Gay Rights Movement: Series 8: Gay and Lesbian Politics and Social Activism: Selected Periodicals, Parts 1-4
About this Collection
San Francisco, the Gay Capital of the World
Long before Lifemagazine called San Francisco the gay capital of the world in 1964, the citywas a mecca for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered (GLBT) people. SanFrancisco had a well-deserved reputation as a wide-open town that toleratedsexual and gender nonconformity.1 In the early twentieth century, aslesbians and gay men were drawn to the city to be with others like themselves,queer gathering places began to emerge, particularly in neighborhoodsfrequented by tourists, such as North Beach. Demographic changes wrought byWorld War II expanded queer life in the city, which was home to many militarybases and industries. Lesbians moved to the Bay Area to take advantage ofwell-paying jobs in wartime industries. Veterans - those who were discharged(both dishonorably and honorably) or who disembarked in San Francisco - stayedand made their homes in the city. Bars catering to gay and lesbian militarypersonnel multiplied. During the McCarthy era, when police and state repressionagainst gays and lesbians in San Francisco increased - as it did across thecountry - the citys nascent GLBT communities fought back, both in the bars andthrough homophile organizations, such as the Mattachine Society and theDaughters of Bilitis (DOB). Transsexuals, who had moved to San Francisco in the1950s to seek the services of Dr. Harry Benjamin, one of the leading medicalexperts on transsexuality, began to organize in the 1960s. In 1966, three yearsbefore Stonewall, transgendered residents of the citys Tenderloin neighborhoodresponded to police harassment at Comptons Cafeteria by rioting. This markedthe beginnings of a militant transgender movement in San Francisco and helpedgenerate a complex of medical, social, and psychological support services fortransgendered people. Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, San Franciscowas a center of countercultural activity. Inspired by the student movement,anti-war activism, the Black Freedom movement, the American Indian Movement(AIM), womens liberationists, Chicano and Asian power activists, the hippiesof Haight Ashbury, and the sexual revolution, gay liberationists and gay prideactivists in San Francisco flourished, and the movement for GLBT freedommatured.
In the 1970s and 1980s, there was a burgeoning interest inpreserving GLBT history and culture on the part of both community historiansand academics. Community-supported institutions, such as queer archives,bookstores, and presses, proliferated across the country. Given San Franciscosreputation as the gay capital, and its role as a unique bastion of GLBTculture and politics, it is surprising that no public or private institutionsystematically documented the Bay Areas incredibly rich queer history. A groupof community historians and activist scholars responded to this lacuna byestablishing the San Francisco Bay Area Gay and Lesbian Historical Society(SFBAGL) - permanent archives dedicated to preserving local queer history andmaking it accessible to the public. The organization, which later changed itsname to the GLBT Historical Society of Northern California, was officiallyfounded in 1985, but it had its roots in a periodicals archive that was createdseveral years earlier. Willie Walker, an archivist who was one of the manyfounders of the Historical Society, also worked as a nurse on the so-calledAIDS ward at San Francisco General Hospital. Like others who witnessed the AIDSepidemic firsthand, Walker was convinced that if no one collected and preservedthese records, before long, vital information about the collective past of SanFranciscos queer community - our stories - would be lost forever. In 1982,Willie Walker and Greg Pennington, another founder of the Historical Society,compiled the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian Periodical Archives from a number ofprivate collections. The publications in these archives, which also includednewsletters, provided an indispensable source of documentation of GLBT history,culture, and politics. Immediately recognizing the historical importance ofthese documents, publishers and community members played a role in preservingGLBT history by offering complimentary subscriptions or by donating periodicalsand newsletters to the archives. By 1985, the Periodical Archives had over 600individual titles, 200 of which were published in the Bay Area. Today, theHistorical Societys collection of periodicals, newspapers, newsletters,journals, and zines has grown to over 3,000 titles.
The Historical Society maintains one of the largestcollections of queer historical materials in the world, and is, perhaps, thepreeminent collection of GLBT materials in the United States. In addition toperiodicals and newsletters, the collection houses rare books, personal papers,organizational records, oral histories, historic photographs, printed ephemerasuch as posters, fliers, leaflets, and matchbook covers, artifacts, originalartwork, and textiles. Hundreds of researchers use the collection every year,and the Historical Society makes these materials available to the publicthrough exhibits, public programs, and collaborations with other communityinstitutions. The Historical Societys mission is to increase public understanding,appreciation, and affirmation of the histories and cultures of the incrediblydiverse queer communities in the Bay Area and beyond.
Documenting Nearly Sixty Years of GLBT Life
The microfilm edition of the Historical Societys Periodicaland Newsletter Collection replicates the spirit in which the archives werefounded. From the beginning, the founders of the Historical Society made everyeffort to ensure that their holdings reflected the vast diversity of GLBT life.Not surprisingly, the Periodical and Newsletter Collection has exceptionallyrich holdings from the San Francisco Bay Area and Northern California. However,the collection also boasts a large selection of important periodicals andnewsletters from across the United States and around the world. The collectiondocuments nearly sixty years of queer life in big cities and small towns acrossthe United States, and in Canada, Europe, and Latin America. Over time, theGLBT population fragmented into separate interest groups. As organizations andinstitutions sprang up to represent nearly all of these groups, journals andnewsletters became more specialized. The collection provides a wealth ofprimary source materials that document the evolution of GLBT identities, pride,and politics; the formation of GLBT communities, professional groups, andsupport networks; and the ways in which the GLBT community was divided by suchissues as race, gender, and class. The collection, which spans from 1947 to2004, includes rare editions of some of the earliest publications pertaining toGLBT life, as well as substantial runs of newsletters from well-knownorganizations and popular periodicals.
The Periodical and Newsletter Collection covers a widevariety of topics pertinent to GLBT people. Subjects represented in thecollection include: the homophile movement, gay liberation, radical lesbianism,the mens movement, economic and racial justice, civil rights legislation,civil liberties, poverty, urban life, rural life, sexism, sexual politics,electoral politics, domestic violence, interracial relationships, censorship,homophobia and hate crimes, ageism, aging, student activism and GLBT studentgroups, community building, GLBT identity, the politics of representation andthe medias portrayal of GLBT individuals, bisexuality, transvestism,transsexuality, transgendered lives, the medical profession, AIDS, mentalhealth, disabilities, abortion and abortion rights, education, business,spirituality and religion, gay parenting, raising queer children, support groups,GLBT history, the Gay Games, queer film, GLBT book clubs, science fiction,music, fiction, poetry, art, and photography.
Historians, sociologists, political scientists, and urbananthropologists will make extensive use of these sources. Scholars in GLBTstudies, American studies, departments of religion, cultural studies, libraryand information science, communication studies, journalism, ethnic studies, andwomens and gender studies will also find the collection essential to theirresearch. Whether they are writing monographs on a specific topic or synthesesof their major field, scholars in these subject areas will be richly rewardedby the materials in the collection. Moreover, the periodicals and newsletterswill provide both graduate and undergraduate students with a myriad of ideasand evidence for their dissertations, masters theses, or honors theses. Anyscholar writing about queer life and culture in the post-war United Statesneeds to consult this collection.
This microfilm edition comprises Series 8 and Series 9 ofPrimary Source Microfilms (an imprint of Thomson/Gale) Gay Rights Movement series. Series 8, Gay and Lesbian Politics and Social Activism: Selected Newsletters andPeriodicals from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society focuseson political and social activism. Series 9, Gay and Lesbian Community, Support, and Spirit: Selected Newslettersand Periodicals from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Societyfocuses on spirituality, community building, and support groups. However,there is some overlap between the two series; activist organizations alsohelped build community and offered support to GLBT people. Most of thereligious and spiritual organizations and support groups represented in the collectionhave played activist roles, either through ministering to the GLBT community orby advocating for tolerance and equal rights. Moreover, in both series of themicrofilm edition of the collection, scholars will find ample primary sourcematerials on many separate constituencies, such as homophiles, transgenderedpeople, senior citizens, and rural Californians.
The Homophile Movement
The collection contains some of the earliest and mostsignificant homophile publications, representing many of the movements mostimportant organizations. It also includes treasures from the earliest days ofqueer journalism, such as eight of the nine issues of
San Franciscos reputation as a gay capital oftenovershadows the fact that GLBT subcultures and homophile organizations existedin cities across the United States. The collection has substantial runs ofnewsletters, spanning the 1950s through the 1970s, from national and localchapters of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Mattachine Society, the nations firstlesbian rights organization and gay rights organization, respectively. Thesenewsletters are invaluable resources for compiling regional histories of thehomophile movement in the United States and for examining gay consciousnessprior to Stonewall. Local DOB chapters represented in the collection includeChicago, Boston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Inaddition, the collection has near-complete runs of two journals of lesbianfeminism, poetry, literature, and politics issued by DOB:
In addition to the national Mattachine Interim Newsletter, local chapters represented inthe collection include Chicago, Denver, Long Beach, Los Angeles, MattachineMidwest, New York, and Washington, D.C. Series 9 includes the
Other important regional publications include PhiladelphiasHomophile Action League Newsletter
The collection includes substantial runs of severalnewsletters from the Los Angeles-based One Institute, from 1957 to 1995. TheOne Institute conducted classes, sponsored lectures, operated a counselingcenter, participated in research projects about homosexuality, and publishedseveral influential homophile magazines, including Homophile Studies, a journal of reviews, education,philosophy, and history. The collection has a full run of the journal from 1958to 1964, as well as scattered issues from 1966 and 1970. These publicationswill be invaluable for scholars interested in documenting the activities of OneInstitute.
Scholars looking for an international perspective on thehomophile movement will find a remarkable selection of early gay publicationsfrom Britain, France, Canada, the Netherlands, and Denmark. The collectionincludes Arena 3: A Special MonthlyPublication for Women, a British magazine published by the lesbianorganization, Minorities Research Group (1964-ca. 1972); selections from
Of course, San Francisco homophile organizations are alsowell represented in the collection and provide important resources for scholarswho want to document an important time of social and political fermentation inthe city. The collection includes extensive runs of the
The Gay Liberation Movement
The primary sources available in the collection reveal thatactivist agendas were quite fluid in the early days of the GLBT movement. Asindicated by the dates of these periodicals and newsletters, militant activism(e.g., envisioning a gay lifestyle) preceded the rise of gay liberation, whilehomophile activism was not completely eclipsed by the more radical gayliberationists. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, GLBT political, social,cultural, commercial, and religious institutions proliferated, as did the GLBTpress. The Historical Society made a concerted effort to collect and preserveperiodicals, newspapers, and newsletters that documented the growth of theseinstitutions. These extraordinary holdings also detail the development of anactivist, or movement, press, which advocated for gay rights, reported news ofinterest to the queer community, published positive representations of queerlife, and provided a forum where GLBT people could exchange ideas. Scholarsinterested in this period will find a gold mine in the materials of the collection,which document a wide range of activity in the gay liberation movement, fromfairly moderate tabloids to the more radical publications of the Gay LiberationFront.
The geographical scope of the collections gay liberationholdings is remarkable, encompassing California and the American Midwest,Vancouver and London, and Philadelphia and New York. Immediately after theStonewall Riots, a number of queer activists in New York formed the GayLiberation Front (GLF), a group that embraced revolutionary politics ratherthan an assimilationist approach. The organization did not last long, but from1969 to 1971 dozens of independent chapters formed across the nation and aroundthe world. Series 9 includes three GLF magazines - New Yorks
The Committee for Homosexual Freedom, a pre-Stonewall gayliberation group, was a vocal and militant presence in the Bay Area between1969 and 1972. The collections holdings include the groups own newsletter, aswell as newsletters it issued jointly with the Berkeley Gay Liberation Front(1969-1970). The collection also includes several rare issues of the Bay AreaGay Liberation newsletter (1975 and 1978). Hollywood, California is representedby several publications; there is a near-complete run of the liberationist andsocialist paper Come Out Fighting:The Newspaper of the Lavender & Red Union (1975-1977) and scatteredissues of the HomosexualInformation Center Newsletter (1972-1996).
Queer students played an important role in the gayliberation movement. The collection includes newsletters from some of theearliest gay student organizations. Series 8 includes several incarnations ofthe newsletters produced by the Gay Peoples Union at Stanford (1974-1977).Series 9 includes Homosexuals
The collection includes most of the first forty-eight issuesof the influential Detroit GayLiberator (1970-1976). Scholars interested in studying the fractiousnature of gay liberation politics will find a case study in the collectionsholdings. In October 1970, the gay liberation organization in Chicago splitinto two groups: Chicago Gay Liberation and Chicago Gay Alliance. Thecollection has five issues of the formers newsletter (1970), and the first sixteen issues of the newsletters publishedby the latter (1970-1971).
Scholars interested in New Yorks gay liberation press willfind the collections holdings essential for their research. There aresubstantial runs of
Feminism and Lesbian Feminism
The growth of lesbian feminism in the 1970s also fueled aproliferation of newspapers, magazines, and newsletters. Many important lesbianfeminist journals from all across the country are housed in the collection.Holdings from the 1970s through the 1990s include the aforementioned
The collection has a number of publications from across thecountry that document feminism in the mens movement. Series 8 includesSeattles Morning Due, ajournal of men against sexism (1975-1977), and Berkeleys
The collection has a considerable number of localpublications that document womens activism and feminist community building inSan Francisco and the East Bay. Although these publications are notspecifically queer, they offer evidence of the ways lesbians, bisexual,transgendered, and heterosexual women formed alliances. They are important resourcesfor any scholar researching the history of women or feminism in the Bay Area.
The GLBT communities in San Francisco have a long history ofactivity in electoral politics. The potential of the queer politicalconstituency - initially realized when Harvey Milk became the first openly gayelected official in San Francisco - can be traced back to the early 1960s andthe activities of Jos Sarria and the League for Civil Education. In 1961,Sarria, a popular drag performer at San Franciscos famous bohemian bar, theBlack Cat, ran for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and received 5,600votes. Scholars interested in GLBT participation in electoral politics in SanFrancisco will find a wealth of material from diverse political affiliations inthe collection. These include extensive runs of the publications produced bythe Alice B. Toklas Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Democratic Club, the firstgay Democratic club in California (1972-2002), as well as newsletters from LogCabin Republicans (1984-2002) and Libertarians for Gay and Lesbian Concerns(1983-1993).
Advocacy Groups and Professional Organizations
In the 1970s and 1980s, increased political power, economicclout, and visibility led to a proliferation of activist and professionalgroups that advocated for GLBT rights in the Bay Area. The Historical Societysholdings in this area are extensive. They include runs of newsletters from BayArea Lawyers for Individual Freedom (1988-1993), Bay Area Physicians for HumanRights (1979-1998), and Communities United Against Violence (1984-1988). Oneremarkable collection is the near-complete run of newsletters of the AmericanLegion, Alexander Hamilton Post #448 (1985-2003). Formed in San Francisco in1984, Post 448s predominantly GLBT membership of honorably discharged veteransis recognized nationally for its activism on behalf of all veterans and for itsefforts to end discrimination against gays in the military. Another noteworthyholding is a substantial three-year run of the newsletter of PLAGAL, the
Local professional organizations, such as the Bay AreaNetwork of Gay and Lesbian Educators (BANGLE), the Golden Gate BusinessAssociation, and Bay Area Career Women, offered social events for queers;addressed issues and needs specific to the GLBT community; provided mentoring,education and support services; and created networks through which queer peoplecould advance their careers. Scholars interested in the histories oforganizations catering to the GLBT community as well as queer people withincertain professions will find extraordinary documentation in Series 9 of thecollections newsletters.
GLBT Cultural Institutions
The collection also affords scholars an opportunity toexamine primary source materials that document the history of the numerousnational and local GLBT cultural institutions that sprung up in the 1970s and1980s. Series 9 includes all nine issues of Gay Olympics, the newsletter documenting the first-ever GayGames, which took place in San Francisco in 1982 (November 1981-August 1982).It also features a variety of newsletters and primary source documentspertaining to San Franciscos Frameline, the producers of the oldest and largestLGBT film festival in the world. In addition to its own newsletters,
Community Building in Northern California
While the geographical breadth of the collection isremarkable, the Historical Societys commitment to preserving local queer historymakes it the preeminent repository of GLBT history in Northern California and,consequently, indispensable to scholars doing research on this region. Thecollection includes numerous locally produced periodicals and newsletters thatare dedicated to serving particular geographical communities. There aresubstantial runs of local publications from San Francisco, the East Bay, theSilicon Valley, San Jose, Sunnyvale, Santa Cruz, Marin County, and SonomaCounty. These include early treasures, like San Franciscos
The Transgendered Communities
The GLBT Historical Societys collection of periodicals andnewsletters related to transvestism, transsexuality, and transgender issues isone of the best in the western United States. These publications, which spanthe 1950s through the 1990s, are essential for any scholar who wants todocument the emergence and evolution of trans-identities, trans-services, andtrans-communities. Series 8 includes substantial runs of early publications,such as Transvestia: Journal of theAmerican Society for Equality in Dress, and
Scholars interested in bisexuality will find nationalpublications, as well as newsletters from bisexual support groups in SanFrancisco and Boston in the collection. Series 8 includes the first twenty-twoissues of the Bay Areas Anythingthat Moves, a magazine whose mission was to provide as diverse aview as possible of bisexual, transgendered, and gender fluid communities(1991-2001). Series 9 includes BiNetNews, the newsletter of Bisexual Network USA (1996-2000).
African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian Communities
Though people of color are represented in other materialsthroughout the collection, the archives include a strong selection ofperiodicals and newsletters produced specifically by and for people of color.These publications were dedicated to building community, combating racism andhomophobia, sharing literary work, and instilling pride in their readers bypresenting positive representations of GLBT people of color. One example of apublication that promoted coalition building is Morena: Women of Color Press Empowering Our Communities, anewspaper from Berkeley for African American, Latino, Asian American, andNative American women (1988-1991). African Americans are represented in thecollection by sizeable runs of the local publications: Ach, a journalfor lesbians of African descent produced in Albany, California (1989-1993); andWhazzup! Magazine, afree monthly newspaper produced in Oakland for GLBT African Americans(1996-1998). The collection includes newsletters from Asian/Pacific Islandergroups from the Bay Area, Massachusetts, New York, and Toronto. Highlightsinclude substantial runs of LavenderGodzilla, the newsletter of the Bay Areas Gay Asian PacificAlliance for Gay and Bisexual Asian/Pacific Islander Men (1988-2004),
The Historical Society has an outstanding collection ofnewsletters from two multiracial, multicultural groups devoted to promotinginterracial cooperation, friendship, and understanding. Black and White MenTogether (later Men of All Colors Together) was founded in San Francisco in1981 by Michael Smith. While it is a social group, it is also dedicated tofighting racism, sexism, homophobia, and other forms of discrimination. Thecollections holdings are substantial. In addition to newsletters from thenational organization, there are newsletters from the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000sfrom almost all the local chapters, including the San Francisco Bay Area;Atlanta; Baltimore; Cleveland; Washington, D.C.; Detroit; Memphis; Tallahasseeand Big Bend, Florida; San Diego; Philadelphia; Austin; Chicago; Dallas; NewYork; Kansas City; Boston; Connecticut; Indianapolis; Louisville; Milwaukee;Los Angeles; Youngstown; Oakland; and the Research Triangle in North Carolina.Series 9 includes significant newsletter collections from the local Bay Areaorganizations Pacific Friends San Francisco andPacific Friends, South Bay (1986-1996). Founded in 1984, these organizationspromote community service and camaraderie among gay Asians/PacificIslanders, their partners, and their friends.
The collection features a number of publications devoted tomore mature members of the queer community. Series 8 contains newsletters fromorganizations serving seniors, like San Franciscos New Leaf Services(1984-2003). Series 9 has substantial runs of newsletters from Lavender Seniorsof the East Bay (1995-2003) and SAGE - Seniors Active in a Gay Environment(1982-2002). In addition, Series 9 includes an extensive compilation ofnewsletters from the Prime Timers, an international organization for gay menover forty. Retired professor Woody Baldwin founded the Prime Timers in 1987 inBoston as a social and cultural organization dedicated to assisting andsupporting aging gay and bisexual men. There are over fifty chapters across theworld. In addition to Prime Timers Worldwide (based in Manchacha, Texas), thecollection includes substantial runs of newsletters from all over the UnitedStates and Canada, from the 1980s through today, including chapters in Atlanta;Baltimore/Washington, D.C.; Boston; central Florida; central Oklahoma; Chicago;Colorado; Edmonton; the Gulf Coast; Houston; Las Vegas; New Orleans; New York;Palm Springs; San Diego; San Francisco; Seattle; Shreveport; Tampa Bay;Toronto; the Tri-State Area; Tulsa; Vancouver; Victoria; and Winnipeg. Thesematerials are a potential gold mine for scholars researching the effect ofdemographic shifts and the aging of the baby boom generation on the GLBTcommunity in North America.
Spirituality and Religion
The breadth and depth of materials pertaining to organizedreligion in the collection is remarkable - and invaluable to researchersstudying religious and spiritual practices in the GLBT community. Almost everymajor religion is represented - Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism -as are most denominations of Christianity, including Catholicism, Lutheranism,Mormonism, the United Methodist Church, evangelical Christianity, Presbyterianism,and the Episcopalian Church. The collection includes substantial runs ofvarious newsletters from the first church with a primary, positive ministry tothe GLBT community - Metropolitan Community Church (MCC) San Francisco(1970-1996). Today, MCC has over 43,000 members worldwide. There is anear-complete run of the JewishGaily Forward, the news magazine from San Franciscos Reformcongregation, Sha'ar Zahav. There are also newsletters from the San Franciscochapters of the Gay Buddhist Fellowship/Fraternity (1992-1999), and SadhanaBrothers, a San Francisco group for gaymen pursuing a Hindu/yoga/mystical path (1994-1997).
Most of the religious organizations represented in thecollection recognize and affirm their congregants sexual orientation.Remarkably, however, the collection also includes the newsletters
Also noteworthy is the collections selection ofpublications by gay and lesbian atheists. These include fairly complete runs ofnewsletters from the national and San Francisco chapters of the American Gay& Lesbian Atheists (1989-1995 and 1982-1987, respectively), and the journalGALA Review, which waspublished in conjunction with the Gay Atheist League of America (1978-1985 and1985-1989).
Researchers interested in alternative religions andspirituality will find plenty of sources in the collection. Highlights include
These days, there is nothing extraordinary about the idea ofqueer people raising children. In fact, there is a veritable baby boom in theGLBT community and a proliferation of resources for GLBT parents. Not so longago, however, this was not the case. The collection contains newsletters fromsome of the earliest groups that offered support to, and fought for, thewell-being and rights of GLBT parents, prospective parents, and families. Thereare substantial runs of newsletters from several groups, including two localorganizations, San Francisco Bay Area Gay Fathers (formerly Gay Fathers SanFrancisco Bay Area, 1982-1989) and Berkeleys Lesbian/Gay Parenting Group(1987-1992), the precursor to the San Francisco-based support and civil rightsgroup, Our Family Coalition.
One of the most remarkable holdings in the collection is theextensive selection of national and local newsletters, from the 1980s throughthe present, of Parents, Families & Friends of Lesbians & Gays (PFLAG),an advocacy, education, and support organization for GLBT people, theirfamilies, friends, and allies. Approximately twenty people attended the firstformal meeting of PFLAG in New York in 1973. Today, PFLAG is the largest grassroots family organization of its kind, with over 200,000 members, and chaptersin nearly 500 communities across the United States and throughout the world.The depth and breadth of the holdings are impressive. In addition to thenational newspaper, there are newsletters from local chapters throughoutCalifornia - Chico, Los Angeles, Marin County, the mid-Peninsula, Mill Valley,Orange County, and San Francisco - and across the United States: Akron; Boston;Chicago; Denver; Houston; New York City; Philadelphia; Phoenix; Rochester, NewYork; and Washington, D.C.
GLBT people have been ignored, marginalized, anddeliberately erased from history by mainstream society. In the words of thefounders of the Historical Society, For generations our letters have beenburned, our names blotted out, our books censored, our love declaredunspeakable, our very existence denied.6 GLBT people recognize thatdenying and distorting their history facilitates their oppression.Consequently, the founders of the Historical Society have spent the lastgeneration accumulating periodicals and newsletters that document the historyand culture of nearly sixty years of queer life in and beyond the Bay Area.They know that history is instrumental in creating a positive sense of queeridentity and pride, and in building political movements that can fight for theequal rights they have long been denied because of their sexual orientation.The microfilm edition of the Historical Societys Periodical and NewsletterCollection will make these primary source materials accessible and will helppreserve this history and our stories for countless future generations.
Marjorie Bryer, Ph.D.
Many thanks toTerence Kissack and Ramn Silvestre for their feedback and guidance on thisessay.
Organization and Format
The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,Transgender Historical Society boasts the largest collection of periodicals andorganization newsletters that promote the rights of gays, lesbians, bisexuals,transgendered people, and ethnic and racial minorities. The policy of GLBT isto locate and preserve periodicals documenting the history, culture, andpolitical and social activism of the gay and lesbian community. This collectionrepresents a wide range of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender experienceand thought. A strength of the collection is the newsletter and periodicalcollection from Northern California, which boasts the largest concentration ofgay and lesbian organizations in the nation. But the collection is also strongin national and international publications as well. Holdings range fromhistorical newsletters of the 1960s to current newsletters and periodicals. Thecollection is strong in rare materials, especially newsletters from defunctorganizations from the formative years of the gay and lesbian movement, evenfrom the 1940s and 1950s.
This guide lists materials inthe order in which they appear on the reels. Materials are arranged in thereels in alphabetical order by publication title. For each publication title,issues appear chronologically, from earliest available issue to the mostrecent. Those periodicals whose titles changed over time appear in their properplace alphabetically, with a few exceptions where the archive bundled themtogether.
The selection of materials forthe microform edition of Gay andLesbian Politics and Social Activism: Selected Periodicals and Newsletters
Relevancy: This microfilm collection comprisesselected periodicals and newsletters from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,Transgender Historical Society archive. Selections emphasize the relevance ofthe material to the history of gay and lesbian political and social activism inAmerica, particularly the pursuit of equal rights.
Rarity: Some periodicals and newsletters were excludedbecause they can be found in many libraries or have appeared in other PrimarySource Microfilm publications of gay and lesbian publications. Materialsavailable without charge to the public on an organizations website were alsoexcluded.
Research Need: Certain materials were not microfilmedlargely because of their relatively low priority with respect to researchneeds. Examples of such materials include newsletters devoted primarily tocommercial advertisements.
Privacy: Some materials could not be microfilmed forreasons of confidentiality. In the interest of protecting the privacy ofindividuals, a concerted effort was made to exclude newsletters that containedpeoples home addresses, phone numbers, Social Security numbers, or personalfinancial information. Examples of such materials include newsletters devotedprimarily to contact club information.
Notice of UnfilmedMaterials
Materials excluded from the microfilm edition are noted inthe entry for the file in which they are housed. These materials are availableto researchers who use the collection on site at the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,Transgender Historical Society. Periodicals and newsletters excluded in theirentirety are not listed in this collection guide. These materials are alsoavailable to researchers who use the collection on site at the GLBT HistoricalSociety.
Preceded by the AAPHR Newsletter (1982-1986) and succeeded by the AAPHRReporter (1990-1994). See also AAPHR Updater (1991). Theorganization became the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA) in January1995 and the newsletter became the GLMA Reporter.
First issue, July 1982. Succeeded by AAPHR Letter in 1987.
Preceded by the AAPHR Newsletter (1982-1986) and the AAPHR Letter(1987-1989). See also AAPHR Updater. The organization became the Gay andLesbian Medical Association (GLMA) in January 1995 and the newsletter becamethe GLMA Reporter.
See also the AAPHR Reporter.
Alexander Hamilton Post 448 (also called AlexanderHamilton Veterans Association)
First issue, May 1985. Post officially created March 10, 1985. Newsletterbecame the Post Intelligencer with Vol. 2, #11 in November 1986 and the Intelligencerin 1996. Returned to unnamed or self named newsletter in 2001.
Contemporaneous with Alice Reports, another newsletter for the sameorganization.
Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club Newsletter
First issue, September 1972. Succeeded by Alice Reports in 1975. Seealso Alice Speaks, a magazine from 1973. The organization firstpublished a newsletter in 1972. By May 1975, the name of the publication was AliceReports. In July 1976, the name changed to Alice. By November 1979,the name had changed back to Alice Reports. During the Democratic NationalConvention in July 1984, the newsletter was published as Alice Reports Daily.The Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club became the Alice B. ToklasLesbian/Gay Democratic Club in October 1983 and then the Alice B. ToklasLesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Democratic Club in early 2000.
Replaced The Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club Newsletter inMay 1975. The Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club became the Alice B.Toklas Lesbian/Gay Democratic Club in October 1983 and then the Alice B. ToklasLesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Democratic Club in early 2000. (Publisherdrops volume and whole numbering in June 1976).
First issue, January 1973. See also the Alice B. Toklas MemorialDemocratic Club Newsletter.
First issue, September 1991. In 2000, the name changed to NLGA Newsand in 2001 to NLGA News: Alternatives. (And eventually NLGA Outlook)National Headquarters were moved from California to Washington, DC in 1996.
Organization previously titled BAGMAL.
Anything That Moves
First issue, Winter 1991.
The name of thepublication changed in May 1994 from Noticias de LLEGO to Aqui LLEGO.Aqui LLEGO was published with AIDSIDA Info. The organization isnow called The National Latina/o Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and TransgenderOrganization.
First issue, 1954.
Firstissue, January 1, 1964. Originally published by the Minorities Research Group(Esme Langley), replaced by the Minorities Research Trust in June 1967. ThenEsme Langley and Company, finally in the 1970s it was turned over by annuallicense from Esm Langley to Arena Three Publications.
Asiansand Friends New York News Forum
NOTE: Issuelabeled Volume 10, Number 7, is misnumbered and should be Volume 9, Number 7.
Firstissue, April 1964.
Associationof Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Newsletter (also called Newsletter of the Association of Gay &Lesbian Psychiatrists)
Previously The Newsletter of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Caucus of theAmerican Psychiatric Association.
TheBi-Monthly (San Francisco, California)
In 1984,BWMT San Francisco becomes a Chapter of the National Association of BWMT. InDecember 1995, newsletter changes to The MACT Bridge and the name of theorganization changes to Men of All Colors Together San Francisco Bay Area.
Thispublication title varies. Some of the alternate titles include: BWMT/DCNewsletter, BWMT/DC News, and BWMT-DC. In 1991, the titlebecomes BWMT Celebrating Diversity. In February 1993, the title changesback to BWMT-DC News. In March 1993, the title becomes BWMTNewsletter. In February 1994, the title becomes BWMT/DC Newsletter.
BWMTQuarterly (alsocalled BWMT Newsletter)
In Spring of 1981, title changes from BWMT Newsletter to BWMTQuarterly.
One issue(April 1995) of Celebrasian Express accompanies this run. CelebrasianExpress is a smaller newsletter, a companion to Celebrasian.
Thenewsletter is also called Newsletter of the Gay Caucus of Members of theAmerican Psychiatric Association from Summer 1979 through Spring 1980.
Titlebegins here as BWMT Newsletter Philadelphia (Black and White MenTogether Philadelphia). In January 1992, the newsletter becomes TheChallenger.
CRIRMandate (alsocalled Update, OPED, Republican Challenge)
The name of the Concerned Republicans for Individual Rights newsletterchanged from Update to C.R.I.R. Mandate in 1980 or 1981. Between1986 and 1988, the name changed to OPED. Title later becomes RepublicanChallenge, first published June 1988.
First issueca. 1978.
Firstissue, September 1980.
ChicagoArea Mattachine Newsletter (also called Mattachine Society Newsletter - The ChicagoArea Council)
First published, July 1954.
ChicagoGay Alliance Newsletter
Firstissue, November 1970; Chicago Gay Liberation split into Chicago Gay Liberationand Chicago Gay Alliance in October 1970.
ChicagoGay Liberation Newsletter
First issue, ca. 1970; Chicago Gay Liberation split into Chicago Gay Liberationand Chicago Gay Alliance in October 1970.
Firstissue, February 1972.
Firstissue, Fall 1988.
Firstissue, May 1975.
CommitteeFor Homosexual Freedom Newsletter
Firstissue, April 22, 1969.
First issue, ca. late 1980s. In March 1995, the title of the newsletter becomesTransgender Community News and Information Monthly.
The organization published a newsletter called The CUAV Dish beginningin 1984. In Summer of 1985, they also published Community United AgainstViolence, which was targeted at the community at large rather than at themembership. At some point between 1988 and 2002, the name of the newsletterchanged to Community United Against Violence Newsletter.
DeFrankNews (alsocalled The Billy De Frank Lesbian and Gay Center News; Community CenterNews; and DeFrank Monthly)
First issue, ca. 1982. Title changes name from The Billy DeFrank Lesbian andGay Center News to Community Center News in January 1988. Titlebecomes DeFrank News in March 1998.
DenverArea Mattachine Newsletter
First published ca. July 1957.
This is a special newsletter published at the annual National Lesbian and GayJournalists Association Convention in at least 1999 and 2000.
Firstissue, October 1964.
EducationalTV Channel Newsletter
Firstissue, ca. 1983.
EricksonEducation Foundation Newsletter
Firstissue, Spring 1968.
This titlebegins as FLSG News and FLSG Entre Nous. In February 1987, thetitle becomes Entre Nous.
FederalLesbians and Gays Newsletter
This titlewas published as the Federal Lesbians and Gays Newsletter, ca. 1983 toJanuary 1988. The title became FLAG Flyer in February 1988.
Firstissue, ca. 1961.
Succeeds FederalLesbians and Gays Newsletter in February 1988.
Firstissue, ca. 1970.
Firstissue, February 1990.
TheGateway (Sunnyvale, California) (also called The Golden Gate Girls/Guys Newsletter)
In July 1979, The Golden Gate Girls/Guys Newsletter became TheGateway. In January 1981, the organization became the Gateway GenderAlliance and the name of the publication changed to Phoenix.
Firstissue, December 1969.
First issue, April 1971.
Firstissue, ca. 1972.
Firstissue, 1969. During 1974-1975, the title of this publication changes between NewGay Power and Aquarian New Gay Power. Volume 3, number 16 the titlebecomes Gay Power.
GayRights Chapter Bulletin
Firstissue, October 1977.
Firstissue, June 1970. Note: Volume 12, number 3 August 1983 misnumbered.
Firstpublished ca. 1974 in Toronto as The Gay Studies Newsletter. As ofVolume 16 #2 (1989), the name of the newsletter changed to Lesbian and GayStudies Newsletter (LGSN). In 1990 the publication location changed toDurham, NC.
Firstissue, August 1973.
Firstpublished January 1978. The organization was called The San Francisco GayDemocratic Club. In January 1979 the name of the organization changed to TheHarvey Milk Gay Democratic Club. In November 1983, the name of the organizationchanged to The Harvey Milk Lesbian and Gay Democratic Club. The name changed inSeptember 1992 to The Harvey Milk Progressive Democratic Club. In March 1993the name of the organization became The Harvey Milk Lesbian/Gay/BisexualDemocratic Club. In July 1998 the name became The Harvey MilkLesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender Democratic Club. By June 2001 the name of theorganization was The Harvey Milk Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender DemocraticClub.
Previously GLTFNewsletter. The American Library Association, Social Responsibilities RoundTable, Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Task Force became the Gay, Lesbian, BisexualTransgendered Round Table of the American Library Association (GLBT-RT) in June1999. (First issue, Spring 1988, Previously ALA/SRRT Gay & Lesbian TaskForce Newsletter and succeeded by the GLBTF Newsletter (Winter1994). Also previously published in Washington, DC; Costa Mesa, CA; and MaysLanding, NJ.
Firstissue, ca. 1984. In 1996, this newsletter becomes a project of New Leaf(formerly Operation Concern). The organization changes its name to New LeafOutreach to Elders in June 2000. The title of the newsletter becomes NewLeaf Outreach to Elders (June 2000).
The name ofthe newsletter changed in 1970 from Gold Sheet to The Insider.
GPUNews (Stanford, California)
In 1974 theGPU published the GPU Newsletter. Between 1975 and 1978, the name of thenewsletter was GPU News. During this time, the publishing organizationchanged from the Gay Peoples Union to the GPU Mens Collective, to the MensMaintenance Collective, to the GPU News Collective. In September and October1976 the newsletter was called Gay Peoples News. The GPU was eventually(1989) superseded by the LGBCC (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Community Center), whichoccupied the same building.
TheHomoglobe (alsocalled Outspoken)
Newsletter was called The Homoglobe. It was later called EmergencyResponse Network, and finally, Out Spoken.
Firstissue, Spring 1958.
Firstissue, January/February 1955.
The name ofthe newsletter changed in 1970 from Gold Sheet to The Insider.The first issue of The Insider is dated August 12, 1970. In 1975, thetitle becomes SIR Insider.
First issueof Into the Courts was published April 1979 by Gay Rights Advocates.Between Summer and November 1982, the name of the organization changed from GayRights Advocates to National Gay Rights Advocates, but the name of thenewsletter remained Into the Courts. In 1986, the name of the newsletterchanged to the National Gay Rights Advocates Newsletter. Theorganization was concurrently publishing the Monthly Litigation Update.
Firstpublished May 1974. One issue is called NGTF Summer Update. Organizationlater called the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Newsletter called TaskForce Report from Vol. 8 #4 through Vol. 11 #2 (1984). In 1985, titlebecomes Task Force Bulletin.
Firstissue, ca. 1975.
Firstissue, Fall 1988.
Firstissue, March 1976.
Firstissue, May 1989; Final issue, July 1995.
Starting in2001, the issues of the newsletter would occasionally be smaller than normaland called Lavender Godzilla-ette.
Lesbianand Gay Rights Chapter
Firstpublished ca. 1976 as ACLU Gay Rights Newsletter. In 1984 and 1985, thename of the newsletter was Lesbian and Gay Rights Chapter News. In 1985,the name changed to Lesbian and Gay Rights Chapter.
Lesbianand Gay Rights Chapter Bulletin
Preceded bythe American Civil Liberties Union Northern California Gay Rights ChapterBulletin (1977-1991).
Firstissue, ca. 1976.
The Lesbian Newsletter(Daughters of Bilitis, New York Chapter)
Previously called Newsletter of Daughtersof Bilitis/New York and The Lesbian Letter.
Firstpublished in September 1983. The organization had previously been calledLibertarians for Gay Rights (LGR), and the newsletter was called LGR News.By 1983 the name of the organization had changed to Libertarians for Gay andLesbian Concerns (LGLC). From 1983 to 1984 the organization was located inWashington, DC. The organization was located in San Francisco from 1984 until1987, and by 1991 had moved to Chelsea, MI.
First issueca. 1977. By 1983 the name of the organization was changed to Libertarians forGay and Lesbian Concerns (LGLC), and the newsletter, first published inSeptember/October 1983, was called LGLC Newsletter.
The LogCabin Republican Club began in the Los Angeles area in 1978. The newsletter wascalled The Log. A statewide organization, called Log Cabin California,was founded in 1987, and its newsletter was called Log Cabin California.In 1991 the national group United Republicans for Equality and Privacy changedits name to the Log Cabin Federation, and the newsletter had the same name.
See historynotes for The Log.
LongBeach Area Council Newsletter
Firstpublished July 1954.
LosAngeles Area Council Newsletter
Newsletterfirst published in July 1953. Between April and July 1954, the name of theorganization changed from Southern Area Council to Los Angeles Area Council,but the name of the newsletter did not change accordingly until September 1954.
Organizationand newsletter began as Black and White Men Together Chicago. The organizationand newsletter changed the title to Men of All Colors Together Chicago (MACTChicago) in 1991. In January 1995, the title becomes MACT News!
Organizationbegins as Black and White Men Together, NY; newsletter was titled Blackand White Men Together, New York, (BWMT/NY) Information Bulletin. In March1985, the organization name changes and the newsletter becomes Men of AllColors Together, New York, (MACT/NY) Information Bulletin.
Theorganization begins as Black and White Men Together, KC and the newsletter wastitled BWMT/KC Newsletter. In 1992, the organization becomes Men of AllColors Together, KC and the newsletter MACT/KC.
Theorganization was founded in 1978 and was called The National Association of GayGerontologists (NAGG). In 1983, the organization name becomes NationalAssociation for Lesbian and Gay Gerontology.
The journalbegins as Marin Womens Newsletter. In June 1973 it became MarinWomens News Journal. In May 1975, it becomes The Womens News Journal.
TheMattachine Society was formed in 1953.
Firstpublished ca. 1965.
Menof All Colors Together Boston
Organizationand newsletter begin as Black and White Men Together Boston. Theorganization and newsletter change the title to Men of All Colors TogetherBoston in 1989.
Menof All Colors Together Indianapolis
Organizationand newsletter begin as Indianapolis Association of Black and White MenTogether. Organization and newsletter become Men of All ColorsIndianapolis in 1993.
Firstissue, February 1982.
Firstissue, February 1988.
NationalGay Rights Advocates Newsletter
See historynote for Into the Courts.
Organizationfounded in 1977.
NewLeaf Outreach to Elders
First issueof GLOE Newsletter; ca. 1984 by Gay and Lesbian Outreach to Elders. Theorganization changed its name to New Leaf Outreach to Elders in June 2000, andthe newsletter became New Leaf Outreach to Elders.
NewYork Mattachine Newsletter (1956-1961, 1961-1970) and New York Mattachine Times
In May 1956the New York Chapter of the Mattachine Society began publishing a newslettercalled New York Mattachine Newsletter. In February/March 1961, TheNational Mattachine Society ceased to exist, and the New York Chapter becameThe Mattachine Society Inc. of New York. They continued to publish thenewsletter with the same name and numbering. From February to September 1962the name of the newsletter changed to Newsletter of the Mattachine Society,Inc. of New York. From November 1962 to January 1964, the newsletter titlewas The Mattachine Newsletter. From February 1964 to February 1965, thenewsletter was again called The New York Mattachine Newsletter. In 1965they began publishing the Eastern Mattachine Magazine jointly with theMattachine Society of Washington. The volume and number continued from thenewsletter, but the publication was a magazine. By the Spring of 1966 they wereagain publishing a newsletter called New York Mattachine Newsletter, andagain, volume and number continued. Between July and August 1970, the name ofthe newsletter changed to New York Mattachine Times. This title lastedat least through the January/February issue of 1973. The Mattachine NewTimes was a newspaper put out by the organization beginning in 1975.
Firstissue, June 1997.
TheNewsletter (Veterans Council for American Rights and Equality, Redwood Empire)
Thenational organization Veterans C.A.R.E. was founded 1984. In June 1986, thename of the Redwood Empire chapter newsletter was Veterans C.A.R.E. ByFebruary 1988 it was The Newsletter. In March 1993, the name of thenewsletter changed again, to Veterans C.A.R.E. Redwood Empire.
NewsletterMen of All Colors Together of Los Angeles
Thisorganization begins as Black and White Men Together Los Angeles. Theorganization and newsletter change to Men of All Colors Together Los Angelesin 1993.
Newsletter of Daughters of Bilitis (New York)
This publication becomes The Lesbian Letterin February 1971 and The Lesbian Newsletter in June of 1971.
Newsletter of the Stonewall Democratic Club
The Stonewall Democratic Club started in 1975,with its newsletter first published in November 1977. This title precedes TheStonewall Newsletter and The Stonewall News.
Firstissue, ca. 1992.
Firstpublished in March 1956. Name changed to One Letter in 1968.
Firstpublished January 1968. Formerly called One Confidential.
The OtherSide was founded in 1973. The newsletter, The Other Side was firstpublished ca. 1974.
The SanFrancisco Bay Area Gay and Lesbian Historical Society (SFBAGLHS) was founded in1985, and began publishing a newsletter, San Francisco Bay Area Gay &Lesbian Historical Society Newsletter in June of that year. In 1990, theorganization changed its name to Gay and Lesbian Historical Society of NorthernCalifornia (GLHS) and the name of the newsletter to OurStories. In 1999,the name of the organization changed to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, TransgenderHistorical Society of Northern California (GLBTHS). In May 2002 the historicalsociety put out a newsletter called Its About Time.
Firstissue, May 1976.
Firstissue, January 12, 1993.
The namechanged from OUT! To Ultra Violet with Vol. 5 #2 (Sept. 1994).The name of the publisher changed from Lesbians And Gays Against Interventionto Lesbian And Gay Insurrection in February 1996.
Firstissue, July 20, 1982.
Firstissue, May 1979.
Firstissue, January 1981. This publication succeeds The Golden Gate Girls/GuysNewsletter and The Gateway.
Firstpublished ca. 1984. A/PS started in 1988 and merged with PhoenixRising. The address of the publication remained the same until 1990, whenthe city changed from Oakland, California to San Francisco, California.
Formerlythe Alexander Hamilton Veterans Association, also just called the Intelligencerfor approximately a year (Vol. 13, #1-Vol. 14, #2). The title changes randomlyin Vol. 15 and 16, before returning to Post Intelligencer and thendropping the title and becoming the Alexander Hamilton Post 448 withVol. 18, #8, July/August 2001. There are also several non-titled issues thatfit into gaps in the 1989 and 1990 runs of Post Intelligencer.
Firstissue, August 29, 1990.
The name ofthe Concerned Republicans for Individual Rights newsletter changed from Updateto C.R.I.R. Mandate in 1980 or 1981. Between 1986 and 1988, the namechanged to OPED, Republican Challenge first published June 1988. OnFebruary 12, 1989, Concerned Republicans for Individual Rights changed its nameto Log Cabin Club of San Francisco/Concerned Republicans for Individual Rights.In 1998 the publication began again with Volume 1, and by then the name of theorganization appears to have become simply Log Cabin Club of San Francisco.
Fist issue,ca. 1982.
SanFrancisco Bay Area Gay and Lesbian Historical Society Newsletter
See historynote for OurStories.
SanFrancisco Sex Information Newsletter
From August1973 until June/August 1980 the newsletter was called San Francisco SexInformation. From August 1982 until August/September 1985, it was called SINor Sex Information Newsletter. In November 1986, Good Connection: TheSFSI Newsletter started with Volume 1, Number 1, and it lasted at leastuntil February 1988. By September 1989, the title became the San FranciscoSex Information Newsletter. Between January 1990 and January 1994, theissues were numbered. In Spring 1996 the newsletter was called San FranciscoSex Information Hotline Newsletter.
SanFrancisco Womens Centers and Womens Switchboard Newsletter; San FranciscoWomens Centers Newsletter; San Francisco Womens Centers/Womens Building ofthe Bay Area Newsletter; San Francisco Womens Switchboard and Womens Centers
From 1974through 1977, the San Francisco Womens Centers and Womens Switchboardnewsletter was called San Francisco Womens Centers and Womens SwitchboardNewsletter. Between 1977 and 1979, the organization was called SanFrancisco Womens Centers and Womens Switchboard. During this time thenewsletter was called San Francisco Womens Switchboard and Womens Centers.From 1979-1983, the organization was called San Francisco Womens Centers andthe newsletter was called San Francisco Womens Centers Newsletter. From1983 through 1985, the organization was called San Francisco WomensCenters/Womens Building of the Bay Area and the newsletter was called SanFrancisco Womens Centers/Womens Building of the Bay Area Newsletter. From1986 to 1988 the newsletter was called The Womens Building Newsletter.In 1991, the title became The Womens Building News.
Firstpublished ca. 1976.
Publishedfrom November 1970 to March 1975. Note: Two issues numbered Vol. 2, No.11/November 1971.
SonomaCounty Womens Voices
Firstissue, ca. 1980.
SouthernArea Council Newsletter
Newsletterfirst published in July 1953. Between April and July 1954, the name of theorganization changed from Southern Area Council to Los Angeles Area Council,but the name of the newsletter did not change accordingly until September 1954.
StonewallNews and Stonewall Newsletter
Firstprinted ca. 1974. The name of the newsletter changed several times: StonewallGay Democratic Club of San Francisco Presidents Newsletter (1979) to StonewallNewsletter (1984-1988; during this time the name varied from issue toissue); Stonewall News (1988-1990).
Firstpublished September 1981. Former called Its Time. In 1985 one issue wascalled Task Force Bulletin. The organization changed its name in 1986from National Gay Task Force to National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.
Originallypublished by J. Thornton, Long Beach, CA; first issue, May 1952.
See historynote for OUT!.
Firstissue, ca. 1952; first series published in the 1950s, second series begins inJanuary 1965.
Thenational organization Veterans C.A.R.E. was founded 1984. In June 1986, thename of the Redwood Empire chapter newsletter was Veterans C.A.R.E. ByFebruary 1988 it was The Newsletter. In March 1993, the name of thenewsletter changed again, to Veterans C.A.R.E. Redwood Empire.
Firstissue, June 1947.
Firstpublished ca. 1956. In 1961, the Mattachine Society, Inc., Washington Chapterbecame the Mattachine Society of Washington. The organizations newsletter waslater called the Mattachine Society of Washington Gazette and Insider.The organization also published a magazine called The Homosexual Citizen.
Firstissue, May 1996.