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Sir Winston Churchill Papers: Series 2: Parts 1-4: Official Papers of Government Departments


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About this Collection

Overview

Overview

 

The Sir Winston Churchill Papers: Series 1-8

 

Series 1: Speeches of Resonance and Power

Speeches, 1897-1945: Class CHAR 9
Speeches, 1945-1959: Class CHUR 5

Series 2: Official Papers of Government Departments

Colonial Office, 1905-1908: Class CHAR 10
The Board of Trade, 1908-1910: Class CHAR 11
Home Office, 1910-1911: Class CHAR 12
Admiralty, 1911-1915: Class CHAR 13
Duchy of Lancaster, 1915: Class CHAR 14
Munitions, 1917-1919: Class CHAR 15
War and Air, 1918-1921: Class CHAR 16
Colonial Office, 1921-1922: Class CHAR 17
Treasury, 1924-1929: Class CHAR 18
Admiralty, 1939-1940: Class CHAR 19
Prime Minister, 1940-1945: Class CHAR 20
Prime Minister, 1951-1955: Class CHUR 6

Series 3: Official Papers: Cabinets and Committees

Cabinet Office, 1908-1915: Class CHAR 21
Committee of Imperial Defence, 1909-1915: Class CHAR 24
War Council, 1914-1915: Class CHAR 26
War Cabinet, 1917-1919: Class CHAR 27
Cabinet Office, 1920-1922 and 1924-1929: Class CHAR 22
Committee of Imperial Defence, 1920-1922 and 1935-1939: Class CHAR 25
War Cabinet, 1939-1945: Class CHAR 23

Series 4: Personal Papers: A Family in War and Peace

Personal Papers, 1884-1945: Class CHAR 1
Personal Papers, 1945-1965: Class CHUR 1

Series 5: Public and Political Life: Party and Reform

Public and Political: General, 1898-1945: Class CHAR 2
Public and Political: General, 1945-1965: Class CHUR 2

Series 6: Constituency Politics

Oldham, 1900-1906: Class CHAR 3
Manchester North West, 1906-1908: Class CHAR 4
Dundee, 1908-1922: Class CHAR 5
Out of Parliament, 1923-1924: Class CHAR 6
Epping, 1924-1945: Class CHAR 7
Woodford, 1945-1964: Class CHUR 3

Series 7: Literary Papers: The Uses of History

Literary Papers, 1890-1945: Class CHAR 8
Literary Papers, 1945-1965: Class CHUR 4

Series 8: Acquired Papers and Miscellaneous

Acquired Papers, 1690-1932: Class CHAR 28
Miscellaneous: Class CHAR 29
Obsolete Lists: Class CHAR 30

 

 

Publishers Foreword

 

Primary Source Media, an imprint of Gale, a part of CengageLearning, is proud to introduce this incomparable archive of Sir WinstonChurchill, statesman and pre-eminent personality of the 20th century. A richlydetailed collection of more than one million original documents, The Sir Winston Churchill Papersilluminate Churchills engagement in all aspects of national and internationalaffairs over six decades of his public life as politician, soldier, journalist,wartime leader, historian and Nobel Prize winner. Equally fascinating is theinclusion of material that displays his exuberant personality in debate,literature and the arts.

 

The Churchill Papers are owned by the Sir Winston ChurchillArchive Trust and held at the Churchill Archives Centre. Most of these paperswere carefully compiled and preserved by Churchill himself during his long andactive life, and subsequently by his son, Randolph, for the purpose of writingChurchills official biography and companion volumes. While a selection hasbeen edited and published in recent years, particularly by Sir Martin Gilbert,it is only in this complete collection that researchers are now able to studyChurchills life, work and times in their entirety.

 

The result is a collection that offers students andresearchers of modern history unprecedented new opportunities in the study ofinternational relations, the history of war and the government and politics ofBritain, her empire and the world.

 

The microfilm collection is fully supported by a searchablecatalogue prepared by archivists at the Churchill Archives Center, ChurchillCollege, Cambridge. An on-line edition of this catalogue is available at http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/churchill_papers/.

 

Along with acknowledgements for the help and co-operationextended by the staff of the Churchill Archives Centre, a special thank you isdue to Natalie Adams whose comprehensive knowledge and generous advice havevery substantially contributed to the preparation of the collection forpublication.

 

Technical Note

 

Primary Source Media has set itself the highest standards inthe field of archivally-permanent library microfilming. Our microfilmpublications conform to the recommendations of the guides to good microformingand micropublishing practice and meet the standards established by theAssociation for Information and Image Management (AIIM) and the AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI).

 

Attention should bedrawn to the nature of the printed material and manuscript documents within thecollection. These sometimes consist of articles, records and correspondenceprinted or written with a variety of inks and pens and on paper that has becomeseverely discoloured or stained which renders the original document difficultto read. Occasionally volumes have been tightly bound and this leads to textloss. Such inherent characteristics present difficulties of image and contrastwhich stringent tests and camera alterations cannot entirely overcome.

 

 

Introduction: The Sir Winston Churchill Papers: Series1-8

 

Series 1: Speechesof Resonance and Power

 

Speeches, 1897-1945: Class CHAR 9

In the dark years of World War II, Churchills speechesoffered inspiration to a beleaguered nation, and affirmed to the worldBritains determination to prevail over the forces of fascism. During theperiod of post-war recovery, Churchill reiterated the need for internationalunity.

 

This class contains 212 files beginning with notes and apress cutting for an address to the Primrose League in 1897 and ending with theelection speeches of 1945. Between these two landmarks are the drafts,typescripts, printed copy and press cuttings for more than 1,000 speeches whichChurchill delivered up to June 1945. Correspondence, background material anddrafts from government ministries supplement the 1940-45 files.

 

Drafts of speeches, as well as final versions, are included,showing Churchill soften hand-written alterations. These variationsdemonstrate the meticulous care he devoted to their composition; they alsoprovide fascinating insights into Churchills evolving train of thought, as hesought to mobilize the English language and send it into battle. All thesignificant domestic and international issues of the day feature, includingeducation, unemployment and fiscal policy, Free Trade and liberal policy, Indiaand rearmament during 1929-1932. Foreign policy matters include relations withCzechoslovakia, Ireland, Palestine, South Africa, Spain and the United States;the great speeches of World War II; and post-war reconstruction.

 

Speeches, 1945-1959: Class CHUR 5

This class presents Churchills speeches from 1945 to hisfinal years, arranged in chronological order and divided into House of Commonsand Non House of Commons speeches. They chiefly consist of speaking notes,drafts, source material, press cuttings reporting the speeches, copies ofHansard (the printed Parliamentary record) and prints.

 

Themes comprise: general election campaigns, at bothnational and constituency levels; party politics; and domestic politicsincluding the economy, housing post-war reconstruction, rationing, agriculture,industry, unemployment, and education. International issues include relationswith the United States, the Soviet Union and the future of a United Europe; theestablishment of NATO; the Cold War; nuclear weapons and disarmament; andtributes to late colleagues. Specific events also feature, such as the SuezCrisis, the Korean War, the 1953 floods, and the death of King George VI andsuccession of Queen Elizabeth II.

 

Series 2: OfficialPapers of Government Departments

 

This Series includes all the printed papers, incoming andoutgoing correspondence, memoranda and telegrams arising from Churchills manyofficial government appointments between 1905 and 1955.

 

Colonial Office, 1905-1908: Class CHAR 10

As Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Churchillschief concern was the administration of South Africa in the aftermath of theBoer War. Other topics include Newfoundland fisheries, Nigeria, Canadianrailways and naval policy and telegraphic communications in the West Indies.

 

The Board of Trade, 1908-1910: Class CHAR 11

These papers demonstrate Churchills involvement in socialreform, including the introduction of unemployment insurance and labourexchanges, wage regulation in the sweated industries and the establishment ofa Court of Arbitration for work disputes. Economic matters include patent lawand tariff reform and trade with France, Germany and the Middle East.

 

Home Office, 1910-1911: Class CHAR 12

Churchills tenure at the Home Office was a pivotal time inhis career, when he walked the tightrope between liberal reform and hisconservative instinct for law and order. Issues include the Tonypandy MinersStrike of 1910, the Siege of Sidney Street in 1911, the Suffragettes, thePeoples Budget, reform of the House of Lords, prison reform and better regulationof employment conditions.

 

Admiralty, 1911-1915: Class CHAR 13

As First Lord of Admiralty, responsible for the Royal Navyand British air defences, Churchill took a leading role in the first year ofthe conflict. His military priorities, in particular to maintain navalsupremacy over Germany, are illustrated in correspondence with H.H. Asquith,Lord Fisher, Austen Chamberlain and Lord Kitchener. Reports on the disastrousDardanelles campaign and Cabinet and War Council Papers are also present.

 

Duchy of Lancaster, 1915: Class CHAR 14

The papers contain correspondence relating to Churchillsbrief period as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, May-November 15,following his demotion from the Admiralty.

 

Munitions, 1917-1919: Class CHAR 15

The papers focus on his radical rearrangement of theMinistry and military production and include coverage of the MunitionsCouncils work, trade advisory committees, the supply and purchase of munitionsfrom the United States and design plans for the construction of pillboxes athome.

 

War and Air, 1918-1921: Class CHAR 16

The class is divided into correspondence (with Cabinetcolleagues, civil servants and military commanders) and outgoing minutes andsubject-based files. Churchill threw himself into Britains involvement withthe Russian civil war and battled to prevent the spread of Bolshevism at home.Other issues include the Paris Peace Conference, administration of militarymissions overseas, military control in the Middle East, especially Mesopotamia(later Iraq), and demobilization of British troops.

 

Colonial Office, 1921-1922: Class CHAR 17

As Colonial Secretary, Churchills main priority was toreduce the cost of British rule in the Middle East. Prominent themes includehis establishment of Arab kingdoms in Transjordan and Iraq, aided by Lawrenceof Arabia, his support for the creation within Palestine of a Jewish nationalhome and Churchills role in negotiating the Irish Peace Settlement.

 

Treasury, 1924-1929: Class CHAR 18

To his surprise, Churchill was appointed Chancellor of theExchequer in 1924, after rejoining the Conservative Party. His chief concernwas to limit central government expenditures. The Treasury files coverdepartmental estimates and expenditure priorities, the reform of the rating systemto alleviate distress in industry and agriculture, Poor Law reform, theintroduction of the betting tax and the return to the Gold Standard (whichChurchill would later regard as his greatest political blunder).

 

Admiralty, 1939-1940: Class CHAR 19

Churchill was recalled as First Lord of the Admiralty whenthe Second World War broke out in September 1939. This class covers thelandmark issues of the wars first year (including the failure to dislodgeHitlers forces from Norway) and naval strategy and armament production. It issupplemented by correspondence with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain andChurchills scientific advisor, Professor F.A. Lindemann.

 

Prime Minister, 1940-1945: Class CHAR 20

Churchill became Prime Minister of a coalition government onMay 10, 1940. It was his, as well as Britains, finest hour. Churchillsenergy and determination were phenomenal and this is reflected in the volume ofmaterial in this class - more than 20,000 items on all aspects of the war.Churchill toured bomb-damaged towns and cities, and took a keen interest in anymeasure that might improve morale. Once the threat of German invasion receded,he worked tirelessly on diplomatic and military initiatives to regain theoffensive. He harried his generals about every move, bombarding them withtelegrams and advice, and drove himself and his staff to near exhaustion.Churchill was also instrumental in holding together an alliance that includedsuch diverse and powerful figures as President Roosevelt, Marshal Stalin andGeneral de Gaulle. The highlight of this class is the correspondence betweenChurchill and Roosevelt, cementing the special relationship which not onlyestablished the Allied war strategy, but also the policies which were to shapethe post-war world.

 

Prime Minister, 1951-1955: Class CHUR 6

The official correspondence from Churchills second term asPrime Minister includes exchanges with President Eisenhower and copies ofpapers on government appointments.

 

Series 3: OfficialPapers: Cabinets and Committees

 

Featuring papers from the central bodies in charge of theconduct of government in peace and war, the Committee of Imperial Defence, theWar Council and the War Cabinets, this Series documents decision-making at theheart of government for over half a century.

 

Cabinet Office, 1908-1915: Class CHAR 21

This class covers both domestic topics, including education,pensions, housing, foreign affairs, Ireland, parliamentary and electoral reformand First World War issues and events such as the Dardanelles, munitionsmanufacture, casualty figures and the National Register.

 

Committee of Imperial Defence, 1909-1915: Class CHAR 24

Established permanently in 1904 as an advisory committee tothe Prime Minister, the Committees members were usually Cabinet Ministersconcerned with defence, military leaders and key civil servants. Themesinclude: aircraft development, the Forth-Clyde canal, National Service, navalstrategy and bases, the German Forces, the build-up to World War I, wartimefood supply and home defence.

 

War Council, 1914-1915: Class CHAR 26

The papers contain all of Churchills papers relating to hisrole in the War Council, the Cabinet and its committees. Prominentcorrespondents include Lord Kitchener, Secretary of State for War, and GeneralSir John French, Commander of the British Expeditionary Force in France.

 

War Cabinet, 1917-1919: Class CHAR 27

Covering Churchills tenure as Minister of Munitions andSecretary of State for War and Air, this class illuminates the collapse of thecentral powers, reconstruction after World War I, and the British Empire atwar.

 

Cabinet Office, 1920-1922 and 1924-1929: Class CHAR 22

This class includes correspondence on matters raised andmanuscript notes, apparently written during meetings, which supplements printedCabinet materials. Topics include foreign policy and affairs abroad (especiallyin Turkey, Egypt and China), the General Strike and the coal industry, navalpolicy and reform of the House of Lords.

 

Committee of Imperial Defence, 1920-1922 and 1935-1939:Class CHAR 25

Churchill was a member of the Committee from 1920-22 and1924-29, and its subcommittee in Air Defence Research from 1935-39. Three filesof correspondence deal mainly with the Committee Secretariat for 1920-22; afurther 15 files relate to the work of the Air Defence Research Committee,1935-39, including correspondence with Churchills scientific advisor,Professor F.A. Lindemann.

 

War Cabinet, 1939-1945: Class CHAR 23

Presents material relating to Churchills positions as FirstLord of the Admiralty, from 1939-40, and as Prime Minister and Minister ofDefence, from 1940-45. The majority comprises Prime Ministers Directives andrecords of the Chiefs of Staff Committee regarding the progress of the war.Subjects covered include: military operations, relations with the United Statesand Soviet Union, food production, the war in the Far East, records of theconferences at Quebec, Washington, D.C., Malta and Yalta, and the occupation ofGermany, the future of Yugoslavia and Poland, the establishment of the UnitedNations, post-war civil aviation and reconstruction, and the Emergency BusinessCommittee set up for the general election.

 

Series 4: PersonalPapers: A Family in War and Peace

 

Personal Papers, 1884-1945: Class CHAR 1
Personal Papers, 1945-1965: Class CHUR 1

Churchills personal papers offer the essential backgroundto understand his childhood and his family relationships, the development ofhis personality and interests and his perception of his achievements. Thematerial reflects his very full private life, including: correspondence withfamily and friends, family marriages, births and deaths, business, financialand legal affairs, Churchills own paintings, patronage, arrangements for hisstate funeral, his properties (Chartwell Manor and estate), retirement, traveland lecture tours in the United States.

 

Among the hundreds of correspondents represented in thesefiles are personal friends who were active in industry, the arts, the militaryand both domestic and international political life, including: H.H. Asquith,Arthur Balfour, Bernard Baruch, Sir Ernest Cassel, Lord Curzon, the Duke ofWindsor, Edward VII, F.E. Smith, George V, George VI and Elizabeth II, H.G.Wells, Ian Hamilton, King Alfonso of Spain, Lady Astor, Lady Cunard, T.E.Lawrence, Lord Kitchener, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury, Sir Alfred Milnerand Lord Rosebery.

 

Series 5: Public andPolitical Life: Party and Reform

 

Public and Political: General, 1898-1945: Class CHAR 2
Public and Political: General, 1945-1965: Class CHUR 2

This Series presents more than 13,000 items relating toChurchills public life beyond his ministerial and parliamentary career. WhereChurchills official papers (Series 2 and 3) document the implementation ofpolicy, this material reveals its formulation. Correspondence, notes, memorandaand policy statements show Churchill and his colleagues debating on partypolitics, strategy, political appointments and the national and internationalissues of the day.

 

Topics raised include taxation, Free Trade, Irish landsettlement, Home Rule, womens suffrage, trade union reforms, the BritishBroadcasting Company (later Corporation), the General Strike, the coal industryand the Abdication of Edward VIII. International themes include Anglo-Americanrelations, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (later British Petroleum), China,Palestine and Indian affairs, the Dardanelles Commission of Inquiry, militarypolicy and strategy, German rearmament and the League of Nations.

 

Series 6:Constituency Politics

 

As well as leading the nation as Prime Minister, Churchillrepresented local constituencies as a Member of the House of Commons. Theconstituency records offer valuable insights into local party and individualconcerns, and provide the backdrop to Churchills long career on the nationalstage.

 

Oldham, 1900-1906: Class CHAR 3

Oldham was Churchills first parliamentary seat, and thisclass contains many congratulatory letters from his peers. The dominant issueof this phase of Churchills career was his breach with the local and nationalConservative Party over his advocacy of Free Trade. Other correspondenceincludes constituents requests for support and questions on national topicssuch as education, the Licensing Bill and Trade Union Law.

 

Manchester North West, 1906-1908: Class CHAR 4

Correspondence covers constituency issues and thepredominant national topics of the period, including the Aliens Bill (toregulate immigration), Free Trade, the Education Bill, the Licensing Bill, HomeRule and womens suffrage. The class also illuminates Churchills ministerialduties as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. Churchill lost his seat atManchester and had to seek re-election following his appointment as Presidentof the Board of Trade.

 

Dundee, 1908-1922: Class CHAR 5

In addition to constituency correspondence, this classpresents a range of significant national issues, including the Aliens Bill,Free Trade, womens suffrage and Home Rule for Ireland.

 

Out of Parliament, 1923-1924: Class CHAR 6

Contains correspondence covering Churchills candidature anddefeat at Leicester and Westminster. During this period he left the LiberalParty and rejoined the Conservatives.

 

Epping, 1924-1945: Class CHAR 7

As Conservative MP for Epping, Churchill correspondedextensively with constituents and local officials needing his advice on a rangeof personal and local matters, including pensions, employment and, duringwartime, air raid precautions, evacuation, rationing, the call-up, bomb damageand resulting housing shortages. Contemporary national concerns are alsorepresented including the India White Paper, the economy, the Abdication ofEdward VIII, the rise of the Fascist powers, attitudes towards the League ofNations and the policy of appeasement. Finally, the class illustrates thetensions created in the constituency association by Churchills criticism ofthe national government during the 1930s.

 

Woodford, 1945-1964: Class CHUR 3

This class comprises correspondence between Churchillsoffice and constituency officials on two themes: local events and groups, (e.g.the Woodford Conservative Association, its officials, general electioncampaigns and local authorities) and individual and recurring issues (e.g. thehousing shortage, National Service and employment).

 

Series 7: LiteraryPapers: The Uses of History

 

For most of his life Churchill was a professional writer,his talent acknowledged by the award of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953.This Series contains working papers for all his literary and historicalwritings, as well as the journalism that first brought him to the publicsattention. Churchills literary output was prodigious. His bibliographer,Frederick Woods, describes 142 works by Churchill, 62 works containing acontribution by him and more than 500 contributions to newspapers andperiodicals.

 

Almost all of Churchills publications, as Woods argues,were weapons written to win a battle, whether that struggle related to thefuture of India, the fate of the free world or his own fluctuating reputation.Those he could not reach through his speeches, he wooed through the printedpage. This series offers rich insights to political and literary researchersalike.

 

Literary Papers, 1890-1945: Class CHAR 87

There is a wealth of articles revealing Churchills personalviews and opinions on contemporary issues, such as rearmament and criticism ofappeasement. Also included is preparatory material for The World Crisis (hishistory of World War I), biographies of his father and of his famous ancestors,the 1st Duke of Marlborough, final proofs and correspondence with hisassistants, contributors, agents and publishers.

 

Literary Papers, 1945-1965: Class CHUR 4

This class is mainly arranged in two parts: correspondenceand literary matter with a third section regarding proposed films orabridgements of Churchills works. The papers are dominated by materialrelating to Churchills two post-war histories, The Second World War and AHistory of the English-Speaking Peoples. Other notable items includecorrespondence with Churchills wartime colleagues, who added theirrecollections to Churchills own memories. Some contemporary World War IImaterials, such as Prime Ministers Minutes and Directives, were drawn intothis class during the compilation of The Second World War.

 

Series 8: AcquiredPapers and Miscellaneous

 

The Lord and Lady Randolph Papers, the Bernau Papers andChurchill Family Manuscripts & Photographs

 

Acquired Papers, 1690-1932: Class CHAR 28

This series contains 152 files of papers received byChurchill by inheritance or gift and forms an invaluable accompaniment to thePersonal Papers held in CHAR 1 (Series 4 of The Sir Winston Churchill Papers). Most of the material relates toChurchills mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (formerly Jennie Jerome), includingcorrespondence with her husbands (Lord Randolph Churchill, GeorgeCornwallis-West and Montagu Porch) and letters from her parents and his youngerbrother Jack. Particular highlights include letters from Sir WalterHely-Hutchinson, Lord Lansdowne, Lady Curzon and others on Churchills captureby, and escape from the Boers, and 11 files of correspondence from the Princeand Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). Further lettersdeal with the illness and death of Lord Randolph Churchill in 1895 and TheAnglo-Saxon Review, the periodical Lady Randolph founded and edited from 1899to 1901.

 

Also featured are 17 files of Churchills own letters to hisparents from 1882-1919, two years before his mothers death. These include morethan 300 letters from his school days at Harrow and his army training atSandhurst and Aldershot, supplemented by a file of school reports and hundredsof later letters from America, Cuba, India, the Sudan, South Africa, France andelsewhere. Before Churchills marriage, his mother was his closest confidanteand his letters to her reflect this, discussing his ambitions and rehearsinghis political views. These papers form a virtual autobiography of Churchillsfirst 20 years and provide a central biographical source for the followingdecades.

 

Miscellaneous: Class CHAR 29

The single file of miscellaneous items contains a variety ofpapers which could not be assigned with certainty to any other file.

 

Obsolete Lists: Class CHAR 30

Includes indexes to part of the Chartwell Papers prior totheir arrangement by the staff of the Public Record Office (PRO) between 1961and 1964. The lists contain some corrections and additions shedding light onthe custodial history of some of the documents.