-406. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 60: Daniel, John Reeves Jones, of North Carolina, January 24. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 288-292. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 61: Davis, Garrett, of Kentucky, January 14. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 338-342. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 62: Dean, Ezra, of Ohio, January 10. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 102-106. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 7 p.

A 63: Douglas, Stephen Arnold, of Illinois, January 6. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 65-68. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 7 p.

A 64: Dromgoole, George Coke, of Virginia, January 24. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 300-307. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 16 p.

A 65: Ellis, Chesselden, of New York, January 25. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 138-143. Also printed separately: with the Globe imprint, in 13 p.; with the Harris and Heart imprint, in 15 p.; and without imprint, in 20 p.

A 66: Ficklin, Orlando Bell, of Illinois, January 23. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., 182-184; not printed in the Appendix. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 7 p.

A 67: Giddings, Joshua Reed, of Ohio, January 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 342-347. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 68: Hamlin, Edward Stowe, of Ohio, January 9. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 373-378. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 15 p.

A 69: Haralson, Hugh Anderson, of Georgia, January 28. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 193-196. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 70: Hardin, John J., of Illinois, January 15. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 274-277. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 15 p.

A 71: Holmes, Isaac Edward, of South Carolina, January 14. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 106-108. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 7 p.

A 72: Hudson, Charles, of Massachusetts, January 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 333-338. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 15 p.

A 73: Ingersoll, Charles Jared, of Pennsylvania, January 3. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., 85-87; not printed in the Appendix. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 4 p.

A 74: Ingersoll, Joseph Reed, of Pennsylvania, January 4. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 55-58.

A 75: Johnson, Andrew, of Tennessee, January 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 219-223. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 11 p.

A 76: Kennedy, John Pendleton, of Maryland, January 11. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 295-300. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.

A 77: McIlvain, Abraham Robinson, of Pennsylvania, January 25. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 372-373. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 7 p.

A 78: Marsh, George Perkins, of Vermont, January 20. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 314-319, Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 15 p.

A 79: Morse, Isaac Edward, of Louisiana, January 11. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 90-92.

A 80: Norris, Moses, Jr., of New Hampshire, January 24. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 184-193. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 20 p.

A 81: Owen, Robert Dale, of Indiana, January 8. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 98-102. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 82: Payne, William Winter, of Alabama, January 4. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 167-171. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 83: Pollock, James, of Pennsylvania, January 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 355-359.

A 84: Rathburn, George Oscar, of New York, January 22. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 131-134. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 7 p.

A 85. Rayner, Kenneth, of North Carolina, February 17. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 410-412.

A 86: Rhett, Robert Barnwell, of South Carolina, January 21. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 143-146. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 87: Sample, Samuel Caldwell, of Indiana, January 10. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 71-73. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 88: Severance, Luther, of Maine, January 15. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 367-371.

A 89: Seymour, David Lowrey, of New York, January 23. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 212-216. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 12 p.

A 90: Smith, Caleb Blood, of Indiana, January 8. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 78-81. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 15 p.

A 91: Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, of Georgia, January 25. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 309-314. Also printed separately, with the Gales and Seaton imprint, in 22 p.

A 92: Stetson, Lemuel, of New York, January 7. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 58-61. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 6, [1] p.

A 93: Stone, Alfred Parish, of Ohio, January 24. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 224-227. Also printed separately by the Globe Office, without imprint, in 7 p.

A 94: Tibbatts, John Wooleston, of Kentucky, January 14. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 108-114.

A 95: Weller, John B., of Ohio, January 9. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 82-84. Also printed separately, with the Globe imprint, in 7 p.

A 96: Winthrop, Robert Charles, of Massachusetts, January 6. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 394-397. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p. One copy located gives the year of the speech incorrectly as 1842, although the imprint is correctly dated as 1845.

A 97: Woodward, Joseph Addison, of South Carolina, January 25. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 196-199. Also printed separately, without imprint, in 8 p.

A 98: Yancey, William Lowndes, of Alabama, January 7. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 2 sess., App. 85-90. Also printed separately, with the Harris and Heart imprint, in 14 p.

B. Speech in December 1845

A 99: Rockwell, Julius, of Massachusetts, December 16. Cong. Globe, 29 Cong., 1 sess., App. 50-54. Also printed separately, with the Gideon imprint, in 16 p.