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Gay Rights Movement: Series 9: Gay and Lesbian Community, Support and Spirit, Parts 1-3


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AUTHOR FICHE REEL CONTENT

About this Collection

INTRODUCTION TO THE COLLECTION

Introduction:Gay Rights Collection: Series 9: Gay and Lesbian Community Support and Spirit:Parts 1-3

 

OurStories: The Periodical and Newsletter Collection of the Gay, Lesbian,Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society

 

San Francisco, the Gay Capital of the World

 

Long before Lifemagazine called San Francisco the gay capital of the world in 1964, the citywas a mecca for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered (GLBT) people. SanFrancisco had a well-deserved reputation as a wide-open town that toleratedsexual and gender nonconformity.1 In the early twentieth century, aslesbians and gay men were drawn to the city to be with others like themselves,queer gathering places began to emerge, particularly in neighborhoodsfrequented by tourists, such as North Beach. Demographic changes wrought byWorld War II expanded queer life in the city, which was home to many militarybases and industries. Lesbians moved to the Bay Area to take advantage ofwell-paying jobs in wartime industries. Veterans - those who were discharged(both dishonorably and honorably) or who disembarked in San Francisco - stayedand made their homes in the city. Bars catering to gay and lesbian militarypersonnel multiplied. During the McCarthy era, when police and state repressionagainst gays and lesbians in San Francisco increased - as it did across thecountry - the citys nascent GLBT communities fought back, both in the bars andthrough homophile organizations, such as the Mattachine Society and theDaughters of Bilitis (DOB). Transsexuals, who had moved to San Francisco in the1950s to seek the services of Dr. Harry Benjamin, one of the leading medicalexperts on transsexuality, began to organize in the 1960s. In 1966, three yearsbefore Stonewall, transgendered residents of the citys Tenderloin neighborhoodresponded to police harassment at Comptons Cafeteria by rioting. This markedthe beginnings of a militant transgender movement in San Francisco and helpedgenerate a complex of medical, social, and psychological support services fortransgendered people. Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, San Franciscowas a center of countercultural activity. Inspired by the student movement,anti-war activism, the Black Freedom movement, the American Indian Movement(AIM), womens liberationists, Chicano and Asian power activists, the hippiesof Haight Ashbury, and the sexual revolution, gay liberationists and gay prideactivists in San Francisco flourished, and the movement for GLBT freedommatured.

 

You Can Help Preserve Lesbian and GayHistory!: A Brief History of the GLBT Historical Society2

 

In the 1970s and 1980s, there was a burgeoning interest inpreserving GLBT history and culture on the part of both community historiansand academics. Community-supported institutions, such as queer archives,bookstores, and presses, proliferated across the country. Given San Franciscosreputation as the gay capital, and its role as a unique bastion of GLBTculture and politics, it is surprising that no public or private institutionsystematically documented the Bay Areas incredibly rich queer history. A groupof community historians and activist scholars responded to this lacuna byestablishing the San Francisco Bay Area Gay and Lesbian Historical Society(SFBAGL) - permanent archives dedicated to preserving local queer history andmaking it accessible to the public. The organization, which later changed itsname to the GLBT Historical Society of Northern California, was officiallyfounded in 1985, but it had its roots in a periodicals archive that was createdseveral years earlier. Willie Walker, an archivist who was one of the manyfounders of the Historical Society, also worked as a nurse on the so-calledAIDS ward at San Francisco General Hospital. Like others who witnessed the AIDSepidemic firsthand, Walker was convinced that if no one collected and preservedthese records, before long, vital information about the collective past of SanFranciscos queer community - our stories - would be lost forever. In 1982,Willie Walker and Greg Pennington, another founder of the Historical Society,compiled the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian Periodical Archives from a number ofprivate collections. The publications in these archives, which also includednewsletters, provided an indispensable source of documentation of GLBT history,culture, and politics. Immediately recognizing the historical importance ofthese documents, publishers and community members played a role in preservingGLBT history by offering complimentary subscriptions or by donating periodicalsand newsletters to the archives. By 1985, the Periodical Archives had over 600individual titles, 200 of which were published in the Bay Area. Today, theHistorical Societys collection of periodicals, newspapers, newsletters,journals, and zines has grown to over 3,000 titles.

 

The Historical Society maintains one of the largestcollections of queer historical materials in the world, and is, perhaps, thepreeminent collection of GLBT materials in the United States. In addition toperiodicals and newsletters, the collection houses rare books, personal papers,organizational records, oral histories, historic photographs, printed ephemerasuch as posters, fliers, leaflets, and matchbook covers, artifacts, originalartwork, and textiles. Hundreds of researchers use the collection every year,and the Historical Society makes these materials available to the publicthrough exhibits, public programs, and collaborations with other communityinstitutions. The Historical Societys mission is to increase publicunderstanding, appreciation, and affirmation of the histories and cultures ofthe incredibly diverse queer communities in the Bay Area and beyond.

 

Documenting Nearly Sixty Years of GLBT Life

 

The microfilm edition of the Historical Societys Periodicaland Newsletter Collection replicates the spirit in which the archives werefounded. From the beginning, the founders of the Historical Society made everyeffort to ensure that their holdings reflected the vast diversity of GLBT life.Not surprisingly, the Periodical and Newsletter Collection has exceptionallyrich holdings from the San Francisco Bay Area and Northern California. However,the collection also boasts a large selection of important periodicals andnewsletters from across the United States and around the world. The collectiondocuments nearly sixty years of queer life in big cities and small towns acrossthe United States, and in Canada, Europe, and Latin America. Over time, theGLBT population fragmented into separate interest groups. As organizations andinstitutions sprang up to represent nearly all of these groups, journals andnewsletters became more specialized. The collection provides a wealth ofprimary source materials that document the evolution of GLBT identities, pride,and politics; the formation of GLBT communities, professional groups, andsupport networks; and the ways in which the GLBT community was divided by suchissues as race, gender, and class. The collection, which spans from 1947 to2004, includes rare editions of some of the earliest publications pertaining toGLBT life, as well as substantial runs of newsletters from well-knownorganizations and popular periodicals.

 

The Periodical and Newsletter Collection covers a widevariety of topics pertinent to GLBT people. Subjects represented in thecollection include: the homophile movement, gay liberation, radical lesbianism,the mens movement, economic and racial justice, civil rights legislation,civil liberties, poverty, urban life, rural life, sexism, sexual politics, electoralpolitics, domestic violence, interracial relationships, censorship, homophobiaand hate crimes, ageism, aging, student activism and GLBT student groups,community building, GLBT identity, the politics of representation and themedias portrayal of GLBT individuals, bisexuality, transvestism,transsexuality, transgendered lives, the medical profession, AIDS, mentalhealth, disabilities, abortion and abortion rights, education, business,spirituality and religion, gay parenting, raising queer children, supportgroups, GLBT history, the Gay Games, queer film, GLBT book clubs, sciencefiction, music, fiction, poetry, art, and photography.

 

Historians, sociologists, political scientists, and urbananthropologists will make extensive use of these sources. Scholars in GLBTstudies, American studies, departments of religion, cultural studies, libraryand information science, communication studies, journalism, ethnic studies, andwomens and gender studies will also find the collection essential to their research.Whether they are writing monographs on a specific topic or syntheses of theirmajor field, scholars in these subject areas will be richly rewarded by thematerials in the collection. Moreover, the periodicals and newsletters willprovide both graduate and undergraduate students with a myriad of ideas andevidence for their dissertations, masters theses, or honors theses. Anyscholar writing about queer life and culture in the post-war United Statesneeds to consult this collection.

 

This microfilm edition comprises Series 8 and Series 9 ofPrimary Source Microfilms (an imprint of Thomson/Gale) Gay Rights Movement series. Series 8, Gay and Lesbian Politics and Social Activism: Selected Newsletters andPeriodicals from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society focuseson political and social activism. Series 9, Gay and Lesbian Community, Support, and Spirit: Selected Newslettersand Periodicals from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Societyfocuses on spirituality, community building, and support groups. However,there is some overlap between the two series; activist organizations alsohelped build community and offered support to GLBT people. Most of thereligious and spiritual organizations and support groups represented in thecollection have played activist roles, either through ministering to the GLBTcommunity or by advocating for tolerance and equal rights. Moreover, in bothseries of the microfilm edition of the collection, scholars will find ampleprimary source materials on many separate constituencies, such as homophiles,transgendered people, senior citizens, and rural Californians.

 

The Homophile Movement

 

The collection contains some of the earliest and mostsignificant homophile publications, representing many of the movements mostimportant organizations. It also includes treasures from the earliest days ofqueer journalism, such as eight of the nine issues of Vice Versa: America's Gayest Magazine,the first lesbian periodical in the United States. Lisa Ben (an anagram oflesbian), the Los Angeles secretary who created Vice Versa in 1947, chose the name because in those daysour kind of life was considered a vice.3

 

San Franciscos reputation as a gay capital oftenovershadows the fact that GLBT subcultures and homophile organizations existedin cities across the United States. The collection has substantial runs ofnewsletters, spanning the 1950s through the 1970s, from national and localchapters of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Mattachine Society, the nationsfirst lesbian rights organization and gay rights organization, respectively.These newsletters are invaluable resources for compiling regional histories ofthe homophile movement in the United States and for examining gay consciousnessprior to Stonewall. Local DOB chapters represented in the collection includeChicago, Boston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Inaddition, the collection has near-complete runs of two journals of lesbianfeminism, poetry, literature, and politics issued by DOB: Focus, published by the Bostonchapter between 1971 and 1983, and the national magazine Sisters, published in SanFrancisco between 1971 and 1975.

 

In addition to the national Mattachine Interim Newsletter, local chapters represented inthe collection include Chicago, Denver, Long Beach, Los Angeles, MattachineMidwest, New York, and Washington, D.C. Series 9 includes the Homosexual Citizen, a moremilitant magazine founded in 1966 by Washington Mattachine Society membersFrank Kameny and Jack Nichols. Only eighteen issues were produced, and thecollection has the first six.

 

Other important regional publications include PhiladelphiasHomophile Action League Newsletter (1969-1970) and the Kansas City,Missouri magazine Phoenix: Midwest Homophile Voice (1966-1969). The collection also includes the first thirtyissues of Drum,published between 1964 and 1969. Editor Clark Polak thought of Drum as a gay lifestyle magazine:I envisioned a sort of sophisticated but down-to-earth, magazine forpeople who dug gay life and Drumsview of the world.4 Readership revealed that many people embraced Drums vision; circulationquickly climbed to 10,000, the highest figure of any GLBT publication at thetime. Drum was published in Philadelphia by the Janus Society; the collection includes the firstincarnation of the societys newsletter (1963-1967).

 

The collection includes substantial runs of severalnewsletters from the Los Angeles-based One Institute, from 1957 to 1995. TheOne Institute conducted classes, sponsored lectures, operated a counselingcenter, participated in research projects about homosexuality, and publishedseveral influential homophile magazines, including Homophile Studies, a journal of reviews, education,philosophy, and history. The collection has a full run of the journal from 1958to 1964, as well as scattered issues from 1966 and 1970. These publicationswill be invaluable for scholars interested in documenting the activities of OneInstitute.

 

Scholars looking for an international perspective on thehomophile movement will find a remarkable selection of early gay publicationsfrom Britain, France, Canada, the Netherlands, and Denmark. The collectionincludes Arena 3: A Special MonthlyPublication for Women, a British magazine published by the lesbianorganization, Minorities Research Group (1964-ca. 1972); selections from Arcadie, a literary andscientific review published by the Mouvement Homophile de France, from the1950s through the 1980s; eight issues of Gay, a homophile magazinefrom Toronto (1964); Vennen (The friend), aDanish magazine (1954-1969); and ICSE Newsletter, published by theFoundation International Committee for Sexual Equality in Amsterdam(1955-1961).

 

Of course, San Francisco homophile organizations are alsowell represented in the collection and provide important resources for scholarswho want to document an important time of social and political fermentation inthe city. The collection includes extensive runs of the Gold Sheet and its successor, theInsider (1967-1976) -newsletters of the Society for Individual Rights (SIR), which was, at onepoint, the largest gay rights group in the United States. The collectioncontains a rare 1963 issue of the News,an incarnation of one of the first gay papers in San Francisco, and theofficial publication of the League for Civil Education. The League, formed in1961 by Guy Strait, was one of the first groups to try to organize a gay votingblock in San Francisco.

 

The Gay Liberation Movement

 

The primary sources available in the collection reveal thatactivist agendas were quite fluid in the early days of the GLBT movement. Asindicated by the dates of these periodicals and newsletters, militant activism(e.g., envisioning a gay lifestyle) preceded the rise of gay liberation,while homophile activism was not completely eclipsed by the more radical gayliberationists. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, GLBT political, social,cultural, commercial, and religious institutions proliferated, as did the GLBTpress. The Historical Society made a concerted effort to collect and preserveperiodicals, newspapers, and newsletters that documented the growth of theseinstitutions. These extraordinary holdings also detail the development of anactivist, or movement, press, which advocated for gay rights, reported news ofinterest to the queer community, published positive representations of queerlife, and provided a forum where GLBT people could exchange ideas. Scholarsinterested in this period will find a gold mine in the materials of thecollection, which document a wide range of activity in the gay liberationmovement, from fairly moderate tabloids to the more radical publications of theGay Liberation Front.

 

The geographical scope of the collections gay liberationholdings is remarkable, encompassing California and the American Midwest,Vancouver and London, and Philadelphia and New York. Immediately after theStonewall Riots, a number of queer activists in New York formed the GayLiberation Front (GLF), a group that embraced revolutionary politics ratherthan an assimilationist approach. The organization did not last long, but from1969 to 1971 dozens of independent chapters formed across the nation and aroundthe world. Series 9 includes three GLF magazines - New Yorks Come Out!: A Liberation Forum for the GayCommunity (1969-1972); GayFlames: A Bulletin of the Homofire Movement (1970); and Londons Come Together (1971-1972).

 

The Committee for Homosexual Freedom, a pre-Stonewall gayliberation group, was a vocal and militant presence in the Bay Area between1969 and 1972. The collections holdings include the groups own newsletter, aswell as newsletters it issued jointly with the Berkeley Gay Liberation Front(1969-1970). The collection also includes several rare issues of the Bay AreaGay Liberation newsletter (1975 and 1978). Hollywood, California is representedby several publications; there is a near-complete run of the liberationist andsocialist paper Come Out Fighting:The Newspaper of the Lavender & Red Union (1975-1977) andscattered issues of the HomosexualInformation Center Newsletter (1972-1996).

 

Queer students played an important role in the gayliberation movement. The collection includes newsletters from some of theearliest gay student organizations. Series 8 includes several incarnations ofthe newsletters produced by the Gay Peoples Union at Stanford (1974-1977).Series 9 includes Homosexuals Intransigent!, a publication of an early studentgay rights organization at the City University of New York (1971-1972).

 

The collection includes most of the first forty-eight issuesof the influential Detroit GayLiberator (1970-1976). Scholars interested in studying the fractiousnature of gay liberation politics will find a case study in the collectionsholdings. In October 1970, the gay liberation organization in Chicago splitinto two groups: Chicago Gay Liberation and Chicago Gay Alliance. Thecollection has five issues of the formers newsletter (1970), and the first sixteen issues of the newsletters published bythe latter (1970-1971).

 

Scholars interested in New Yorks gay liberation press willfind the collections holdings essential for their research. There aresubstantial runs of Gay Activist, the newsletter ofthe Gay Activists Alliance in New York (1971-1973, 1977, 1979), and three earlygay newspapers: Gay(1969-1974), Gay Power(1969-1975), and Gay Scene(1970-1986). In addition to reporting news, politics, and entertainment ofinterest to the GLBT community, these newspapers affirmed and celebrated gaymens sexuality by featuring beefcake and homoeroticism. Gay liberationistsembraced two fundamental principles articulated by the womens movement: Thepersonal is political and Sexual politics matter. They viewed the validationof their sexual identity as a political act, and the fight for their sexualautonomy as a political struggle.5 Scholars exploring this topicwill be particularly interested in the substantial run of newsletters from thesex-positive organization, the San Francisco Sex Information Center(1973-1996).

 

Feminism and Lesbian Feminism

 

The growth of lesbian feminism in the 1970s also fueled aproliferation of newspapers, magazines, and newsletters. Many important lesbianfeminist journals from all across the country are housed in the collection.Holdings from the 1970s through the 1990s include the aforementioned Sisters, extensive runs of The Lesbian Feminist, thenewsletter of Lesbian Feminist Liberation from New York City (1976-1979), Out and About: Seattle Lesbian FeministNewsletter (1976-1985), Los Angeless monthly, The Lesbian News (1976-2004), andthe first eighteen issues of Rundbrief (later Spinnboden), the newsletter fromthe Citizens of Berlin Lesbian Archives, the largest lesbian collection inGerman-speaking countries (1982-1992). Part Two of the collectionincludes all six issues of New Yorks Dyke(1975-1978) and San Franciscos Dykespeak (1993-1995). These publications are invaluable toscholars who want to document the emergence and evolution of lesbian feministconsciousness, politics, and culture.

 

The collection has a number of publications from across thecountry that document feminism in the mens movement. Series 8 includesSeattles Morning Due, ajournal of men against sexism (1975-1977), and Berkeleys Brother, which was both a male liberation paper and a forum for menagainst sexism (1971-1975). Series 9 includes Double-F: A Magazine of Effeminism, from New York(1972-1976).

 

The collection has a considerable number of localpublications that document womens activism and feminist community building inSan Francisco and the East Bay. Although these publications are notspecifically queer, they offer evidence of the ways lesbians, bisexual,transgendered, and heterosexual women formed alliances. They are importantresources for any scholar researching the history of women or feminism in theBay Area. UnionW.A.G.E. For Equal Rights, Equal Pay, and Equal Opportunity, published by Union Women's Alliance to Gain Equality(1972-1980), deals with labor and class politics. So does the newsletter of thesocialist-feminist organization, the Berkeley/Oakland Womens Union(1974-1974), which is in Series 9. Other especially rich resources are theextensive runs of various newsletters from several local womens communitycenters, the Women's Switchboard and Women's Centers (1974-1979), and itssuccessor, the San Francisco Women's Center and Building (1981-1991). TheWomens Building, which celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2004, is amulti-cultural institution that gives girls and women the resources they needto achieve full participation in society.

 

Electoral Politics

 

The GLBT communities in San Francisco have a long history ofactivity in electoral politics. The potential of the queer politicalconstituency - initially realized when Harvey Milk became the first openly gayelected official in San Francisco - can be traced back to the early 1960s andthe activities of Jos Sarria and the League for Civil Education. In 1961,Sarria, a popular drag performer at San Franciscos famous bohemian bar, theBlack Cat, ran for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and received 5,600votes. Scholars interested in GLBT participation in electoral politics in SanFrancisco will find a wealth of material from diverse political affiliations inthe collection. These include extensive runs of the publications produced bythe Alice B. Toklas Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Democratic Club, the firstgay Democratic club in California (1972-2002), as well as newsletters from LogCabin Republicans (1984-2002) and Libertarians for Gay and Lesbian Concerns(1983-1993).

 

Advocacy Groups and Professional Organizations

 

In the 1970s and 1980s, increased political power, economicclout, and visibility led to a proliferation of activist and professionalgroups that advocated for GLBT rights in the Bay Area. The Historical Societysholdings in this area are extensive. They include runs of newsletters from BayArea Lawyers for Individual Freedom (1988-1993), Bay Area Physicians for HumanRights (1979-1998), and Communities United Against Violence (1984-1988). Oneremarkable collection is the near-complete run of newsletters of the AmericanLegion, Alexander Hamilton Post #448 (1985-2003). Formed in San Francisco in1984, Post 448s predominantly GLBT membership of honorably discharged veteransis recognized nationally for its activism on behalf of all veterans and for itsefforts to end discrimination against gays in the military. Another noteworthyholding is a substantial three-year run of the newsletter of PLAGAL, the Pro-Life Alliance of Gays and Lesbians, formerly GaysAgainst Abortion (1992-1995).

 

Local professional organizations, such as the Bay AreaNetwork of Gay and Lesbian Educators (BANGLE), the Golden Gate BusinessAssociation, and Bay Area Career Women, offered social events for queers;addressed issues and needs specific to the GLBT community; provided mentoring,education and support services; and created networks through which queer peoplecould advance their careers. Scholars interested in the histories oforganizations catering to the GLBT community as well as queer people withincertain professions will find extraordinary documentation in Series 9 of thecollections newsletters.

 

GLBT Cultural Institutions

 

The collection also affords scholars an opportunity toexamine primary source materials that document the history of the numerousnational and local GLBT cultural institutions that sprung up in the 1970s and1980s. Series 9 includes all nine issues of Gay Olympics, the newsletter documenting the first-ever GayGames, which took place in San Francisco in 1982 (November 1981-August 1982).It also features a variety of newsletters and primary source documentspertaining to San Franciscos Frameline, the producers of the oldest andlargest LGBT film festival in the world. In addition to its own newsletters, Our Stories, the Historical Society hascollected the publications of other community-based institutions that preserveGLBT history. A number are included in the collection, such as the Gerber-HartLibrary in Chicago, the Midwest's foremost GLBT archive (1990-2002).

 

Community Building in Northern California

 

While the geographical breadth of the collection isremarkable, the Historical Societys commitment to preserving local queerhistory makes it the preeminent repository of GLBT history in NorthernCalifornia and, consequently, indispensable to scholars doing research on thisregion. The collection includes numerous locally produced periodicals andnewsletters that are dedicated to serving particular geographical communities.There are substantial runs of local publications from San Francisco, the EastBay, the Silicon Valley, San Jose, Sunnyvale, Santa Cruz, Marin County, andSonoma County. These include early treasures, like San Franciscos Rip Off Rag (1976-1979) and the Marin Womens Newsletter/Journal (1973-1975), as well as morecontemporary publications, like a near-complete run of newsletters from theBilly DeFrank Lesbian and Gay Community Center in San Jose (1983-2002) and SanFranciscos Spectrum(1998-2003). Queer publications like these were particularly important beforethe advent of the Internet, especially for GLBT people who lived outside majormetropolitan areas. They afforded queer people a sense of local community whilekeeping them connected to the larger GLBT world. Many of the collectionsholdings are publications that enabled queers who lived in more rural areas ofNorthern California to connect with one another. These include Novatos Wishing Well (1978-1986) and thenewsletter of the Lesbian and Gay Resource Network of Sonoma County(1982-1984). These primary sources will provide a wealth of materials forscholars interested in studying how GLBT communities developed outside of urbancenters.

 

The Transgendered Communities

 

The GLBT Historical Societys collection of periodicals andnewsletters related to transvestism, transsexuality, and transgender issues isone of the best in the western United States. These publications, which spanthe 1950s through the 1990s, are essential for any scholar who wants todocument the emergence and evolution of trans-identities, trans-services, andtrans-communities. Series 8 includes substantial runs of early publications,such as Transvestia: Journal of theAmerican Society for Equality in Dress, and TV Clipsheet, which was acompilation of news clippings from the 1960s about cross-dressers andtranssexuals. Transvestiawas created by Virginia Charles Prince, founder of one of the first peersupport and advocacy groups for male-to-female transsexuals in the UnitedStates. Issues in the collection date from 1952, and from 1960 to 1969; someconsider the early issues to be markers of the beginning of the transgenderrights movement in the United States. Both these magazines were produced in LosAngeles, but the collection also includes publications from New York; NewEngland; Toronto; Baton Rouge; Atlanta and Decatur, Georgia; and the Bay Area.There are several journals for female-to-male transsexuals, such as Torontos Metamorphosis (1982-1988) and, inSeries 9, all fifty-three issues of FTMNewsletter (1987-2003).

 

Bisexuality

 

Scholars interested in bisexuality will find nationalpublications, as well as newsletters from bisexual support groups in SanFrancisco and Boston in the collection. Series 8 includes the first twenty-twoissues of the Bay Areas Anythingthat Moves, a magazine whose mission was to provide as diverse aview as possible of bisexual, transgendered, and gender fluid communities(1991-2001). Series 9 includes BiNetNews, the newsletter of Bisexual Network USA (1996-2000).

 

African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian Communities

 

Though people of color are represented in other materialsthroughout the collection, the archives include a strong selection ofperiodicals and newsletters produced specifically by and for people of color.These publications were dedicated to building community, combating racism andhomophobia, sharing literary work, and instilling pride in their readers bypresenting positive representations of GLBT people of color. One example of apublication that promoted coalition building is Morena: Women of Color Press Empowering Our Communities, anewspaper from Berkeley for African American, Latino, Asian American, andNative American women (1988-1991). African Americans are represented in thecollection by sizeable runs of the local publications: Ach, a journalfor lesbians of African descent produced in Albany, California (1989-1993); andWhazzup! Magazine, a freemonthly newspaper produced in Oakland for GLBT African Americans (1996-1998).The collection includes newsletters from Asian/Pacific Islander groups from theBay Area, Massachusetts, New York, and Toronto. Highlights include substantialruns of Lavender Godzilla,the newsletter of the Bay Areas Gay Asian Pacific Alliance for Gay andBisexual Asian/Pacific Islander Men (1988-2004), Celebrasian, Torontos newsletter for Gay Asians(1983-1995), and San Franciscos PhoenixRising: The Asian Pacifica Sisters Newsletter (1986-1994). Many ofthe publications produced by the Latino community are bilingual, or in Spanishor Portuguese. The collection includes various newsletters from the Washington,D.C.-based National Latino/a Lesbian and Gay Organization (1994-1997), and theSan Francisco-based Associacin Gay Unida Impactando Latinos A Superase in SanFrancisco (2000-2003). It also includes substantial runs of the Brazilianmagazine Nos Por Exemplos(1992-1995), the Mexican lesbian magazine, Amantes de la Luna (1994), and Chicagos En La Vida: vocesde lesbians, gays, bisexuales y transgneros latinos (1997-1998).

 

The Historical Society has an outstanding collection ofnewsletters from two multiracial, multicultural groups devoted to promotinginterracial cooperation, friendship, and understanding. Black and White MenTogether (later Men of All Colors Together) was founded in San Francisco in1981 by Michael Smith. While it is a social group, it is also dedicated tofighting racism, sexism, homophobia, and other forms of discrimination. Thecollections holdings are substantial. In addition to newsletters from thenational organization, there are newsletters from the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000sfrom almost all the local chapters, including the San Francisco Bay Area;Atlanta; Baltimore; Cleveland; Washington, D.C.; Detroit; Memphis; Tallahasseeand Big Bend, Florida; San Diego; Philadelphia; Austin; Chicago; Dallas; NewYork; Kansas City; Boston; Connecticut; Indianapolis; Louisville; Milwaukee;Los Angeles; Youngstown; Oakland; and the Research Triangle in North Carolina.Series 9 includes significant newsletter collections from the local Bay Areaorganizations Pacific Friends San Francisco andPacific Friends, South Bay (1986-1996). Founded in 1984, these organizationspromote community service and camaraderie among gay Asians/PacificIslanders, their partners, and their friends.

 

GLBT Elders

 

The collection features a number of publications devoted tomore mature members of the queer community. Series 8 contains newsletters fromorganizations serving seniors, like San Franciscos New Leaf Services(1984-2003). Series 9 has substantial runs of newsletters from Lavender Seniorsof the East Bay (1995-2003) and SAGE - Seniors Active in a Gay Environment(1982-2002). In addition, Series 9 includes an extensive compilation ofnewsletters from the Prime Timers, an international organization for gay menover forty. Retired professor Woody Baldwin founded the Prime Timers in 1987 inBoston as a social and cultural organization dedicated to assisting andsupporting aging gay and bisexual men. There are over fifty chapters across theworld. In addition to Prime Timers Worldwide (based in Manchacha, Texas), thecollection includes substantial runs of newsletters from all over the UnitedStates and Canada, from the 1980s through today, including chapters in Atlanta;Baltimore/Washington, D.C.; Boston; central Florida; central Oklahoma; Chicago;Colorado; Edmonton; the Gulf Coast; Houston; Las Vegas; New Orleans; New York;Palm Springs; San Diego; San Francisco; Seattle; Shreveport; Tampa Bay;Toronto; the Tri-State Area; Tulsa; Vancouver; Victoria; and Winnipeg. Thesematerials are a potential gold mine for scholars researching the effect ofdemographic shifts and the aging of the baby boom generation on the GLBTcommunity in North America.

 

Spirituality and Religion

 

The breadth and depth of materials pertaining to organizedreligion in the collection is remarkable - and invaluable to researchersstudying religious and spiritual practices in the GLBT community. Almost everymajor religion is represented - Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism -as are most denominations of Christianity, including Catholicism, Lutheranism,Mormonism, the United Methodist Church, evangelical Christianity,Presbyterianism, and the Episcopalian Church. The collection includessubstantial runs of various newsletters from the first church with a primary,positive ministry to the GLBT community - Metropolitan Community Church (MCC)San Francisco (1970-1996). Today, MCC has over 43,000 members worldwide. Thereis a near-complete run of the JewishGaily Forward, the news magazine from San Franciscos Reformcongregation, Sha'ar Zahav. There are also newsletters from the San Franciscochapters of the Gay Buddhist Fellowship/Fraternity (1992-1999), and SadhanaBrothers, a San Francisco group for gaymen pursuing a Hindu/yoga/mystical path (1994-1997).

 

Most of the religious organizations represented in thecollection recognize and affirm their congregants sexual orientation.Remarkably, however, the collection also includes the newsletters Regeneration News (1996-2004) andWellspring (1998-2004), from several ministriesthat believe that GLBT people can become heterosexual through faith in JesusChrist.

 

Also noteworthy is the collections selection ofpublications by gay and lesbian atheists. These include fairly complete runs ofnewsletters from the national and San Francisco chapters of the American Gay& Lesbian Atheists (1989-1995 and 1982-1987, respectively), and the journalGALA Review, which waspublished in conjunction with the Gay Atheist League of America (1978-1985 and1985-1989).

 

Researchers interested in alternative religions andspirituality will find plenty of sources in the collection. Highlights include Faerie Dish Rag, a magazine fromthe Radical Faeries (1991-1997), and CerunnosNews: Wiccan Newsletter for the Bay Area (1982-1986).

 

Parenthood

 

These days, there is nothing extraordinary about the idea ofqueer people raising children. In fact, there is a veritable baby boom in theGLBT community and a proliferation of resources for GLBT parents. Not so longago, however, this was not the case. The collection contains newsletters fromsome of the earliest groups that offered support to, and fought for, thewell-being and rights of GLBT parents, prospective parents, and families. Thereare substantial runs of newsletters from several groups, including two localorganizations, San Francisco Bay Area Gay Fathers (formerly Gay Fathers SanFrancisco Bay Area, 1982-1989) and Berkeleys Lesbian/Gay Parenting Group(1987-1992), the precursor to the San Francisco-based support and civil rightsgroup, Our Family Coalition.

 

One of the most remarkable holdings in the collection is theextensive selection of national and local newsletters, from the 1980s throughthe present, of Parents, Families & Friends of Lesbians & Gays (PFLAG),an advocacy, education, and support organization for GLBT people, theirfamilies, friends, and allies. Approximately twenty people attended the firstformal meeting of PFLAG in New York in 1973. Today, PFLAG is the largest grassroots family organization of its kind, with over 200,000 members, and chaptersin nearly 500 communities across the United States and throughout the world.The depth and breadth of the holdings are impressive. In addition to thenational newspaper, there are newsletters from local chapters throughoutCalifornia - Chico, Los Angeles, Marin County, the mid-Peninsula, Mill Valley,Orange County, and San Francisco - and across the United States: Akron; Boston;Chicago; Denver; Houston; New York City; Philadelphia; Phoenix; Rochester, NewYork; and Washington, D.C.

 

GLBT people have been ignored, marginalized, anddeliberately erased from history by mainstream society. In the words of thefounders of the Historical Society, For generations our letters have beenburned, our names blotted out, our books censored, our love declaredunspeakable, our very existence denied.6 GLBT people recognize thatdenying and distorting their history facilitates their oppression.Consequently, the founders of the Historical Society have spent the lastgeneration accumulating periodicals and newsletters that document the historyand culture of nearly sixty years of queer life in and beyond the Bay Area.They know that history is instrumental in creating a positive sense of queeridentity and pride, and in building political movements that can fight for theequal rights they have long been denied because of their sexual orientation.The microfilm edition of the Historical Societys Periodical and NewsletterCollection will make these primary source materials accessible and will helppreserve this history and our stories for countless future generations.

 

Marjorie Bryer, Ph.D.
Independent Scholar

 

Many thanks toTerence Kissack and Ramn Silvestre for their feedback and guidance on thisessay.

 

Footnotes

 

1 The term wide-open town comesfrom Nan Alamilla Boyds excellent monograph, Wide-Open Town: A History ofQueer San Francisco to 1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press,2003). I also drew on Susan Stryker and Jim Van Buskirks Gay by the Bay: AHistory of Queer Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area (San Francisco:Chronicle Books, 1996).

 

2 San Francisco Bay Area Gayand Lesbian Historical Society Newsletter, 1:3 (March 1986), 5.

 

3 Lisa Ben, quoted in In Our OwnVoices: The Lesbian and Gay Press, in Larry Gross and James D. Woods, eds., TheColumbia Reader on Lesbian and Gay Men in Media, Society, and Politics (NewYork: Columbia University Press, 1999), 437.

 

4 Clark Polak, quoted in In OurOwn Voices, 439. Kameny and Polak are considered part of the movement press,and viewed as missing links between homophiles and gay liberationists. SeeIn Our Own Voices, 439.

 

5 Ed Jackson, Flaunting it! Adecade of gay journalism from The Body Politic, The Columbia Reader,463.

 

6 San Francisco Bay Area Gayand Lesbian Historical Society Newsletter, 1:3 (March 1986), 5.

 

 

Editorial Note

 

About the Newsletter andPeriodical Collection

 

The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,Transgender Historical Society boasts the largest collection of periodicals andorganization newsletters that promote the rights of gays, lesbians, bisexuals,transgendered people, and ethnic and racial minorities. The policy of GLBT isto locate and preserve periodicals documenting the history, culture, andpolitical and social activism of the gay and lesbian community. This collectionrepresents a wide range of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender experienceand thought. A strength of the collection is the newsletter and periodicalcollection from Northern California, which boasts the largest concentration ofgay and lesbian organizations in the nation. But the collection is also strongin national and international publications as well. Holdings range fromhistorical newsletters of the 1960s to current newsletters and periodicals. Thecollection is strong in rare materials, especially newsletters from defunctorganizations from the formative years of the gay and lesbian movement, evenfrom the 1940s and 1950s.

 

Organization and Format of the Reels and CollectionGuide

 

Materials arearranged in the reels in alphabetical order by publication title. For eachpublication title, issues appear chronologically, from earliest available issueto the most recent. This guide lists materials in the order in which theyappear on the reels. At the beginning of the issue listings for each title, thetitle (and organization if there is one) appears in boldface italic. For titleswhose runs continue onto the next reel, please see the Reel Index, whichindicates the range of issue dates of that title on the reel. Periodicals whosetitles changed over time appear in their proper place alphabetically on thereels and in the guide, with a few exceptions where the archive bundled themtogether.

 

SelectionProcess

The selection of materials for the microform edition of Gay and Lesbian Community, Support, andSpirit: Selected Newsletters and Periodicals was based on severalcriteria:

 

Relevancy: This microfilm collection comprisesselected periodicals and newsletters from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,Transgender Historical Society archive. Selections emphasize the relevance ofthe material to the history of gay and lesbian political and social activism inAmerica, particularly the pursuit of equal rights.

 

Rarity: Some periodicals and newsletters were excludedbecause they can be found in many libraries or have appeared in other PrimarySource Microfilm publications of gay and lesbian publications. Materialsavailable without charge to the public on an organizations website were alsoexcluded.

 

Research Need: Certain materials were not microfilmedlargely because of their relatively low priority with respect to researchneeds. Examples of such materials include newsletters devoted primarily tocommercial advertisements.

 

Privacy: Some materials could not be microfilmed forreasons of confidentiality. In the interest of protecting the privacy ofindividuals, a concerted effort was made to exclude newsletters that containedpeoples home addresses, phone numbers, Social Security numbers, or personalfinancial information. Examples of such materials include newsletters devotedprimarily to contact club information.

 

Notice of UnfilmedMaterials

 

Materials excluded from the microfilm edition are noted inthe entry for the file in which they are housed. These materials are availableto researchers who use the collection on site at the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,Transgender Historical Society. Periodicals and newsletters excluded in theirentirety are not listed in this collection guide. These materials are alsoavailable to researchers who use the collection on site at the GLBT HistoricalSociety.

 

 

PublicationHistory Information

 

Advent
Newsletter formerly entitled Adventus. The name was changed sometimebetween 1985 and 1987. Lutherans Concerned San Francisco became LutheransConcerned San Francisco Bay Area in Fall 2000.

 

Adventus
Newsletter name changed to Advent sometimes between 1985 and 1987.

 

AEGIS News
Other early issues were first called Transgender Treatment Bulletin.

 

Affinity
Published in SanFrancisco through May 1988. The 1993 issues were published in Los Angeles.

 

Affirmation
Followed byThe Affirmation Gayzette in the 1990s.

 

TheAffirmation Gayzette
Previously Affirmation: Gay and Lesbian Mormons.

 

LasAmantes de la Luna
First issue published ca. 1994.

 

ElAmbiente News
Preceded byAGUILAS Newsletter, Aquilas Monthly Bulletin, and BOLetin.Followed by El amanaque.

 

AmericanGay and Lesbian Atheist
Preceded byAmerican Gay Atheist.

 

AmericanGay Atheist
Succeededby the American Gay and Lesbian Atheist.

 

TheApostle
First published in 1972. Preceded by The Scarab and succeeded by TheBeacon.

 

AsGood as it Gets
The name ofthe community center changed from Santa Cruz Lesbian and Gay Community Centerto Santa Cruz Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Community Center and then to SantaCruz Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Community Center. The name TheDiversity Center was adopted in 1999. The name of the publication changed fromAs Good as it Gets (1990-1992) to Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual CommunityNews for Santa Cruz (1993) to Community News and Views for the CentralCoast (1993-1995), then News and Views of Santa Cruz (1995), and Newsand Views for Santa Cruz (1995).

 

BANGLEReport
Publicationis also entitled The BANGLE Angle.

 

BayArea Career Women
Firstpublished ca. 1981. Subsequently titled Uncommon Voices: BACW Newsletter.

 

TheBeacon
Publication was preceded by The Scarab and The Apostle.

 

Bridges(SanFrancisco, California)
First issue published ca. 1973. The title Bridges is adopted ca. 1976. Dignity/BayArea becomes Dignity/San Francisco in early 1983.

 

CerunnosNews
First issuepublished ca. 1982.

 

CentralOklahoma Prime Timers
Preceded byCOPT Gazette.

 

ChristianCircle
The Metropolitan Community Church of San Francisco newsletter went through anumber of phases. From 1970 to 1972, it was called MCC Speaking Up.Between 1972 and 1975 it was called Cross Currents. Beginning in theFall of 1975 until at least 1977, it was called Christian Circle.Between 1980 and 1982 it was called Community News. From 1988 to 1990the name was MCC Newsletter, and from July 1990 until at least December1995, it was called Metropolitan Community Church of San FranciscoNewsletter.

 

CLGHNewsletter
First issuepublished Fall 1980.

 

ColoradoPrime Timers Newsletter
Newsletterbecomes Colorado Prime Times in January 1999.

 

ComeOut
First issue published November 14, 1969.

 

ComeTogether (London, England)
First issue published ca. 1970.

 

CommunityNews
See history notes for Christian Circle.

 

CommunityNews and Views for the Central Coast
See historynotes for As Good As It Gets.

 

Concern
Firstpublished in July 1966.

 

CrossCurrents (San Francisco, California)
First issue published Fall 1972. See history notes for Christian Circle.

 

ADifferent Beat
First issuepublished June 3, 1976.

 

Dignity/EastBay Newsletter
First issue published ca. 1982. Publication also titled East Bay DignityNewsletter.

 

Dignity/USADateline
First issue published ca. 1991.

 

Dignity/USAJournal
First issue published ca. 1969. Titled Dignity, a monthly newsletterfrom ca. 1969 to ca. 1986. Titled Dignity/USA Newsletter from ca. 1987through Fall 1991. The title was changed to Dignity/USA Journal inSpring 1992.

 

DorianBook Quarterly
Firstissue published in the first quarter of 1960. The final issue was theJanuary/February/March 1964 issue.

 

Double-F
First issuepublished was the Summer 1972 issue.

 

Dyke
First issue published was the Winter 1975/1976 issue.

 

DykeReview
First issue published was the June 1991 issue.

 

Dykes,Disability and Stuff
First issue published Summer 1988.

 

EastBay Alternative
First issue published July 1987.

 

EasternMattachine Magazine
In May 1956, the New York Chapter of the Mattachine Society began publishing NewYork Mattachine Newsletter. In February or March 1961, the NationalMattachine Society ceased to exist, and the New York Chapter became theMattachine Society Inc. of New York. They continued to publish the newsletterwith the same name and numbering. From February to September 1962 the name ofthe newsletter changed to Newsletter of the Mattachine Society, Inc. of NewYork. From November 1962 to January 1964, the name was The MattachineNewsletter. From February 1964 to February 1965, it was again called TheNew York Mattachine Newsletter. In 1965 they began publishing the EasternMattachine Magazine jointly with the Mattachine Society of Washington. Thevolume and number continued from the newsletter, but the publication was amagazine. By the Spring of 1966 they were again publishing a newsletter called NewYork Mattachine Newsletter, and, again, the volume and number continued.Between July and August 1970, the name of the newsletter changed to New YorkMattachine Times. This title lasted at least through the January/Februaryissue of 1973. The Mattachine New Times was a newspaper put out by theorganization beginning in 1975.

 

EqualRights Advocate
First issue published December 1980.

 

FaerieDish Rag
First issue published ca. 1990.

 

Federationof Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Inc. Newsletter
First published December 1981. In July/August 1981, a federation of parentsgroups was formed called Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (ParentsFLAG). The office of this federation was shared by the Los Angeles PFG group.

 

TheFlagpole
First published in December 1984. The national federation later published anewspaper called PFLAGpole.

 

FramelineNews
Publication also titled Frameline Newsletter.

 

Fromthe Lobby
Publicationalso titled Lobbyists Newsletter.

 

FTMNewsletter
First issue published September 1987.

 

G-40Plus Club Newsletter
This organization was founded in 1973. In 1999, the name of the newsletterchanged from G40 Plus Club Newsletter to The Mentor. In 2002, thename of the organization officially changed from G40 Plus Club to Prime TimersSan Francisco.

 

Gaiesdu Quebec Bulletin
First issue published July 1977.

 

GALAInterim/GALA Realist
See history notes for GALA Review.

 

GALAReview
First issue published in 1978. It was published by the Gay Atheists League ofAmerica from 1978 until April 1985 and by Gay and Lesbian Atheists from June1985 until 1989.

 

Gateway(Golden Gate Business Association)
The name of the newsletter changed from GGBA Newsletter to TheGateway in April 1995. From February through September 1999, the namechanged briefly to The Gateway Extra.

 

Gay(Toronto, Ontario)
First issue published March 30, 1964. Continued by Gay Internationalstarting with v.1 no.12 in January 1965.

 

GayBookworm
Gay Bookworm was first published ca. 1986. In 1991 it was replaced by Quatrefolio.

 

TheGay Buddhist Fellowship Newsletter
Previously called The Gay Buddhist Fraternity Newsletter.

 

The Gay Buddhist Fraternity Newsletter
Subsequently published as The Gay Buddhist Fellowship Newsletter.

 

GayFathers San Francisco Bay Area Newsletter
Preceded by The San Francisco Bay Area Gay Fathers Newsletter.

 

GayFlames
First issue published in 1970.

 

GayLiberator
(Also called The Detroit Liberator and The Detroit Gay Liberator).First issue published ca. 1970.

 

TheGay Lutheran (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Firstpublished ca. 1974. Until January 1975, the newsletter was published inMinneapolis. In 1976 the organization moved from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles.

 

GayOlympics Newsletter
First issue published in November 1981. The last issue was published in August1982.

 

GayPeople and Mental Health
First issuepublished in October 1972.

 

GayTimes (San Francisco, California: 1971-1972)
First issue published in 1971.

 

GayTimes (San Francisco, California: 1986-1987)
First issue published July 1986.

 

GayYouth Community News
First issue published August 1979.

 

GaylacticGayzette
First issue published January 1987.

 

TheGLPA Newsletter
Subsequently called The Media Reporter.

 

HomosexualCitizen
First issue published January 1966.

 

HomosexualsIntransigent!
First issue published January 1971. Publication also previously titled HomosexualRenaissance.

 

ItAint Me Babe
First issue published January 15, 1970.

 

JewishGaily Forward
First published in September 1977.

 

LavenderNotes
First issue published March 1995.

 

LavenderReader
First issue published in the Fall of 1986.

 

TheLavender Salon Reader
First issue published in May 1993.

 

Lesbianand Gay Historical Society of San Diego Newsletter
First issue published in Winter 1993. The name of the publication changed from ArchivesNewsletter to Lesbian and Gay Archives of San Diego Newsletter in1991. The name of the organization changed in 1993 from Lesbian and GayArchives of San Diego to Lesbian and Gay Historical Society of San Diego, andthe name of the newsletter changed accordingly.

 

TheLesbian and Gay Parenting Group Newsletter
In 1996, the Gay and Lesbian Parenting Group also published the Keep OnToddlin newsletter. Later it became Our Family, and in 2001 merged withAll Our Families Coalition to become Our Family Coalition.

 

Lesbian,Gay and Bisexual Community News for Santa Cruz
See history notes for As Good As It Gets.

 

Manifesto
First published November 1996. First issue is also the last issue of TheSanta Cruz County In-Queery (vol. 9 #10).

 

TheMedia Reporter
Preceded by The GLPA Newsletter.

 

MCCNewsletter and MCC Speaking Up
See history note for Christian Circle.

 

The Mentor (San Francisco, California)
See history note for G-40 Plus ClubNewsletter.

 

Mid-Peninsula Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays,Inc. Newsletter
First published November 1985.

 

More Light Update
The name More Light Prayer Book isoccasionally used in place of More Light Update.

 

The Network News (San Francisco, California)
First published in October 1986. In 1995 thevarious BANGLE chapters united and began jointly putting out the Star BANGLESpanner. In 1997 BANGLE became part of GLSTN, a national organization, whichthen changed its name to GLSEN. In 2001 the San Francisco/East Bay chapter ofGLSEN began to publish a new newsletter called GSLEN San Francisco/East Bay.

 

New York City Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays,Inc.
First published ca. 1977. The names of the organization and the newslettervaried. Publication also titled Parents FLAG New York City Newsletterand NYC Parents of Lesbians and Gay Men Newsletter.

 

News and Views of Santa Cruz
See history note for As Good As It Gets.

 

NOGLSTP Newsletter
NOGLS Newsline was first published in August 1983 by the NationalOrganization of Gay and Lesbian Scientists. The name of the organizationchanged in March 1984 to National Organization of Gay and Lesbian Scientistsand Technical Professionals, and the name of the newsletter changed to NOGLSTPNewsletter. In 1986, the city of the newsletter changed from Chicago to LosAngeles. By 1989, the name of the newsletter was NOGLSTP Bulletin.

 

Pacific Currents
Formerly The Pacific Center for Human Growth Newsletter.

 

Pacific Friends
First published ca. 1984.

 

Pacific Friends South Bay
First issue published February 1986. In August 1988 the name of the publicationchanged from Pacific Friends South Bay to Pacific Horizons.

 

Pacific Horizons
See history note for Pacific Friends South Bay.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gay Newsletter(Chico, California)
First published ca. 1980.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter(Houston, Texas)
First issue published November 1982. In 1983,the local groups were asked to all start using the name Parents and Friends ofLesbians and Gays (Parents Flag), and at this time the name of the Houstonorganization changed from Family and Friends of Gays.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter (LosAngeles, California)
The Los Angeles Chapter was called Parents andFriends of Gays (PFG) from 1978 (or before) until November 1981, when it becameParents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLG). In July/August 1981, afederation of parents groups called Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays(Parents FLAG) was formed. The office of this federation was shared by the LosAngeles PFG group. In December 1982, the name of the newsletter changed to Parentsand Friends of Lesbians and Gays, Inc. and the Parents Flag logo appeared.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter (MillValley, California)
Organization started ca. April 1985. Firstpublished in April 1985.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter(Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
The organization was called Parents of Gays(POG) and the newsletter was titled Parents Newsletter. In June 1985,the name of the organization changed to Philadelphia Parents and Friends ofLesbians and Gays (Parents FLAG) and the title of the newsletter changed to ParentsFLAG Philadelphia Newsletter.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter(Phoenix, Arizona)
The organization was called United Parents andFriends Support Group until the Fall of 1983. The name seems to have variedbetween this and Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays until 1986, when itbecame the latter.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter(Rochester, New York)
On May 1, 1984, the organization changed itsname from Family and Friends of Gays (F.F.G.) to Parents FLAG Rochester.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter (SanFrancisco, California)
In 1987, the name of both the organization andthe newsletter was Parents of Gay People of the San Francisco Bay Area.Beginning in December 1980, the names changed to Parents of Gay People ofSan Francisco and the Greater Bay Area. In September 1981 the names changedto Parents and Friends of Gays (PFG) of San Francisco and the Greater BayArea. In April 1984 the name of the organization changed to Parents andFriends of Lesbians and Gays (Parents FLAG San Francisco) and so did the nameof the newsletter. During the second half of 1988 and the first half of 1989,the name of the newsletter varied between PFLAG, and Newsletter.By November 1989 the name of the newsletter was San Francisco Parents andFriends of Lesbians and Gays. In October 1993 the name of the newsletterchanged to Parents Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays.

 

Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Newsletter(Santa Ana, California)
First published November 1983.

 

Parsonage News
First published ca. 1982.

 

PLAGAL Memorandum
The organization started ca. 1990 as GaysAgainst Abortion (GAA) and the newsletter had the same name. By February 1992,the name of the organization had changed to Pro-Life Alliance of Gays andLesbians (PLAGAL) and the name of the newsletter to PLAGAL Memorandum.

 

Prime Timers of the Desert Monthly Camelgram
In October 1996, a splinter group of PrimeTimers of the Desert asserted itself as the Prime Timers of Coachella County.In Fall 1996, Prime Timers of the Desert dropped its affiliation with PrimeTimers International.

 

Prime Times (Las Vegas, Nevada)
By June 2000, the newsletter name had changedto Prime Time News.

 

Primer (Seattle, Washington)
Publication also titled Prime Timers Briefsand Seattle Prime Timers Newsletter.

 

Prologue
Local Boston chapter of Prime Timers wasfounded in 1987.

 

Publishing Triangle News
First published September 1989.

 

Q Spirit Matters
First published ca. 1996. In May 1998, thename of the newsletter changed from Q Spirit Newsletter to Q SpiritMatters.

 

Quatrefolio
See history note for Gay Bookworm.

 

Rip Off Rag
First issue published June 1976.

 

Roundup
This newsletter became Prime Linkbetween July and October 1997. The newsletter then became Edmonton PrimeLink in May 2000.

 

SAA-LAGAR Newsletter
First published May 1989.

 

SAGE News
The name of the newsletter changed between1985 and 1986 from SAGE Voices to SAGE News. Sometime before orduring 2001, it changed again to SAGE News and Events. Between 1988 and1995, the name of the organization changed from Senior Action in a GayEnvironment to Seniors Active in a Gay Environment.

 

SAGE Voices
See history note for SAGE News.

 

San Francisco Bay Area Gay Fathers Newsletter
Formerly titled Gay Fathers San FranciscoBay Area.

 

San Francisco Gazette
First edition published April 24, 1978.

 

The Santa Cruz County In-Queery
First issue published ca. 1987. Last issue,vol. 9 #10 (November 1996), is also the first issue, vol. 1 #1 (November 1996),of Manifesto.

 

SBC
First issue published in 1991.

 

The Scarab
First published September 1971. Succeeded by TheApostle and The Beacon.

 

Slant (Corte Madera, California)
First issue published February 1990.

 

Spectrum (San Francisco, California)
First issue published June 25, 1998.

 

Star BANGLE Spanner
First issue published March/April 1992. In1995 the various BANGLE chapters united and began jointly putting out the StarBANGLE Spanner. In 1997 BANGLE became part of GLSTN, a nationalorganization, which then changed its name to GLSEN. In 2001 the SanFrancisco/East Bay chapter of GLSEN began to publish a new newsletter called GSLENSan Francisco/East Bay.

 

Touching Body and Spirit
First issue published in the winter of1989/1990.

 

Transsexual Voice
First issue published October 1981.

 

UC GALA Newsletter
First published April 1988.

 

Uncommon Voices
First published ca. 1981. Formerly titled BayArea Career Women.

 

Vanguard (Los Angeles, California)
First published ca. l997. In January 2000, theorganization began publishing a magazine called At the Village aboutevents and classes at The Village at Gould Plaza. In February 2003, At theVillage became a pullout section of Vanguard.

 

Voices and Vision
Titled simply The Newsletter until aname was chosen.

 

The Way Fourth
The organization was early called Tayu Orderand Tayu Fellowship. The newsletter was earlier called Tayu Order and Ganymede.

 

Wishing Well
First issue published ca. 1977.

 

Wordsworth
This newsletter was also known as PrimeTimers.

 

World Congress Digest
First published ca. 1982. The organizationmoved from Evanston, IL, to Washington, DC, and later to New York City.

 

Zuni Mountain News
First published Fall/Winter 1996-1997. Thetitle of the publication varied between Zuni Mountain News and Gnomad.