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Thomas A. Edison Collection of American Sheet Music


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Introduction: The Thomas A. Edison Collection of American Sheet Music

Introduction: The Thomas A. Edison Collection of American Sheet Music

By Calvin Elliker

As a country without a national library system, the United States has long been dependent upon the personal interests and labors of individual bibliographers to document much of the nations early published output. Books such as that by Charles Evans, recording Americana from colonial times into the first quarter of the nineteenth century,1 and those by Marjorie Crandall2 and Richard Barksdale Harwell,3 describing Confederate imprints, are particularly fine examples of these endeavors.

Though all three of these books include some music materials, the field of specialized documentation of early American music imprints is dominated by two major bibliographies; namely, those by Oscar George Theodore Sonneck (revised by William Treat Upton)4 and by Richard J. Wolfe.5 Sonnecks bibliography (hereafter, Sonneck-Upton) is devoted to imprints of the eighteenth century, while Wolfes three-volume work (hereafter, Wolfe) was envisioned as a continuation of Sonneck-Upton with its scope encompassing the first quarter of the nineteenth century.

Compilation of these bibliographies was naturally dependent upon major collections of pertinent materials. Sonneck-Upton lists forty institutional and personal collections from which citations were derived and Wolfe lists forty-four with, inevitably, a degree of overlap. Of course not every collection of American music imprints--especially those in private hands--was open to examination by these bibliographers at the time of their researches and this is the case for the remarkable body of publications assembled from roughly 1896 to 1920 by Thomas Alva Edison to support the activities of his phonograph company. Relating the history of this collection and documenting its holdings in early American imprints germane to Sonneck-Upton and to Wolfe are the dual purposes of this essay.

Edisons interest in music is reported by no less an informant than his son Charles, a former Secretary of the Navy and Governor of New Jersey, in an article commissioned by Etude in 1947.6 Though he invented and patented the first practical phonograph in 1877, Edison was slow to realize the vast potential his sound recording and reproducing processes held for transmitting music. Of the eleven initial applications Edison envisioned for his invention "Music" ranks fifth; following "Letter-writing," "Dictation," "Books," and "Educational Purposes," but preceding "Family Record," "Musical Boxes [and] Toys," "Advertising," "Speech and Other Utterances," and perfecting the telephone and telegraphy.7 Moreover, as his son relates, by the following year Edison was engaged in his most famous work--development of the incandescent light--and further progress on his phonograph was set aside until 1887 when he entered patents for his wax cylinder and sapphire recording needle.8

In 1888 the Edison Phonograph Works and the Edison Phonograph Company were founded. At this time the phonograph business was concerned exclusively with office dictation--the second item in Edisons list of potential applications--and the Edison Company soon sold its rights to the North American Phonograph Company. This firms practice of renting its equipment--rather than selling it--led to its financial failure in 1892, prompting Edison to buy back the rights in 1896. According to Charles Edison, "this date may really be considered the beginning of the musical phonograph business."9

Edison believed that "Music, next to religion, is the minds greatest solace and also its greatest inspiration"10 and he entered into the musical phonograph business with the same zeal and doggedness that characterized his scientific experiments: "There are few people, however, who have listened to a larger variety of musical selections, as he was in the habit of buying sheet music, literally by the ton, and wearing out his pianist as he listened to various compositions for hours at a time."11 In this statement Charles Edison provides the first documented indication--though certainly casual and veiled--of both the existence and extent of the music collection amassed by his father. Indeed, the reference to Edison buying sheet music "literally by the ton" was no exaggeration, as this essay shall soon demonstrate.

Inter-office memoranda of the Edison Company now in possession of the Music Library at the University of Michigan indicate that two employees, identified only as Hayes and Welch, were mainly responsible for obtaining sheet music and it appears they may have purchased the residues of entire music stores, as well as the personal collections of many individuals. As the phonograph business grew, music publishers began to send Edison professional copies of new sheet-music releases in hopes of getting their songs recorded thus--unintentionally--further augmenting the size of his collection.12

Despite its initial success, by the 1920s the Edison Phonograph Company was losing the market to its competitors and the decision was made to withdraw from the recording business. The bulk of Edisons sheet-music collection13 was crated and shipped to Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan.14 Shortly after its arrival, Ford gave the sheet music--still in the unopened crates--to Betty Potter (Mrs. Charles E. Potter) of Chevy Chase, Maryland, who is said to have been Fords niece. The crates were placed in storage in the baggage room of the Grand Trunk Railroad depot at Swartz Creek, Michigan, where they remained undisturbed for nearly forty years.

In 1963 a light industrialist from Flint, Michigan, named Bly Corning was looking for additional space for his expanding business and purchased the now-defunct Swartz Creek depot with its contents. In the crates filling the baggage room Corning found approximately seventeen tons of loose and bound sheet music wrapped in newspapers dating from 1921 to 1924. In that moment of discovery Corning joined the informal club of legendary American sheet music collectors that, over the years, included such illustrious names as Joseph Muller, J. Francis Driscoll, W. Lloyd Keepers, Elliott Shapiro, James J. Fuld, and Lester S. Levy. Levy quickly became something of a mentor to Corning, who preserved copies of their correspondence to the end of his life. Indeed, it was Levys gentle but persistent questioning that caused Corning to reveal--and thus document in writing--the details of how he found the collection in the Swartz Creek depot.15

Corning hired Harry Dichter to evaluate the collection, apparently at Levys suggestion. Dichters written appraisal, dated 20 December 1963, indicates it took him three days to evaluate just one and one-half percent of the material. He placed a value of $8,500.00 on the collection and noted, "In my opinion, this collection is one of the largest and finest available discovered in this century, and in fact will not be duplicated in the future on the open market."16

Though he may have had a legitimate claim to the sheet music as railroad salvage abandoned on his property, Corning located the Potters and duly entered into negotiations with them to purchase the collection. On 19 March 1964 a bill of sale was executed for "A music collection weighing about seventeen (17) tons, containing sheet music, bound volumes of music, and miscellaneous music, records and material; most of the foregoing music, records and material bears printing dates indicating it was printed or compiled prior to 1922; with minor exception the foregoing music, records and material is [sic] now stored in the Grand Trunk Train Depot, at Swartz Creek, Michigan."17 The bill of sale also indicates that Corning paid $5,000.00 for the collection.

Through his exchanges with Levy, Corning became increasingly interested in the so-called "Wolfe era" materials his connection contained. Levy encouraged this interest, first in a letter of 14 October 1966:

"I understand from Harry Dichter that you have found an enormous number of items from the Wolfe bibliography. I would guess that you have twice as many as anybody else now."18

Corning appears to have responded with a letter he did not copy, for thirteen days later Levy wrote again saying:

"When you write that you have about 3,000 items in Wolfes bibliography, I can just repeat what I said in my last letter when I assumed that you had twice as many as anyone else. Your letter justified my statement, because I thought I had the most and mine come to 1,500."19

By the close of the year, however, Corning seems to have lost much of his initial enthusiasm for these items, telling Levy:

"I have decided to sell some Wolfe material. It is my intent to keep a few hundred for period representation in my personal collection."20

It appears that Corning did sell portions of his collection. He also traded duplicates with Levy and other collectors, and he made an outright gift of 35,000 nineteenth-century imprints to the William L. Clements Library of Americana at the University of Michigan.21 As a result, some items originally owned by Edison are now dispersed among various collections across Michigan and in other states. Nevertheless, Corning retained the bulk of the materials, leaving him a collection of American sheet music that extended from the 1790s into the 1920s. For most of the next two decades he experimented with various organizing schemes, none of which was truly successful. Debilitated by the effects of heart disease in his last years, Corning decided to sell the remainder of his collection in 1987. For nearly three years the School of Music as the University of Michigan sought grants from various institutions to raise the necessary capital, but was unsuccessful in its efforts. Finally an anonymous benefactor provided the School with funds sufficient to meet Cornings price and the collection was moved to the Universitys Buhr Storage Facility in the opening months of 1990, where it has remained in an inaccessible state awaiting organization.

The remainder of this essay reports outcomes of some initial stages of processing the pre-1860 portion of what is now formally called the Thomas A. Edison Collection of American Sheet Music. One aspect of this processing was to compare all eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century imprints to Sonneck-Upton and to Wolfe, respectively.

As a result of Cornings sales and gifts, the Edison Collections holdings in eighteenth-century imprints are quite modest. Only eighteen items listed in Sonneck-Upton are owned. One additional imprint, not listed in either Sonneck-Upton or in Wolfes appendix of previously unrecorded eighteenth-century imprints,22 is owned and will be described subsequently.

Holdings in imprints from the first quarter of the nineteenth century are substantial. Despite Cornings statement to Levy that he would retain only "a few hundred" of the items in Wolfe, the collection contains 1,392 of the titles listed in that bibliography. Of these titles 210 are in multiple copies, yielding an additional 316 items and bringing the total to 1,708 individual pieces of sheet music. There are also sixty-seven imprints unrecorded by Wolfe, eight of which are in multiple copies, bringing the grand total to 1,784 pieces of sheet music from this era.

Wolfe found it necessary to update Sonneck-Upton as a result of his discoveries. As mentioned above, he did this by including an appendix to his bibliography that lists eighteenth-century imprints unrecorded by Sonneck-Upton. In the same spirit, and following Wolfes diplomatic protocols, this essay concludes with three sections that comprise the addenda to Sonneck-Upton and to Wolfe alluded to in its title.

The first section describes the single unrecorded eighteenth-century imprint added to Sonneck-Upton. The second section describes eighteen early nineteenth-century imprints unlocated by Wolfe but listed by him on the basis of literary evidence, such as publishers catalogs and periodical advertisements. These citations are arranged by, and include, the entry numbers Wolfe assigned to them.

The third section describes sixty-seven imprints unrecorded by Wolfe. Inclusion of items in this category has been approached with caution. It is possible that more imprints in the Edison Collection could be listed in this section, but they were ultimately rejected for lack of corroborating evidence in Wolfe. The directory by Virginia Larkin Redway (hereafter Redway)23 and also that by Harry Dichter and Elliott Shapiro (hereafter Dichter and Shapiro)24 proved invaluable in this endeavor and relevant information from these sources appears in the annotations below. This section follows the alphabetical arrangement by main entry employed in Wolfe and assigns sequential numbers to the citations.

An Eighteenth-Century Imprint Unrecorded by Sonneck-Upton

William of the ferry. A favorite song. New York. Printed and sold by G. Gilfert Co. No. 177 Broadway where may be he had a general assortment of fine tuned piano fortes and other musical articles of superior quality. [1796] 2 p. 32 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc with indications for flute. Two staves.
First line: Oft upon Thames bank I stray where nymphs and swains appear from all their sports I turn away.
An edition of this title by Carr is listed in Sonneck-Upton, p. 472.

Nineteenth-Century Imprints Unlocated by Wolfe

The wreath of love. As sung by Mr. Howard at Chatham Theatre. The words from the New York Mirror. Composed and inscribed to Miss Fanny Conningham by William Blondell. Apollo no. 8. Copyright. Price 25 cts. New York. Published by T. Birch, of whom may be had all Blondells compositions. [1825-26] 3 p. 35 cm. 144, no. 8

Title-page, music p 2-3; verso of p. 3 blank.
See Wolfe 144 for series description.
Date from Redway.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: A wreath of love Ill weave for thee of flowers sweet and fair to see.
Lower margin p. 3: Engraved by T. Birch. Chapple 235 near Canal St.


The bells of St. Andrews Tower. Favorite Scotch ballad. Arranged with an accompaniment for the piano forte by T.W.H.B.B. Apollo no. 46. Price 25 cts. New York. Published by T. Birch. [1825-26] 3 p. 34 cm. 144, no. 46

Title-Page, music p 2-3; verso of p. 3 blank.
See Wolfe 144 for series description.
Date from Redway.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Hark, hark ye braw lasses so bonnie and fair.
Lower left corner p. 3: Engrd. T. Birch.


The carrier pigeon. As sung by Miss Gillingham with great applause. Written by Dr. Percival. Composed by P.K. Moran. Apollo no. 57. Price 25 cts. New York. Published by T. Birch. 190 Chapel near Canal St. [1825-26] 3 p. 33 cm. 144, no. 57

Title-page, music p 2-3; verso of p. 3 blank.
See Wolfe 144 for series description.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Come hither thou beautiful rover thou wanderer of earth and air.
Lower martin p. 3: Engrd. by T Birch.

A divertimento for the piano forte. Composed and dedicated to his wife by Charles F. Hupfeld. Pr: 50. Copyright. Philadelphia. Published by G.E. Blake at his piano forte and music store no. 13 South Fifth Street. [1821-22] 5 p. 32 cm. 860, no. 51

Title-page, music p 2-5; verso of p. 5 blank.
See Wolfe 860 for series description.
Date from Wolfe.
Pfte 2 hds.
At head of title: No. 51 Blakes Musical Miscellany.

Admired cottillions for balls and private parties. With new figures. Eighth sett. Pr. 25 cents. No. 85 Blakes Musical Miscellany. Philadelphia. Published by G.E. Blake. No. 13 South 5th Street. [1825-26] 2 p. 31 cm. 860, no. 85

See Wolfe 860 for series description.
Date from Wolfe
Pfte 2 hds.
Contents:
The bridesmaids song.
Le dame blanche.
The hunters chorus.
Hey the bonny breast knots.
Hurrah for the bonnets of blue.
Upper left corner p. 1: 16.

Oh Nanny. [Philadelphia: G.E. Blake, ca. 1822] 4 p. 37 cm. 1700

Caption title.
Title page mission.
See Wolfe 1700 for description.
Date from Wolfe.
Pfte 2 hds.

Coles selection of favourite cotillions. Arranged for the pianoforte; with appropriate figures. No. ["4" in ink]. Price [blank]. Baltimore. Published by John Cole 123 Market Street. [1825?] 3 p. 34 cm. 1988, no. 4

Title-page, music p 2-3; verso of p. 3 blank.
Between the title and imprint, the same illustration described in Wolfe 1988.
Pub. no. 268.
Pfte 2 hds.
Contents:
The red red rose.
Theres nae luck.
The Parisian dance.
The bonny boat.
O what a row.
Lower right corner p. 2 and lower left corner p. 3 and 4: Coles cotillions no. 4.

Sir David Hunter Blairs favorite reel. Arranged as a rondo for the piano forte. Euterpe no. 18. Price 25 cts. New York. Published by T. Birch. [1826?] 2 p. 33 cm. 2720, no. 18

See Wolfe 2720 for series description.
Wolfe 8270 is an edition by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1824-27.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower margin p. 2: Engrd. by T. Birch.

The Fourth of July. A grand parade march. Composed for a full military band and arranged for the piano forte by H.N. Gilles. Published by John Cole. Baltimore; [1826] 2 p. 34 cm. 3096

Pub. no. 195.
Listed in Coles 1826 catalog.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower margin p. 1: Entered according to act of Congress January seventh, 1826, by John Cole of the state of Maryland.

La coquette. A sonata for the piano forte. Composed by Mr. Hermann. Price 75 cents. Philadelphia. Published by G.E. Blake no. 13 South 5th Street. [1820] 7 p. 34 cm. 3674

Title-page, music p 2-7; verso of p. 7 blank.
Listed in John Rowe Parkers 1820 catalog.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower margin p. 2-7: La coquette.

The cottage in the grove. New York. Published by I and M Paff. No. [blank] Maiden Lane. [1803-06] 2 p. 33 cm. 3998

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Two staves.
First Line: Now wanton gales perfume the glade beneath the woodbines fragrant shade.

Orra moor. Composed & arranged for the piano forte by a gentleman of Philadelphia. Philadelphia. Published & sold by G. Willig 171 Chestnut St. [1807?] 1 p. 35 cm. 4171

Date from Wolfe.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: My Orra moor where art thou laid what wood conceals my sleeping maid.

The reply. Divertimento by T. Latour. No. 22. Pr. 75. [Philadelphia: G.E. Blake, 1825-26]. 7 p. 34 cm. 5296, no. 22 (bis)

Title-page, music p 2-7; verso of p. 7 blank.
See Wolfe 5296 for series title-page description.
Caption title in disagreement. Wolfe indicates no. 22 is Latours "Caledonian hunt."
Title page of this copy reflects reissue state 4.
An edition of this title by Graupner is listed as Wolfe 5293.
Lower left corner p. 3-7: The reply.

The origin of the harp. Canzonett. The words by Moore. Arranged either as a solo or duett with an accompaniment for the harp or piano forte. Philadelphia. Printed for B. Carr, G. Willig proprietor. [after 1826] Price 38 cents. 4 p. 34 cm. 5475, no. 9

See Wolfe 5475 for series description.
Song, harp or pfte acc., Three staves.
First line: Tis believed that this harp which I now wake for thee.
At head of title: No. 9 of Lyricks, or adaptations, arrangements and compositions in vocal music by B. Carr and others. To be completed in 36 numbers. Copy-right secured.

The Neapolitan, Swiss and Vienna waltzes arranged for the piano forte. Published by John Cole. Baltimore. [1823-26] 2 p. 33 cm. 6480

Pub. no. 212.
Date from Wolfe.
Pfte 2 hds.

Non piu andrai. The celebrated military air by Mozart. Arranged for the piano forte by H. Lemoine. Pr. 50. New York. Published by Dubois & Stodart 167 Broadway. [1821] 5 p. 32 cm. 6275

Title-page, music p 2-5; verso of p. 5 blank.
Pfte 2 hds.
Caption title: Non piu andrai. Air militaire du Mariage de Figaro de Mozart par Lemoine.

A rose tree in full bearing. New York. Engravd, printed & sold by E. Riley no. 29 Chatham Street. [ca. 1824] 1 p. 33 cm. 7558

Date from Wolfe.
Song, pfte acc. Two staves.
First line: A rose tree in full bearing had sweet flowers fair to see.

Steibelts eighteenth pot-pouri for the piano forte in which is introduced Martinis favorite air of Guardami un poco. Price 1 Dollr. New York. Published by W. Dubois at his piano forte and music store no. 126 Broadway. [1818] 11 p. 33 cm. 8545A

Title-page, music p 2-11; verso of p. 11 blank.
Date from Wolfe.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower left corner p. 11: New York. Engraved by W. Pirsson.

Nineteenth-Century Imprints unrecorded by Wolfe

1
Auld langysne. A favorite Scotch song. 1 p. 33 cm.

No imprint.
Verso blank.
See Wolfe 341-344.
Song, pfte acc. Two staves.
First line: Should auld acquaintance be forgot.

2
The favorite Bath waltz. Albany. Printed and sold by John G. Goldberg. 12 cents. [1813-19] 1 p. 33 cm.

Verso blank.
Related to Wolfe 452-53, but apparently issued separately.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower margin: New York. Sold by E. Riley 29 Chatham Street

Bishop, Henry Rowley (1786-1855)

3
Bid me discourse. Sung by Mrs. De Luce. Composed by Henry R. Bishop. Pr. 50. New York. Published by Dubois &Stodart 126 Broadway. [1822-26] 5 p. 34 cm.

Verso of p. 5 blank.
Pub. no. 5.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 574.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Bid me discourse, I will enchant thine ear.

4
He is all the world to me. A favorite air. Composed by H.R. Bishop. New York. Published by E. Riley, 29 Chatham Street. [1819-31] 3 p. 34 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 624-25.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Oer the brake or oer the mountain, near the hill or near the fountain.
Lower right corner p. 2-3: He is all the world to me.

5
My Soldier Love. Sung by Mrs. French. Adapted & arranged with new symphonies and accompaniments by Henry R. Bishop. 25 cts. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm, no. 3 South 3d Street. [1823-25] 2 p. 35 cm.

Pub. no 160.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 727.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Leeze me on my soldier love.

Bray, John, (1782-1822).

6
The hawthorn was blowing. Sung by Miss Hunt in the new comedy of the finger post. Written by T. Dibdin, composed by John Bray. Price 20 cents. Published by J. Aitken, and sold at his musical repository, North 2d Street No. 76. [1807?] 2 p. 34 cm.

Related to Wolfe 1296.
Date from Wolfe.
Song, pfte acc with indications for flute.
First line: The hawthorne was blowing, your flowerets were gay.

Challoner, Neville Butler (b. 1784).

7
Miss Dennetts Waltz with variations for the pianoforte by N.B. Challoner. Pr. 38. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm, no. 3. So. 3d Street. [1823-25] 4 p. 32 cm.

Pub. no. 192.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 1755.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

8
The cheat dance. Simple & varied for the piano forte. Price 6 net. [1818-24?] 1 p. 32 cm.

No imprint.
Verso blank.
See Wolfe 1792-93.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower margin: Wholesale and retail.

Cimarosa, Domenico (1749-1801).

9
Non ve piu barbaro. Arietta. Composed by Cimarosa. Arranged & dedicated to Miss Bardel by J. Padden organist of Grace Church. New York. Published by Dubois & Stodart 126 Broadway. [1822-26] 4 p. 35 cm.

Verso of p. 4 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, harp or pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.

Clifton, Arthur, assumed name of Anthony Corri (1784-1832).

10
Entrée march. In the opera of The Enterprise. Composed by A. Clifton. Pr. 13. Baltimore. Published by the author. No. 19 Second Street. Copyright. [1823?] 1 p. 32 cm.

Price, imprint, and copyright vary from Wolfe 1918. Presence of imprint varies from Wolfe 1954, no. 48.
Above caption: 48.
In lower l.h. cor: The Enterprise.
Pfte 2 hnds.

Cooke, Thomas Simpson (1782-1848).

11
Loves ritornella. Written by J.R. Blanche, Esq. Sung by Mrs. Knight. Composed by T. Cooke. Pr: 25 cents. Philadelphia. Published and sold by G.E. Blake no. 13 South Fifth Street. [1824?] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Duke University Library cataloging record.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Gentle Zitella, whiter away loves ritornella lost while I play.

Corri, Domenico (1746-1825).

12
He was famd for deeds of arms. Sung by Mr. Braham in the Travellers. Written by Mr. Cherry. Composed by D. Corri. Philadelphia. Published by G.E. Blake no. 1 South 3d Street (price 25 cents). [1810-14] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro and Wolfe
See Wolfe 2119.
Song, pfte acc with indications for trumpet. Three staves.
Firsts line: He was famed for deeds of arms, she was a maid of envied charms.
Lower left corner p. 2: The Travellers.

Corri, Montague P. (1784-1849).

13
The Druids. A dance. Composed and arranged as a rondo by M.P. Corri. Price, 25 cts. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm no. 3 S. 3d Street. [1823-25] 2 p. 34 cm.

Pub. no. 28.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 2121.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

Dalayrac, Nicholas (1753-1809).

14
Softly opes the eye of day. A serenade. Adopted to Delayracs admired air of Le point du jour. Written by William Ball Esqr. Pr. 25. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm no. 3 S. 3d. Street. [1823-25] 3 p. 32 cm.

Pub. no. 71.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 2249.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte or harp acc.
First line same as title.

Dale, Joseph (1750?-1821).

15
Sicilian Dance. Arranged as a rondo for the piano forte by James Dale. Pr. 50. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm music seller no. 3 South 3d Street. [1823-25] 6 p. 34 cm.

Title-page, verso of t.-p. blank, music p 1-5; verso of p. 5 blank.
Pub. no. (87).
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 2254.
Pfte 2 hds.
Title and imprint within a hexagonal frame of Greek key design.

Dussek, Jan Ladislav (1760-1812).

16
Two easy sonatas for the piano forte with an accompaniment for the violin ad libitum by J.L. Dussek. Opera 46. Price 2.25 cts. Printed for G. Willig and sold at his musical magazine, Philadelphia. [1810-12] 9 p. 33 cm.

Title-page, music p. 2-9, verso of p. 9 blank.
Edition apparently excerpted from Wolfe 2632.
Title page as described by Wolfe except "Two" stamped above the frame and the price altered to read "$1".
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower left corner p. 2-9:6 S: Dussek.

17
A favorite duett for two performers on the piano forte. Arranged by Peter Erben. [1800-20] 5 p. 33 cm.

Title-page, music p. 2-5, verso of p. 5 blank.
Pfte 2 hds.
"During the first two decades of the 19th century Erben issued a score of music publications"--Wolfe, 1:268.

[Fall of Paris]

18
The downfall of Paris. Philadelphia. Published and sold to Geo. Willig 171 Chestnut Street. [1810-20?] 1 p. 32 cm.

Possibly related to Wolfe 2738.
Pfte 2 hds.

Gaveaux, Pierre (1761-1825).

19
In praise of the fair. Adapted to the popular French air, la Pipe de tobac. With flute accompaniment. Published by G.E. Blake, Philadelphia (price 25 cents). [1804-21] 3 p. 34 cm.

Title advertised by James Hewitt in 1804 but unlocated, see Wolfe 4477.
For an issue by Blake with pfte acc only, see Wolfe 2900.
Song, flute and pfte acc. Four staves.
First line: Oft thro trackless desarts straying, unattended, unsupplied.

20
General Bolivars favourite Scotch march. Arranged for the piano forte. Pr. 25. Philadelphia, Published by J.G. Klemm, no. 3 S. 3d. Street. [1823-25]. 2 p. 34 cm.

Pub. no. 80.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 6768 and 9438.
Pfte 2 hds.
Followed by "Panharmonicon March" and "Tyrolese Waltz" (pfte 2 hds).

Gilfert, Charles (1787-1829).

21
Allen a. Dale. From Rokeby. The music by C. Gilfert. New York. Publishd by A. Geib, no. 9 Maiden Lane. [1812-14] 4 p. 32 cm.

Recto of p. 2 blank.
Possibly related to Wolfe 3028A-C.
Dichter and Shapiro give Geibs address as 209 Maiden Lane in 1814.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
Separate staff for "German flute" on p. 4.
First Line: Allen-a-Dale has no faggot for burning.
Lower left corner p. 2: E. Riley Engraver 23 Chatham St.
To the right of the title copy bears stamp of Geibs shop, an eagle perched on a harp holding a placard in its beak reading "No. 9 Maiden Lane."

Gluck, Christoph Willibald, Ritter von (1714-1787).

22
Che faro senza Euridice. Scena & rondo by Gluck sung by Signorina Garcia at the Philharmonic Concerts. Pr. 50. New York. Published by Dubois & Stodart 126 Broadway. [1822-26] 3 p. 33 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Ahime! Dove trascorsi ove mi spinse un delirio damor.

Grétry, André Ernest Modeste (1741-1813)

23
The celebrated overture to the Caravan. Composed by Mr. Gretri. Pr. 50 cts. New York. Published by J.A. & W. Geib at their piano forte warehouse and wholesale & retail music store 23 Maiden Lane. [1818-21] 6 p. 32 cm.

Title-page, verso of t.-p. blank, music p. 2-6.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

Hance, James F.

24
2d. Grand fantasie. Introduction and brilliant variations to the Russian dance. Composed for the piano forte and dedicated to Miss Eustaphieve by J.F. Hance. Pr. 75. New York. Published by Dubois & Stodart 126 Broadway. [1822-26] 9 p. 33 cm.

Title-page, music p. 2-9, verso of p. 9 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

Handel, Georg Friedrich (1685-1759).

25
Rect. Deeper still and song Waft her angels. Composed by Handel. New York, Engravd, printed and sold by E. Riley, 29 Chatham Street. Price 37 cents. [1818-1820] p. 2-5, 35 cm.

Song, two violins and pfte acc.
Includes figured bass.
Varies from Wolfe 3344.
Date from Wolfe.
First lines: Deeper and deeper still thy goodness child.--Waft her angels thro the skies.
At head of music, p. 4: Waft her angels.
At foot of music, p. 2: For the tenor see the small notes on the bass line.
At foot of music, p. 4: The tenor part of this song may be had of the publisher.
Copy contains imposition errors: p. 5 on verso of p. 2 and p. 3 on verso of p. 4.

Hook, James (1746-1827).

26
The hearts ease. A rondo for the piano forte. Composed by Mr. Hook. Pr. 25. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm no. 3 South Third Street. [1823-25] 3 p. 34 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Pub. no. 117.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 4054.
Pfte 2 hds.

27
No, no, no, to the woods I cannot stray. Philadelphia. Printed for G.E. Blake no. 13 South 5th Street. [1814-17] 4 p. 34 cm.

Similar to Wolfe 4147A.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.

Horn, Charles E. (1786-1849).

28
Louisa of Mowbray, or the knight returnd. A favorite ballad sung by Miss Bolton. Composed by C.E. Horn. New York. Published by Mrs. Bradish no. 124 Broadway. [1811?] 3 p. 34 cm.

The mysterious Mrs. Bradish appears to have issued some music publications around 1811. See Wolfe 9754.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: The gray morning broke on old Mowbrays walls as the warder lookd out from high.

29
Le jeu despirit. A favorite rondo for the piano forte. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm no. 3 S. 3d. St. Price 25 cts. [1823-25] 3 p. 34 cm.

Pub. no. 48.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 4629A
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.
Two copies.

Keene, Arthur F.

30
Rosy Anne. Song for the voice & piano forte. Composed & respectfully dedicated to Miss A.C.I. of Philadelphia, by Arthur F. Keene. Pr. 25. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm, no. 3 South 3d Street. [1823-25] 2 p.

Pub. no. 139.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 4724.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Frequently at early blush of morn.

King, Matthew Peter (1733-1823).

31
Eves lamentation. Song from the oratorio Intercession. Composed by M.P. King. New York. Pub. by Firth & Hall 358 Pearl St. [1823-31] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 4988-90A.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Must I leave thee, must I leave thee, must I leave thee Paradise?
Lower margin p. 2: Eves lamentation 2.

32
Kinloch of Kinloch. A favorite Scotch air arranged with variations for the piano forte or harp. [1820-25] 2 p. 34 cm.

No imprint.
Pub. no. 320.
Possibly related to Wolfe 5066.
Pfte 2 hds or harp.
Two copies

Koczwara (Kotzwara), Fratisek (Franz), (d. 1791).

33
The battle of Prague. A favorite sonata for the piano forte. Composed by F. Kotzwara. ["75" in pencil]. [1803-30] 11 p. 33 cm.

Title-page, verso of t.-p. blank, music p. 3-10, recto and verso of p. 11 blank.
No imprint.
See Wolfe 5102-15A.
Pfte 2 hds.

34
Lady Ameilia Gordons strathspey. [with Minuet by Parotto.] 12 cents. New York. Sold by E. Riley 29 Chatham Street. [1819-31] 1 p. 33 cm.

Imprint in lower margin.
Dates from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 5193 and 6797.

Latour, Jean Tatton (b. 1766).

35
A much admired duett for two performers on one piano forte in which is introduced the admired air of O dolce concento with variations composed by T. Latour. Price 1 Dol. Philadelphia. Published & sold by G. Willig 171 Chestnut St. [1818?-1824] 11 p. 34 cm.

Date from Wolfe.
See Wolfe 5259 and 52 64 (2nd ed.)
Title-page; music, p 2-11; verso of p 11 blank.
Pfte 4 hds. Sep parts on alternate pages
In lower l.h. cor, p 2-11: Latours duet.

Madan, Martin (1726-1790).

36
Hymn. Before Jehovahs awful throne. Composed by Dr. Madan. [1803-18?] 4 p. 32 cm.

No imprint.
See Wolfe 5498-5500.
Three-part chorus, pfte acc. Open score.
First line: Before Jehovahs awful throne, ye nations bow with sacred joy.

Martini, Johann Paul Aegidius Schwartz-Endorf, known as Martini il Tedesco (1741-1816).

37
Follow, follow thro the sea. The celebrated mermaid song sung by Miss Kelly. Composed by Martini. Adapted and arranged by Henry Bishop. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1825-31] 5 p. 33 cm.

Verso of p. 5 blank.
Pub. no. 264.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro
See Wolfe 5601-3.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: follow, follow through the sea to the mermaids melody.

Metz, Julius

38
A temple to friendship. A Spanish air with variations for the piano forte. Composed & dedicated to Miss Helen McEvers by Julius Metz. Copy right secured. New York. Pub. by Dubois & Stodart no. 126 Broadway. [1823-26] 3 p. 32 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
See Wolfe 8978.
Pfte 2 hds.
Two copies.

Moran, Peter K. (d. 1831).

39
The dove. A favorite song. With an accompaniment for the harp or piano forte. Pr. 25 cts. Boston. Published by E.W. Jackson no. 44 Market St. [1822-23] 3 p. 32 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Possible reissue of Moran plates. See Wolfe 6095.
Song, harp or pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Fair Celia had taken a dove from its nest.
Lower right corner p. 3: Engraved by T. Birch.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791).

40
Ill watch for thee from my lonely bowr. Ballad adapted to a German air. The symphonies & accompaniments by Sir J.A. Stevenson. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1823-31] 3 p. 33 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Pub. no. 280.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 6242-45.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.
Two copies.

41
The manly heart. With variations for the piano forte by Steibelt. Philadelphia. Published by George Bacon no. 66 Chestnut Street. [1823-24] 3 p. 33 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 6261-63A.
Pfte 2 hds.

42
Mozarts favourite air "fin chan dal vino." Arranged for the piano forte by J. Mazzinghi. New York. Published by J.A. & W. Geib at their pianoforte warehouse and wholesale & retail music store 23 Maiden Lane. [1818-21] 3 p. 32 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
See Wolfe 6227.
Pfte 2 hds.

43
A favorite waltz by Mozart. With variations for the piano forte composed by Gelineck. Published and sold by J.G. Klemm no. 3 South Third Street. Price 1 doll. [1823-24] 13 p. 34 cm.

Title-page, verso of t.-p. blank, music p. 3-13, verso of p. 13 blank.
Pub. no. 34.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 6320.
Pfte 2 hds.

Murden, Mrs. Eliza Crawly (d. 1845/51).

44
March. Composed and dedicated to the United States Marine Corps by a young lady of Charleston, S.C. Philadelphia. George Willig 171 Chestnut St. [1815?] 2 p. 34 cm.

Possibly related to Wolfe 6361.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower left corner p. 2: U.S.M.C. march.

Parry, John (1776-1851).

45
The maid of Mona. Sung by Mr. Philipps. Written & composed by John Parry. New York. Published by John Paff. [1811-1817] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: I seek not wealth nor fame, nor wish mid rank to move.

46
Poor little Bess. Parry. Baltimore. Published and sold by G. Willig no. 71 Market St. [1823-29] 1 p. 35 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 6825.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: To shield from distress a dear parent I love.

47
Smile again my bonnie lassie. A ballad sung by Miss Kelly. Composed by John Parry. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1824?] 2 p. 33 cm.

Pub. no. 265.
Wolfe 6827 is an issue by Klemm with guitar acc.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.
Two copies.

Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph (1757-1831).

48
Three sonatas with favorite airs rondos for the piano forte and violin accompaniment. Composed by Ignace Pleyel. Price ["2" in ink] Doll. New York. Printed and sold by J. & M. Paff, City Hotel, Broadway. [1806] 20 p. 33 cm.

Title-page, verso of t.-p. blank, music p. 2-20.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.
Copy on blue paper.

Rossini, Giacchino Antonio (1792-1868).

49
Here we meet too soon to part. Adapted to Rossinis air Di tanti palpiti with new symphonies and accompaniments for the piano forte by T.B. Phipps. [1823-26?] 2 p. 32 cm.

No imprint.
See Wolfe 7624.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.

50
The celebrated overture to Tancredi for the piano forte. Introduced by Mr. Gilles and performed by the Musical Fund Society at their concerts in April & May 1821. Composed by G. Rossini. Drawn on stone by Dr. Bell. [1821?] 8 p. 34 cm.

No imprint.
Lithographed.
See Wolfe 7635.
Pfte 2 hds.
Between title and lithography statement is an illustration depicting an open music book, a lyre, and a clarinet with sprays of foliage behind.

Shaw, Oliver (1779-1848).

51
Bristol march. New York. Published by Dubois & Stodart no. 167 Broadway. [1828-34] 1 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 7928-32.
Pfte 2 hds.
Two copies.

Spofforth, Reginald (1770-1827).

52
Ellen. The Richmond primrose girl. As sung by Mr. Incledon with universal applause at the public readings Free Masons Hall. Written by Wm. Pierce Esqr. The music by Reginald Spofforth. Pr. 1$ Printed for the author & sold at music shops. [1805-12?] 3 p. 33 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
See Wolfe 8485.
Song, pfte acc. Two staves.
First line: Near bowry Richmond, Thames pride dwelt Ellen.

Steibelt, Daniel (1765-1823).

53
Parisian rondo for the piano forte. Composed by D. Steibelt. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1823-31] 2 p. 33 cm.

Pub. no. 279.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

54
Le retour du Zephyr. A favourite air. Composed and arranged as a rondo for the piano forte by D. Steibelt. Pr. 25. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm no. 3 South 3d Street. [1823-25] 3 p. 34 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Pub. no. 84.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 8549.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

55
A favorite Spanish air. Arranged as a rondo by D. Steibelt. Price 25 cts. Philadelphia. Published by J.G. Klemm no. 3 South 3d Street. [1823-25] 2 p. 34 cm.

Pub. no. 55.
Reissue of Bacon & Co. plates. See Wolfe 8579.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Pfte 2 hds.

Stevenson, John Andrew (1761-1833).

56
The bells of St. Petersburg. The words by Thos. Moore, Esqr. New York. Published by Firth & Hall, 358 Pearl Street. [1823-26] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Wolfe 8992B may represent a later reissue.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Those evning bells, those evning bells.
Lower left corner p. 2: Engraved T. Birch.
Lower margin p. 2: The bells of St. Petersburg 2.

57
Oft in the stilly night. A Scotch air from Moores melodies. Sung by Mr. Williamson in the Lady of the lake. Arranged by Sir J. Stevenson. Boston. Published by G. Graupner and sold for him by John Ashton no. 197 Washington St. [1824-33] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 8921-26.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.

58
Twilight dews. A favorite song. Arranged with an accompaniment for the piano forte. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1823-31] 2 p. 32 cm.

Pub. no. 378.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 9042.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: When twilight dews are falling fast upon the rosy sea.
Three copies.

59
The Stop and Polish waltzes. As performed by the brigade band. Arranged for the piano rote. Boston. Published by James L. Hewitt & Co. at their music saloon no. 36 Market St. [1826-29] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 9071-79.
Pfte 2 hds.

60
Tally Ho. Sung with great applause by Mrs. Jones. New York. Printed & sold by J & A Geib & Cos Musical Repository no. 23 Maiden Lane. [1816-18] [2] p. 32 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Apparent re-issue of J. Hewitt edition, see Wolfe 9204.
Song, pfte acc.
First line: Ye sportsmen draw near and ye sportswomen too.
Alteration of imprint easily visible.
At foot of page [1]: Stamp of A. Bacon & Co.

Weber, Carl Maria (Friedrich Ernst) von (1786-1826)

61
March in the melodrama Der Freischütz. Composed by C.M. de Weber. Philadelphia. Published by G.E. Blake. [1825?] 1 p. 33 cm.

Imprint in lower margin.
See Wolfe 9697-9701.
Pfte 2 hds.

62
Say my heart why wildly beating. A favorite song in the romantic opera Der Freischutz, or the Seventh bullet. Composed by C.M. von Weber. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1823-24?] 3 p. 35 cm.

Verso of p. 3 blank.
Pub. no. 273.
Wolfe 9713 is an issue by Klemm with guitar acc.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.

Wenck (Wenk), August Heinrich.

63
Ach du lieber Augustin with variations for the piano forte by A.H. Wenck. Price 25 cts. New York. [182-] Published by T. Birch. 2 p. 34 cm.

See Wolfe 9755-55A.
Pfte 2 hds.
Lower right corner p. 2: Engraved by T. Birch.

64
When the day with rosy light. A celebrated Swiss air as sung by Madame Stockhausen. The words written by J.A. Wade Esqr. Arranged by F. Stockausen. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm no. 287 Market St. [1825-31] 2 p. 33 cm.

Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line same as title.

Whitaker, John (1776-1847).

65
Paddy Careys fortune, a favorite song. Written by Mr. Cherry, composed by J. Whitaker. Price 50 cts. New York. Published by J.A. & W. Geib, 23 Maiden Lane. [1818-21] 5 p. 31 cm.

Verso of p. 5 blank.
Date from Dichter and Shapiro.
See Wolfe 9858.
Song, pfte acc. with indications for side drums, oboe, viola, and bugle.
First line: Twas at the town of nate Colgheen that Sergeant Snap met Paddy Carey.

Wiesenthal, Thomas Van Dyke (1790-1833).

66
The harpers song. Words from Rockeby. Composed and arranged for the piano forte by T.V. Wiesenthal. Philadelphia. Published by John G. Klemm. [1824?] 2 p. 32 cm.

Pub. no. 277.
Wolfe 9900 is an issue by Klemm with guitar acc.
Song, pfte acc. Three staves.
First line: Summer eve is gone and past, summer dew is falling fast.
Two copies.

Williams, Richard L.

67
The waltz a la Beethoven. Composed by R.L. Williams. M. Williams lith. [1824-25?] 2 p. 33 cm.

Lithographed.
Date from Wolfe.
Pfte 2 hds.

Footnotes

Calvin Elliker is assistant professor of musicology and head of the music library at the University of Michigan.

1 Charles Evens, American Bibliography: A Chronological Dictionary of All Books, Pamphlets, and Periodical Publications Printed in the United States of American from the Genesis of Printing in 1639 Down to and Including the Year 1820 (New York: P. Smith, 1941-59).

2 Marjorie Crandall, Confederate Imprints: A Check List Based Principally on the Collection of the Boston Athenum ([Boston]: Boston Athenæum, 1955).

3 Richard Barksdale Harwell, More Confederate Imprints (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1957).

4 Oscar George Theodore Sonneck and William Treat Upton, A Bibliography of Early Secular American Music (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Music Division, 1945).

5 Richard J. Wolfe, Secular Music in America 1801-1825: A Bibliography (New York: New York Public Library, 1964).

6 Charles Edison, "My Father and Music," Etude 65 (February 1947): 65, 80, 113.

7 John Harvith and Susan Edwards Harvith, Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph: A Century in Retrospect (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987), [1].

8 Edison, 65.

9 Ibid.

10 Ibid., 80.

11 Ibid., 113.

12 For descriptions of professional copies and other specialized forms of American sheet music see Calvin Elliker, "Sheet Music Special Issues: Formats and Functions," Notes 53 (September 1996): 9-17.

13 A letter to the author from George Tselos, Archivist of the Edison National Historic Site in West Orange, New Jersey, dated 16 November 1992, indicates about sixty-five linear feet of sheet music remain at the site of Edisons laboratories.

14 Shipping instructions stenciled on each wooden crate read: "Thomas A. Edison Lab, Orange | To: J.P. Buchanan c/o | Frank Campsall | Ford Motor Works, Dearborn."

15 Bly Corning to Lester S. Levy, Flint, Michigan, 22 December 1981. See also Lester S. Levy, "Sheet Music Buffs and Their Collections: A Personal Memoir," American Music 1 (winter 1983): 93, 97.

16 Harry Dichter, "Appraisal of the Bly Corning Collection of Music, Flint, Michigan," 20 December 1963. Typescript on Dichters "Musical Americana" business stationery. Witnessed and sealed by Elizabeth Bernstein, a notary public of Philadelphia.

17 "Bill of Sale," 19 March 1964. Signed by Charles and Betty Potter.

18 Levy to Corning, Pikesville, Maryland, 14 October 1966.

19 Levy to Corning, Pikesville, Maryland, 27 October 1966.

20 Corning to Levy, Flint, Michigan, 5 November 1966.

21 "19th-Century Sheet Music," Sonneck Society Newsletter 9 (fall 1983): 73.

22 Wolfe, 3:1001-1018.

23 Virginia Larkin Redway, Music Directory of Early New York City: A File of Musicians, Music Publishers, and Musical-Instrument Makers Listed in New York Directories from 1786 through 1835, Together with the Most Important New York Music Publishers from 1836 through 1875 (New York: New York Public Library, 1941).

24 Harry Dichter and Elliott Shapiro, Early American Sheet Music: Its Lure and Its Lore (New York: Bowker, 1941).