Papers of Rutherford Birchard Hayes
About this Collection
Introduction: The Papers of Rutherford B. Hayes, theNineteenth President of the United States
The microfilm edition ofthe papers of Rutherford Birchard Hayes represents one of the last majorcollections of nineteenth century presidential papers to be microfilmed.Although Hayes is best remembered as the victor of the stolen election of1876, scholars have begun to reconsider and reassess his presidency and theperiod commonly referred to as the Gilded Age. It is the hope of the editors ofthis project that this collection of material, over 170 linear feet, willfurther enhance historical research in these areas.
The origins of TheRutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center can be traced back to 1910, when thefamily of President Hayes deeded Spiegel Grove, their fathers estate, to thestate of Ohio. The gift which was transacted through Colonel Webb C. Hayes, thePresidents second son, specified that a fire-proof building should be erectedby the state as a library and museum to contain the familys gift of the formerChief Executives personal library, papers, and personal effects.
The following year, onMay 31, 1911, the Ohio General Assembly authorized an appropriation of$50,000.00 for the building and equipment of the Hayes Commemorative Libraryand Museum Building on the grounds of Spiegel Grove. Groundbreaking ceremonieswere held in 1912. The new library and museum were dedicated on May 30, 1916. Alibrary annex, doubling the size of the original structure, was opened to thepublic on October 4, 1922, the one hundredth anniversary of Hayes birth.Subsequent additions in 1967 further increased the dimensions of the libraryand museum building to its present state. In addition to the library and museumbuilding, the Hayes Presidential Center has grown to include the Hayesresidence, the twenty-five acre estate, and a guest house.
Prior to the completionof the nations first presidential library in 1916, the Rutherford B. HayesPapers were kept in Executive Mansion filing boxes in the Hayes residence. ThePresident himself began to arrange his familys manuscripts in alphabeticalorder near the close of his life. In the 1930s the papers were systemicallyindexed under subject headings by the Remington Rand Corporation, and latermicrofilmed on 16mm film. The alphabetical arrangement of the Hayes Papers wassubsequently abandoned in favor of chronological filing, and an alphabeticalindex to the papers listing each individual manuscript by author(s) was made.The microfilm edition follows this chronological arrangement.
The microfilm edition wasmade possible by a grant from the National Historical Publications and RecordsCommission. Special gratitude is expressed to Fred Shelley and Frank G. Burke,the past and present directors of the NHPRC, for their support andencouragement throughout the many years of this project. Watt P. Marchman, theformer director of the Hayes Presidential Center, deserves special mention forinitiating the project and his guidance as project director. Unscheduled delaysand untimely technical problems delayed by several years the completion of themicrofilm edition of this historically important body of presidential papers.Through the process of trial and error and many hours of intense study, theproject staff managed to overcome their handicap of inexperience in the art ofmicrographics and learn that there is more to microfilming than pushing abutton.
Earl W. Crosby, StanleyC. Harrold, Jr., Ruth E. Smith, and David S. Weber helped to process the papersfor filming, as well as help with the preparation of the guidebooklet and thefilming of the documents. Ms. Petrene Wilkins provided invaluable assistance inher dual role as camera operator and micrographics technician for the project.Special attention also should go to Mrs. U.B. Lust for her diligence andpatience in transcribing many of the indistinct documents found in thecollection. Others who have contributed to the project include Mrs. JaniceHaas, Richard C. Townsend, and other members of the Hayes Center staff.
The Hayes Center alsowishes to acknowledge the support and cooperation of the many repositoriesthroughout the country who provided the Center with photocopies of Hayesmanuscripts from their collections. A list of these contributing institutionsfollows the introduction. The Archives-Library Division of the Ohio HistoricalSociety merits special consideration and appreciation for the transferal of theRutherford B. Hayes Governors Papers and pertinent Ohio Executive Departmentletterpress copy books relating to Rutherfords governorship to the HayesPresidential Center.
Thomas A. Smith
Curator of Manuscripts
The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center
January 7, 1983
List of Cooperating Institutions
A list of institutionswhich have provided The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center withphotocopies of Hayes material:
Alabama Department ofArchives
Albany Institute of History and Art
American Antiquarian Society
American Jewish Archives
American Philosophical Society
Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan
Boston Public Library
The Bostonian Society
Brigham Young University
Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society
Case Western Reserve University
Chattanooga Public Library
Chicago Historical Society
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Cincinnati Historical Society
Cincinnati Law Department
Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County
Cleveland Public Library
Clinch Valley College of the University of Virginia
Clyde (Ohio) Museum
Clyde Public Library
The Connecticut Historical Society
Connecticut State Library
Department of the Army, Hdqtrs. U.S.A. Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, NewJersey
Detroit Public Library
The Filson Club
The Henry E. Huntington Library
Illinois State Historical Society
Indiana Historical Society
Indiana State Library
Iowa State Department of History and Archives
Lancaster County (Pennsylvania) Historical Society
Library of Congress
Lincoln National Life Foundation
Litchfield (Connecticut) Historical Society
Maine Historical Society
Mansfield (Ohio) Public Library
Maryland Historical Society
Massachusetts Historical Society
Michigan State University
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States
Minneapolis Public Library
Minnesota Historical Society
Missouri Historical Society
Morristown National Historical Park
Nebraska State Historical Society
New Hampshire Historical Society
New Jersey Historical Society
New London (Ohio) Public Library
Museum of New Mexico
New York Historical Society
New York Public Library
New York State Library
New York State Library, SUNY, Department of Education
State of North Carolina, Department of Cultural Resources, Archives Branch
Ohio Historical Society
The Ohio State University
The Ontario County (New York) Historical Society
Historical Society of Pennsylvania
The Free Library of Philadelphia
Pierpont Morgan Library
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library
The Rosenberg Library
St. Johns Seminary, Camarillo, California
Sandusky County (Ohio) Courthouse
Seneca County (Ohio) Museum
The Smithsonian Institution
South Carolina Department of Archives and History
William Howard Taft Memorial Association
Tennessee Historical Society
Tennessee State Library and Archives
Texas State Library
Toledo-Lucas County (Ohio) Public Library
United States Military Academy
University of California at Berkeley
University of California at Los Angeles
University of Chicago
University of Illinois
University of Iowa
University of Michigan, William L. Clements Library
University of North Carolina
University of Oregon
University of Rochester
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
University of Virginia
Vermont Historical Society
Virginia Historical Society
Virginia State Library
State of Washington, Department of General Admission
The Washington State Historical Society
Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
West Virginia Department of Archives and History
West Virginia University
Western Kentucky University
Western Reserve Historical Society
William and Mary College
The State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Wyoming Historical and Genealogical Society, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
Yale University Law School
Rutherford B. Hayes Chronology
1822. October 4. Born inDelaware, Ohio, the last of five children of Rutherford and Sophia BirchardHayes.
1836. Enrolled in Norwalk(Ohio) Academy, a Methodist school run by Jonah Chaplin.
1837. Fall. Enrolled inIsaac Webbs Preparatory School in Middletown, Connecticut.
1838. Early November.Enrolled at Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio.
1842. August 3. Graduatedvaledictorian of his class.
1842. Fall. Beganstudying law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, brother of Dr. William Sparrow,president of Kenyon College.
1843. August 28. EnteredDane Law School at Harvard as a member of the middle class.
1845. March 10. Admittedto the Ohio bar at Marietta.
1845. August 27. Awardeda Bachelor of Laws degree from Harvard University.
1845-1849. Practiced lawin Lower Sandusky, now Fremont, Ohio.
1850-1861. Practicingattorney in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1852. December 30.Married Lucy Ware Webb, formerly of Chillicothe, Ohio.
1853. December 26.Established partnership in Cincinnati with Richard M. Corwine and William K.Rogers; law firm known as Corwine, Hayes and Rogers.
1856. Fall. Delegate tothe state Republican convention in Columbus; campaigned for John C. Fremont,the Republican nominee for President.
1858. December 9.Appointed City Solicitor by the Cincinnati City Council, incumbent Samuel Hartdied in office.
1859. April. Elected CitySolicitor, leading Republican ticket.
1861. April 1. Defeatedin his bid to be re-elected City Solicitor.
1861. April 15. Respondedto Lincolns call for volunteers by joining home guard unit.
1861. June 27.Commissioned a Major in the Twenty-Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
1861-1865. Distinguishedhimself as an able field commander in the campaigns of the Twenty-Third Ohio inwestern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley, rising to the rank of Brevet MajorGeneral of Volunteers.
1864. October 17. Electedto the House of Representatives (Thirty-Ninth Congress) from Ohios SecondDistrict.
1865. June 8. Resignedhis commission in the army to ready his affairs before taking his seat inCongress.
1865. December 4. Tookhis seat in the House of Representatives.
1866. October. Re-electedRepresentative to Fortieth Congress.
1867. June 19. Nominatedfor governor of Ohio on Union Party ticket.
1867. July 20. Resignedhis seat in Congress.
1867. October 8. Electedgovernor of Ohio, defeating Allen G. Thurman, the Democratic candidate.
1868. January 13.Inaugurated governor at Columbus.
1869. October 12.Re-elected governor, defeating Democratic Congressman George H. Pendleton bysome 7,500 votes.
1870. January 10.Inaugurated governor for the second time.
1872. January. Refusedoffer to run for the United State Senate against John Sherman.
1872. June. Delegate toRepublican National Convention in Philadelphia, where he served as a member ofthe platform committee.
1872. August 6. Reluctantlyaccepted the nomination for Congress from Republicans of Ohios SecondDistrict.
1872. October. Lost hisbid for Congress by 1,500 votes, running ahead of the Republican ticket.
1873. March. DeclinedPresident Grants appointment as Assistant United States Treasurer atCincinnati.
1873. May 3. Moved toFremont and settled at Spiegel Grove, avowing that he had retired frompolitics.
1874. January 21. SardisBirchard, his uncle, died, leaving bulk of his estate to Hayes, includingSpiegel Grove, his home in Fremont, Ohio.
1875. June 2. Nominatedby Republicans at state convention in Columbus to run for governor.
1875. October 12. Electedgovernor by 5,500 votes; name immediately mentioned as a presidentialpossibility.
1876. January 10.Inaugurated governor for an unprecedented third time.
1876. March 29. Selectedas favorite son candidate of Ohio delegates to the National Convention to beheld in Cincinnati.
1876. June 14-16.Nominated for President by the Republican National Convention on the seventhballot; William Almon Wheeler of New York chosen for Vice-President.
1876. November 7.Disputed election; Samuel J. Tilden one electoral vote shy of a majority with184; Hayes received 166 votes, with nineteen votes questioned.
1876-1877. November-February.Election controversy.
1877. January 26. TheElectoral Count Act passed by Congress, creating an Electoral Commissioncomposed of five Senators, five Representatives, and five Supreme CourtJustices.
1877. February 28.Electoral Commission awards last of contested electoral votes to Hayes, givinghim the presidency by the margin of one vote.
1877. March 1. Hayes andhis family start for Washington.
1877. March 2. Congressdeclares Hayes and Wheeler duly elected with 185 votes to 184 for Tilden andHendricks; Hayes resigns the governorship.
1877. March 3. ChiefJustice Morrison R. Waite privately administered oath of office to Hayes afterdinner at the Executive Mansion so the nation would have a President on Sunday,March 4.
1877. March 5. Publiclyinaugurated as the nineteenth President of the United States, stressing in hisinaugural address the importance of settling the Southern Problem.
1877. March 15. AppointedFrederick Douglass United States Marshal of the District of Columbia.
1877. April 24. Removedmilitary support from remaining two carpetbag governments in Louisiana andSouth Carolina, officially bringing Reconstruction to an end.
1877. June. Beginning ofwar with Nez Perc Indians and Chief Joseph.
1877. June 22. Civilservice reform implemented in the executive department by executive order.
1877. July. Great RailwayStrike, federal troops sent to four states to suppress the rioters.
1877. October. War withNez Perc Indians ended with surrender of Chief Joseph.
1877. October 6. Electedtrustee of the Peabody Education Fund.
1877. October 16.Appointed John Marshall Harlan of Kentucky to the Supreme Court.
1877. December 30.Celebrated Silver Wedding Anniversary in the White House.
1878. February 28. Vetoedthe Bland-Allison Act, Congress passing it over his veto the same day.
1878. July 11. SuspendedChester A. Arthur and Alonzo B. Cornell from the New York Customs House.
1878. September 28.Received first native Chinese ambassador, Chen Lan Pin, in Washington.
1879. March 1. VetoedChinese Exclusion Bill on the ground that it violated the Burlingame Treaty of1868.
1879. May 10. Firsttelephone placed in the White House.
1880. March 8. Specialmessage emphasizing American control of interoceanic canal sent to Congress.
1880. September-November.Made an extended tour of the western United States, first time a United StatesPresident went to the West Coast while still in office.
1880. November 17. Treatynegotiated with China giving the United States the right to supervise andlimit, but not prohibit, Chinese immigration.
1880. December 15.Appointed William Burnham Woods of Georgia to the Supreme Court.
1881. January 26.Appointed Stanley Matthews of Ohio to the Supreme Court.
1881. March 4. Retiredfrom the Presidency, returning to his Spiegel Grove estate in Fremont, Ohio.
1881. Spring. Appointed atrustee of the Western Reserve University; became more active in the affairs ofthe Peabody Fund.
1882. May 3. Joined theGrand Army of the Republic and Ohio and National Commandery of the MilitaryOrder of the Loyal Legion of the United States.
1882. May 18. Chosenfirst president of the John F. Slater Fund.
1883. September 7.Selected president of the National Prison Association.
1883. December. Appointeda trustee of Mount Union College.
1884. Appointed a trusteeof Ohio Wesleyan University.
1887. January. Appointeda trustee of The Ohio State University
1888. October 17. Chosencommander of the National Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion,a position he held until his death.
1889. June 25. Death ofhis wife, Lucy Webb Hayes, in Fremont.
1890. April-May. VisitedBermuda with his daughter Fanny.
1892. October 20. Namedpresident of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society.
1893. January 17. Died athis home in Fremont.
Rutherford BirchardHayes, the nineteenth President of the United States, was born in the smallcentral Ohio town of Delaware on October 4, 1822. Five years earlier, hisparents, Rutherford and Sophia Birchard Hayes, had migrated from Dummerston,Vermont, to a farm they acquired on the Ohio frontier. Several months beforethe future Presidents birth, his father died from a fever, leaving anexpectant wife with two young children, Lorenzo and Fanny Arabella.
The presence of herbachelor brother, Sardis Birchard, eased Sophias task of raising a family inthe West. He supplied paternal influence and guidance in the absence ofRutherfords father, but, in 1826, Sardis left the Hayes household in Delawareto become a prosperous pioneer merchant and Indian trader in Lower Sandusky,now Fremont, Ohio. Over the years, he would continue to help Hayes in hiseducation, legal career and business ventures. Sardis also would develop thebeautiful wooded Spiegel Grove estate which Hayes inherited upon his unclesdeath in January 1874.
Hayes grew up in thevillage of Delaware in a two-story brick house on the northeast corner ofWilliam and Winter Streets. Because of Rutherfords sickly nature and a drowningaccident in 1825 which claimed the life of his older brother Lorenzo, Sophiaattempted to protect her surviving son by shielding him from the outside world.This atmosphere engendered very close family ties for all concerned. From hismother, Ruddy received his intense pride and special feeling about his Yankeeor New England heritage. This sentiment prompted him years later to makeseveral journeys to his ancestral home and to trace the lineage of his family.His sister Fanny was a constant companion during childhood. Rutherfordsearliest recollections of her were as a nurse and protector when he was threeor four years old. Always a personal confidant until her death in 1856, Fanny,more than anyone else, was responsible for directing her brother down the pathwhich ultimately led him to the Presidency.
Sophia supplied the basicessentials of her sons education by teaching him to read, write and spell.From 1830 to 1835, he attended district school in Delaware. At Sardisinsistence, Hayes entered Norwalk Seminary in 1836. After spending a year atthis Methodist boarding school in Norwalk, Ohio, Rutherford did not want tofurther his education, but desired to emulate his uncles adventurous life inLower Sandusky. Sardis thought differently, however, and enrolled his nephew atIsaac Webbs Maple Grove Academy in Middletown, Connecticut. Hayes completedhis preparatory studies in 1838, and at the urging of his mother attendedKenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, instead of Yale, which his uncle had chosen. Duringhis four years there, the future president initiated many important lifelongfriendships with classmates such as Guy M. Bryan of Texas, Stanley Matthews andWilliam K. Rogers of Ohio. The young scholar manifested an interest inpolitics, displaying whiggish sentiments and enthusiastically engaging inpolitical debates as a member of the Philomathesian Society. He culminated hisillustrious college career by delivering the valedictory address at hiscommencement exercises in August 1842, and later would become a member of PhiBeta Kappa twenty-two years after Kenyon College was granted a charter in 1858.
While at Kenyon, Hayesdeveloped an interest in pursuing a legal career. In the fall of 1842, he beganto study law by reading Blackstones Commentaries in the office ofSparrow and Matthews in Columbus, Ohio. Unlike many of his contemporaries, theaspiring attorney decided to complete his preparations by attending law school.Consequently he enrolled at Dane Law School of Harvard University in the fallof 1843. Here the Kenyon graduate spent three terms studying under some of themost distinguished jurists of the day, including Simon Greenleaf and JusticeJoseph Story.
Rutherford returned toOhio in early 1845 and was admitted to the bar at Marietta on March 10. He thenestablished a law practice in Lower Sandusky, his uncles home. Although Sardiswas in need of constant legal advice, his nephew could not secure enough workto keep himself busy. Hoping to rectify this unfortunate situation, he formed apartnership, in early 1846, with Ralph Pomeroy Buckland, a prominent attorneyin the town. Even with a partner, Hayes did not find practicing law in LowerSandusky to his liking. Routine legal matters could not compete with theexcitement generated by the outbreak of hostilities between the United Statesand Mexico. Thinking that a soldierly life would strengthen his constitution,in June of 1847 he traveled to Cincinnati in hopes of securing an appointmentas an officer in some volunteer company. During the course of his journey, hestopped in Delaware and Columbus to visit with his mother and sister. It was onthis brief sojourn that he met Lucy Ware Webb, who in 1852 would become hiswife.
In Cincinnati localphysicians advised the potential warrior against going to Mexico for reasons ofhealth. So instead of joining the army, he made a lengthy trip to New Englandwith his cousin John Rutherford Pease.Hayes returned to Lower Sandusky in the fall of 1847 with his health muchimproved, and immediately involved himself with matters relating to civicimprovements and politics. A Whig like his uncle, he helped to campaign forZachary Taylor in 1848, and was placed on that partys central committee forSandusky County in 1847.
During December 1848,Rutherford Hayes and Sardis Birchard set out for Texas to visit the formersKenyon College classmate, Guy M. Bryan. They did not return to Lower Sanduskyuntil the end of April 1849. The three and one-half months Rutherford spent inTexas had a profound impact in shaping his views towards the South and wouldprove important in later years. Southern society fascinated the Ohio Whig, andhis reception in Texas convinced him that honorable men could overcomesectional differences.
Several trips toCincinnati had prompted Hayes to consider moving to the Wests largest and mostactive city, where the prospects seemed brighter for a promising young lawyer.Upon his return from Texas, he dissolved his partnership with Ralph P.Buckland, but the cholera epidemic of the summer of 1849 prevented hisimmediate removal to the Queen City. Before leaving for his new home, Hayesplayed an important role in changing the name of Lower Sandusky to Fremont inhonor of the Pathfinder, John Charles Fremont.
Arriving in Cincinnati inDecember 1849, the young lawyer rented one-half of an office in the LawBuilding on Third Street. He spent his first years in Cincinnati building hislaw practice, appearing at social functions and making new friends. He soonbecame a member of the recently organized Literary Club of Cincinnati and theOdd Fellows, the only secret organization he ever joined. Rutherford alsoattended meetings of the Sons of Temperance, frequently giving addresses thereand elsewhere. He gained public attention in Cincinnati in 1852 when he wasappointed to handle the criminal case of Samuel Cunningham, a young man accusedof grand larceny.
Even though the courtsentenced Cunningham to three years in prison, Hayes performed well enough towin appointment to assist in the defense of the accused murderess Nancy Farrer.His approach to this case was a claim of insanity for the defendant, and he wona new trial and eventual acquittal on the grounds that Farrer was of unsoundmind. The woman was confined to a mental institution and Hayes reputationrose considerably. Concurrent association with the spectacular murder trials ofJames Summons and Henry LeCount further enhanced his standing in the legalprofession.
Almost immediately aftersetting up his law practice, Rutherford began to call on Lucy Webb. Thedaughter of Maria Cook and Dr. James Webb, Lucy (1831-1889) was a devout andunusually well-educated young lady for her day. She had attended the femaleacademy of Ohio Wesleyan College in Delaware before enrolling at the WesleyanFemale College in Cincinnati, from which she graduated in June 1850. Diarynotations reveal his growing attraction to the young girl whom he had metseveral years earlier at the sulphur spring in Delaware, Ohio. After acourtship of nearly two years, Rutherford and Lucy married on December 30,1852. Their union was blessed with eight children, five of whom lived toadulthood: Birchard Austin (1853-1926); Webb Cook (1856-1934); Rutherford Platt(1858-1927); Fanny (1867-1950); and Scott Russell (1871-1923). Three children,all boys, died in infancy.
Before the year 1853 wasover, Hayes argued two cases before the Ohio Supreme Court, those involvingNancy Farrer and James Summons. In December of that year, he and his KenyonCollege classmate, William K. Rogers, joined the law firm of Corwine, Smith andHolt. Under this new arrangement, Rutherford received one-third interest in andprofit from the new firm of Corwine, Hayes and Rogers. Because of poor health,Rogers left the firm in 1856 to go to Minnesota. When he failed to return fromhis leave of absence he was dropped from the firm.
Local events inCincinnati inspired Hayes to become increasingly active in the legal aspects offugitive slave matters, and he freely offered his services in the aid of runawayslaves and their friends. In March 1855, he became involved in the case ofRosetta Armstrong, a black woman facing trial under the Fugitive Slave Act. Hismasterly defense resulted in the young womans freedom. Although he was lookedupon as a defender of fugitive slaves, Hayes did not welcome the notorietyassociated with these cases.
While advancing his legalcareer in Cincinnati, Hayes gradually immersed himself in local and nationalpolitics. In 1856 he enthusiastically campaigned for the Republicanpresidential candidate, John C. Fremont. By 1858 he had become stronglyassociated with the Republican cause in the Queen City. In December of thatsame year, a divided City Council selected Hayes by a margin of just one voteto fill the vacancy of City Solicitor. This first public office came as aresult of a compromise when a single Democrat joined forces with Republicansand Know-Nothings to provide the decisive vote on the thirteenth ballot.Shortly after his appointment Hayes dissolved his partnership with Richard M.Corwine.
The new City Solicitorserved for two years, winning election in his own right in April 1859. Hisexcellent record did not prevent him from being a victim of local reaction tothe secession crisis. In April 1861 a coalition of Democrats and Know-Nothingsdefeated him and the rest of the Republican slate. He returned to private lawpractice in partnership with Leopold Markbreit, but the flow of national eventsmade the association of short duration. After President Lincolns call forvolunteers, Rutherford quickly joined a company of home guards composed ofmembers of his literary club. He later offered his services to Governor WilliamDennison, who appointed him Major in a newly formed regiment, the Twenty-ThirdOhio Volunteer Infantry.
The new Major spent thefirst months of the war at Camp Chase outside Columbus attending to routinemilitary matters. Because of his legal training and his reputation, he servedfor a time in the capacity of judge advocate general on the field headquartersstaff of General William S. Rosecrans in Virginia. Promotion to the rank ofLieutenant Colonel on October 24, 1861, placed Hayes second in command of theTwenty-Third O.V.I. He soon assumed de facto command of the regiment andwithin a year earned the grade of Colonel of the Twenty-Third Ohio. Two yearslater, October 19, 1864, he achieved the rank of Brigadier General ofVolunteers for gallantry and distinguished service in the Shenandoah Valleycampaign of 1864. A final promotion, Brevet Major General of Volunteers, becameeffective March 13, 1865. Although Hayes never participated in battle as ageneral, he gained distinction and the confidence of his men as one of thegood colonels and regimental commanders.
Hayes and theTwenty-Third Volunteer Infantry operated for most of the war in the ruggedmountain terrain of western Virginia. His first combat came in August 1861 atthe Battle of Carnifax Ferry. In September 1862 during the Antietam campaign,Hayes played an important role in the Union victory at South Mountain. In thecourse of the action, he sustained a wound in his left arm above the elbow.Both he and his regiment won the praise of their superior officers for theirgallant actions under extremely heavy enemy fire.
Their major activity ofthe following year was to participate in the pursuit of Confederate GeneralJohn Hunt Morgan and his band of raiders in Ohio. During Sheridans 1864campaign, Hayes and the Twenty-Third Ohio saw some of the heaviest fighting ofthe war. After participating in the earlier engagements of Cloyds Mountain,New River Bridge, and Lexington, he and his men fought successive battles inthe Shenandoah Valley at Lynchburg, Winchester, Berryville, Opequan, FishersHill, and Cedar Creek. During this last engagement, he helped to rally thefederal troops and saved the day for General Philip H. Sheridan. While in theValley, Hayes acquired a deep admiration for General George Crook, thecommander of the Army of West Virginia.
Like many of hiscontemporaries, Hayes would find positive features in his military service.Even though he had several horses shot beneath him and was wounded on fourdifferent occasions, the vigorous wartime experiences helped to improve hishealth. The injury to his left arm proved annoying in later life, but it wasnot incapacitating. The war would help to shape his views towards the South bymaking him aware of the immense task of reconstructing and restoring thedefeated section. While in the army he formed many lasting friendships andassociations and developed a deep respect and love for his fellow comrades inarms. These attitudes would prove useful in postwar political contests, forHayes could legitimately claim support as the soldiers friend. Lucy Hayes,in ministering to the needs of the sick and wounded during many camp visits,also won the admiration of the troops. In later years, she and Rutherfordenjoyed attending soldiers reunions. The former commander activelyparticipated in a variety of post-Civil War military organizations such as theGrand Army of the Republic, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of theUnited States, and the Society of the Army of West Virginia.
In October of 1864, thecitizens of the Second Congressional District in Cincinnati rewarded Hayes forhis meritorious and gallant service by electing him to Congress. The nominationresulted from the efforts of William Henry Smith, who later would help himsecure other nominations. Even though going to Congress was one of hisambitions, the Colonel refused to leave active military duty to campaign forhis election. He professed the view that An officer fit for duty who at thiscrisis would abandon his post to electioneer for a seat in Congress ought to bescalped. During his brief tenure in the Thirty-Ninth and Fortieth Congresses,March 4, 1865 to October 31, 1867, Congressman Hayes enjoyed his services aschairman of the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress. As a party regular,he voted for the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, supported theCongressional plan for Reconstruction, and favored the full payment of thepublic debt created during the war.
Although he rarelydeviated from the Republican party line, he had misgivings about the harsheraspects of the Radical Republican program. The bitterness of the divisiveCongressional debates at that time greatly disturbed him. His solution to thethorny problem of suffrage was a universal education qualification to confervoting rights in state and national elections. On a December 1866 Southernexcursion with several other members of Congress, Hayes gained a much betterunderstanding of the problems of the postwar South.
Shortly after he had beenre-elected to a second term, Congressman Hayes admitted to his uncle that hewas not suited for the life of a legislator in Washington. He spent most of histime administering to the needs of his constituents and taking care of pensionclaims and other matters relating to soldiers. He rarely attended any of thesocial functions in the nations capital.
Acceptance of theRepublican candidacy for the office of governor of Ohio in June 1867 offeredhim a creditable excuse for exit from Congress. He owed his nomination both tothe machinations of William Henry Smith and to the controversy over Negro suffrage.To secure the passage of a state constitutional amendment guaranteeing Negroesthe right to vote, Ohio Republicans needed a strong candidate for governor.Unimpeachable character and morals, a distinguished war record, and the factthat he was not too closely identified with the Radicals made Hayes an idealcandidate. In the ensuing election, he defeated a formidable Democraticopponent, Allan G. Thurman, by less than 3,000 votes. At the same time, Ohiovoters rejected the state amendment guaranteeing Negro suffrage by 38,000votes.
Inaugurated on January13, 1868, the Governor renewed his stand for equal voting rights and fought theproposed Democratic repeal of Ohios assent to the fourteenth amendment. InJune 1869 the state Republican convention in Columbus renominated Hayes byacclamation. Campaigning in favor of the ratification of the fifteenthamendment and a sound fiscal policy based on hard currency, he defeated GeorgeH. Pendleton of Cincinnati, the Democratic challenger, by some 7,500 votes.When he later assessed his first two terms as governor of Ohio (1868-1872),Hayes listed the following as among his most notable accomplishments: theinitiation of a state geological survey; the states assumption of control of asoldiers and sailors home in Xenia, Ohio; the establishment of anagricultural and mechanical college which later became known as The Ohio StateUniversity; the implementation of reforms in the states penal and mentalinstitutions; and Ohios ratification of the fifteenth amendment and otherNegro suffrage legislation. He also took great pride in his efforts to preserveOhios historical heritage.
After holding electiveoffice for more than seven years, Governor Hayes yearned for the opportunity toretire from public life. He refused to run for an unprecedented third term anddeclined an offer from a group of insurgent Republicans in January 1872 tocontest the Senate seat held by John Sherman. In May he attended the LiberalRepublican Convention in Cincinnati as a casual observer. Although dissatisfiedwith Grants record as President and sympathetic with this reform movementscause, he remained a party regular. As a delegate to the Republican NationalConvention, he supported Grants renomination.
That fall the formergovernor reluctantly ran for Congress in Cincinnatis upper middle-class SecondDistrict, where political leaders feared a swing to the LiberalRepublican-Democratic coalition led by Horace Greeley. Although he outpolledthe local Republican ticket, he lost in his bid for a third Congressional term.As a reward for his party loyalty, President Grant offered him the position ofAssistant United States Treasurer at Cincinnati. Disdaining any furtherconnections with current politics, he politely declined the appointment.
Assuring himself that hewas finished with politics for good, Hayes and his family moved to Fremont,Ohio, in May 1873. With Spiegal Grove as his home, he settled down to enjoy theleisurely life of a country squire. During these years of political repose,Rutherford busied himself with such matters as caring for his ailing uncle,improving his estate, founding the Birchard Public Library and Sandusky CountyPioneer and Historical Association in Fremont, and developing his landinvestments. Republican reverses in 1873 and 1874, however, cut short hisretirement to private life. He yielded to his partys call and accepted theRepublican nomination for governor on June 2, 1875. Carefully handling culturalissues such as parochial education while adhering to sound money principles, hedefeated the incumbent Democrat William Allen to become Ohios first three-termgovernor.
Political victory in 1875brought Hayes national attention as a possible presidential candidate in 1876.Not only did the governor-elect consider the possibility in his diary, butfriends also started to work for his nomination. In the fall of 1875, he wentto Pennsylvania on an extended political trip, and in January 1876, SenatorJohn Sherman and William Henry Smith publicly began to promote him as thestates favorite son. On March 29, the Ohio Republican Convention unanimouslyendorsed their Governor for President. At the 1876 Republican NationalConvention held in Cincinnati, Governor Hayes was one of nine candidates vyingfor the top spot on the ticket. His advisers let the forces of Benjamin H.Bristow lead the fight against the pre-convention favorite, James G. Blaine.This strategy allowed Hayes to edge Maines Plumed Knight on the seventhballot as a compromise candidate. To balance the ticket, the conventionselected William A. Wheeler, a New York Congressman, as the partysvice-presidential choice.
In his letter ofacceptance, Governor Hayes stressed the need for civil service reform in thefederal government, reconciliation between the North and the South, soundcurrency, and a single presidential term. With remarkable confidence in hispartys prospects, the Ohio governor stayed in Columbus performing his normalduties and keeping in contact with both national and local Republican leaders.Consistent with the views expressed in his written statement, he took a strongstand against soliciting campaign contributions from party regulars who heldgovernment jobs. Although this stance alienated certain Stalwarts, it appealedto reform-minded citizens. The candidate maintained both his sound moneyprinciples and his temperance beliefs during the campaign, but refrained fromusing them as major issues in order not to offend potential Greenbackers andanti-prohibitionists.
In late October, Hayesrecorded in his diary his concern over a contested election. The Novemberresults proved that these fears were well-founded. Although the Democraticcandidates, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks, appeared to receive aplurality of the popular vote in excess of 250,000, the Republicans challengedthe electoral count for nineteen votes in three contested states, Florida,Louisiana, and South Carolina. The Democrats responded by challenging one ofOregons electoral votes. The climax to the strangest and most controversialelection in our nations history came when a special commission, created byCongress for deciding the vote, resolved to award all the contested electoralvotes to Hayes.
The margin of victory wasby one electoral vote, 185 to 184, and the final result was announced only twodays prior to Inauguration Day. Governor Hayes was enroute to Washington whenhe received the news. At the urging of the Secretary of State, Hamilton Fish,he took the oath of office from Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite at a privatedinner party given by the Grants on March 3 to forestall the dangers of aninterregnum. Since the traditional inaugural day of March 4 fell on a Sunday,Hayes held the public inauguration on Monday, March 5, on the steps of theCapitol. Before a crowd of 30,000 spectators he became the nineteenth Presidentof the United States.
Although Rutherford B.Hayes occupied the Executive Mansion for only four years, 1877-1881, hisPresidency signaled an end to the excesses of the Grant era. He followed hismaxim, He serves his party best, who serves his country best. In manyrespects the new administration reversed the erosion of executive power whichhad occurred during the Johnson and Grant years. In advancing the cause of civilservice reform and adhering to campaign promises of a single term, Hayes helpedto restore peoples confidence in the Chief of State. The President jealouslyguarded the executive appointment and pardoning prerogatives in bitter clasheswith the Senate. His relatively successful use of the veto, especially againstlegislative riders to appropriation bills, enhanced the power and prestige ofthe Presidency. Resistance to senatorial pressures for the appointment of partyfavorites allowed Hayes to assemble a distinguished and capable cabinet. Hisoriginal cabinet officers included Charles Devens, Attorney General; William M.Evarts, Secretary of State; David M. Key, Postmaster General; George W.McCrary, Secretary of War; John Sherman, Secretary of the Treasury; CarlSchurz, Secretary of the Interior; and Richard W. Thompson, Secretary of theNavy. Nathan Goff, Jr., Horace Maynard, and Alexander Ramsey later joined theHayes cabinet holding the respective posts as Secretary of the Navy, PostmasterGeneral, and Secretary of War.
During his term of officeHayes not only had to contend with a hostile and largely Democratic Congress,but also had to face questions regarding the legitimacy of his title to thePresidency. The most important challenge came from the Potter Commission of1878. The President remained supremely confident of his position, and just ashe expected, the investigation boomeranged on its Democratic investigators.Wholesale Democratic frauds were revealed and published in the press in theform of decoded cipher telegrams. The President interpreted the campaign of1880 as a final vindication, since the Democrats passed over Governor Tilden;and the Republican victor, James Garfield, had been closely associated with theHayes side of the election controversy.
The Great RailwayStrike and the accompanying riots during the summer of 1877 presented a majortest to the new administration. President Hayes had to exert his authority ascommander-in-chief of the military forces by responding to requisitions forfederal troops in states where the governors were not able to maintain orderwith state militia. His decision to answer governors requests by the use offederal force, where necessary, set a precedent for future federal strikepolicy where the national government assumed the protection of private propertyas well as public property. Hayes, while willing to limit the violent actionsof the workers, also expressed the belief that judicious control ofcapitalists combined with education of the strikers might provide a realremedy to the emerging problems of industrialization.
In the realm of Southernaffairs, Hayes attempted to implement a program based on the principles ofcooperation and conciliation, as expressly set forth in his inaugural address.As evidence of his good intentions, in April 1877, he withdrew military supportfrom the two remaining carpetbag governments in Louisiana and South Carolina.Initially he favored a national program of internal improvements for the South.In hopes of broadening the Republican base of support in the South, heappointed several southern Democrats, such as David M. Key of Tennessee, toimportant federal positions, and made several well-publicized trips to Dixie.However, this much criticized departure from traditional Republican policyfloundered on the rock of Southern intransigence.
The President devotedconsiderable time attempting to solve the nations economic and monetaryproblems. A staunch opponent of free and unlimited coinage of silver, he advocateda financial program embracing the economic doctrines of strict adherence to thegold standard and the resumption of specie payments. Hayes worked with histrusted friend and adviser, Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, to achievethese goals. Under Shermans astute guidance, specie payments were resumed inJanuary 1879. Although overridden, the President took pride in his veto of theBland-Allison Silver Purchase Act in February 1878. He credited the economicupswing after the five year depression of 1873 to his financial policies.
Two other areas whichclaimed a major share of President Hayes attention were Indian relations andforeign affairs. With the aid of Carl Schurz, the Secretary of the Interior,the administration departed from traditional treatment of the American Indian.Hayes regarded all American Indians as citizens rather than aliens or wardsand stressed the need for Indian education. Schurz, a fiery German-bornliberal, initiated needed reforms in the Indian service, and thwarted amovement to transfer control of the Bureau of Indian Affairs back to the WarDepartment. Hayes and Schurz laid the groundwork for future Indian policy. Onereally serious difficulty in the administrations Indian program was theremoval of the Poncas. This problem, inherited from the Grant government,plagued Hayes throughout his term.
In the arena of foreignaffairs, the President and his Secretary of State, William M. Evarts, tried toincrease the professionalism of the diplomatic corps by reorgainizing theDepartment of State and promoting career officers whenever possible. Theadministration actively encouraged American trade and commerce abroad andasserted the right of the United States to intervene in matters involving aninteroceanic canal. Hayes and Evarts followed a generally conciliatory foreignpolicy, and finally recognized the Diaz regime in Mexico and received the firstChinese minister to the United States. Both actions relieved potentialdiplomatic problem areas, as did the veto of the Chinese Exclusion Act on March1, 1879. An additional point of interest was Hayes service as arbiter of aboundary dispute between Paraguay and Argentina.
Another important facetof President Hayes four years in office was the amount of time he spent travelingthroughout the United States. Called Rutherford the Rover by his detractors,Hayes made four extended trips and numerous shorter junkets while he wasPresident. Included in his travels were official visits to New England, theSouth, the Midwest, and the West. His Great Western Tour of 1880 marked thefirst time a United States President had visited the West Coast while still inoffice. Hayes looked upon these trips as an effective means by which to promoteunity, to dispel dissension, and to restore harmony in a nation which had beenbadly divided by the Civil War.
In his personal life aswell as his political activities, Hayes offered something of a contrast to hishard-drinking predecessor. Despite their controversial abolition of wine in theWhite House, the first family managed to entertain with both elegance andvariety during their four years in Washington. In fact, these functionshighlighted the Washington social season. As part of his civil service reform,Rutherford Hayes refused to appoint relatives to government posts, and did notseek to turn any private profit from his political positions. The Presidentpersonally displayed the model virtues of the best side of the Victorian era -hard work, modesty and sobriety, and integrity - as an example to the Americanpeople.
With the accession topower of James A. Garfield on March 4, 1881, Rutherford B. Hayes retired fromthe Presidency. Having looked forward to a return to private life and theirhome in Fremont, both Rutherford and Lucy were glad their four years inWashington had come to an end. However, Hayes quickly became one of the mostactive ex-Presidents the country has ever known, following his own advice thata former President should like every good American citizen, be willing andprompt to bear his part in every useful work that will promote the welfare andhappiness of his family, his town, his state, and his country.
Dedicated to serving thepublic as a private citizen and philanthropist, the ex-President deliverednumerous speeches and patriotic addresses; championed many educational,humanitarian, and reform causes; and once again became active in the affairs ofFremont. Continuing to manifest an interest in education, Hayes served astrustee of The Ohio State University, Western Reserve University, Ohio WesleyanUniversity, and Mount Union College. He was an avid supporter of industrial ormanual arts training and an advocate of universal education. He saw the formeras a means for all classes of people to develop character and self-reliance,while the latter offered the best way to eliminate social injustice and advancesocial harmony in American life. As a promoter of Negro education, Hayes servedas trustee and chairman of the executive committee of the Peabody Education Fundand as the first president of the John F. Slater Fund. He participated in theLake Mohonk conference on Indian problems and in 1890 and 1891 presided overtwo similar conferences which focused on the Negro. The National PrisonAssociation selected Hayes, long a champion of prison reform, as its secondpresident. In addition, he served as president of the Ohio State Archaeologicaland Historical Society, Ohio and national commander of the Military Order ofthe Loyal Legion, and president of the Twenty-Third Ohio Volunteer InfantryAssociation.
Lucys death, on June 25,1889, saddened the final years of his life. Hayes remained active until earlyJanuary 1893, when he was stricken with severe chest pains while on business inCleveland. He insisted on returning home to Fremont where, on January 17, hequietly passed away in his beloved Spiegel Grove home. In a manner befitting aformer President, Rutherford B. Hayes was laid to rest in Fremonts OakwoodCemetery beside his beloved Lucy. Former President and President-elect GroverCleveland, Governor William McKinley, and the entire Ohio State LegislativeAssembly attended the funeral ceremonies.
In April 1915, theremains of the former President and Mrs. Hayes were removed to a knoll withinthe wooded grounds of Spiegel Grove. The site, which was designated as a statememorial, is marked by a granite monument designed by President Hayes in 1889and quarried from the ancestral farm in Dummerston, Vermont.
Allen, Walter. Two Yearsof President Hayes. The Atlantic Monthly, XLIV (August, 1879), 190-199.
Barnard, Harry. RutherfordB. Hayes and His America. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1954.
Bassett, John S. TheSignificance of the Administration of Rutherford B. Hayes. The SouthAtlantic Quarterly, XI, 3 (July, 1918), 198-206.
Beatty, Bess. A Revolution Gone Backward: The BlackResponse to the Hayes Administration. Hayes Historical Journal, IV, 1(Spring, 1983), 5-23.
Benedict, Michael Les. Southern Democrats in the Crisis of1876-1877: A Reconsideration of Reunionand Reaction. Journal of Southern History, XLVI, 4 (November,1980), 489-524.
Bishop, Arthur, ed. Rutherford B. Hayes, 1822-1893:Chronology-Documents-Bibliographical Aids. Dobbs Ferry, New York: OceanaPublications, Inc., 1969.
Brown, Wenzell. Hayes: The Forgotten President. TheAmerican Mercury. LXVIII, 302 (February, 1949), 168-177.
Burgess, John W. The Administration of President Hayes.New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1916.
Chandler, William E. Letters of Mr. William E. ChandlerRelative to the So-Called Southern Policy of President Hayes, Together with aLetter to Mr. Chandler of Mr. William Lloyd Garrison. Concord, NewHampshire: Monitor and Statesman Office, 1878.
Conwell, Russell H. Life and Public Services of Gov.Rutherford B. Hayes. Boston: B.B. Russell, 1876.
Cotner, Robert C. and Marchman, Watt P., eds.Correspondence of Guy M. Bryan and Rutherford B. Hayes: Additional Letters. OhioState Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, LXIII, 4 (October, 1954),349-377.
Cox, Jacob Donaldson. The Hayes Administration. TheAtlantic Monthly. LXXI (June, 1893), 818-832.
Coyle, Leo P. Howells Campaign Biography of Rutherford B.Hayes: A Series of Letters Edited by Leo P. Coyle. Ohio HistoricalQuarterly. LXVI, 4 (October, 1957), 390-406.
Davison, Kenneth E. The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes.Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Inc., 1972.
______ . Travels of President Rutherford B. Hayes. OhioHistory, LXXX, 1 (Winter, 1971), 60-72.
De Santis, Vincent P. President Hayes Southern Policy. TheJournal of Southern History, XXI, 1 (February, 1955), 476-494.
______ . Rutherford B. Hayes and the Removal of the Troopsand the End of Reconstruction, in E. Morgan Kousser and James M. McPherson,eds., Region, Race, and Reconstruction (New York: Oxford UniversityPress, 1982), 417-450.
Eckenrode, H.J. Rutherford B. Hayes: Statesman of Reunion.New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1930.
Ewing, Elbert William R. History and Law of the Hayes-TildenContest before the Electoral Commission: The Florida Case, 1876-77.Washington, D.C.: Cobden Publishing Company, 1910.
Farnum, George F. Rutherford B. Hayes in War and Peace. AmericanBar Association Journal (August, 1943), 435-436, 474.
Finkenbine, Roy E. A Little Circle: White Philanthropistsand Black Industrial Education in the Postbellum South. Ph.D. dissertation:Bowling Green State University, 1982.
Garrison, Curtis W, ed. Conversations with Hayes: ABiographers Notes. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXV, 3(December, 1938), 369-380.
______ . President Hayes: The Opponent of Prohibition. TheHistorical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin, XVI(July-October, 1944), 164-177.
______. Rutherford B. Hayes and The Ohio State University.Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, LV, 3(July-September, 1946), 295-296.
______ . Slater Fund Beginnings: Letters from General AgentAtticus G. Haygood to Rutherford B. Hayes. The Journal of Southern History,V (1939), 223-253.
Geer, Emily. Lucy Webb Hayes: An Unexceptional Woman.Ph.D. dissertation: Western Reserve University, 1962.
Gerry, Margarita S. Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House:Reminiscences of William H. Crook. Century Magazine, LXXVII (March, 1909),643-665.
General Rutherford B. Hayes, (Commander-in-Chief of theMilitary Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States). The UnitedService, VI, 1 New Series (July, 1891), 105-109.
Gillette, William. Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869-1879.Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.
Gladden, Washington. Rutherford Birchard Hayes. OhioArchaeological and Historical Quarterly, IV (1895), 338-361.
Gruener, Claude M. Rutherford B. Hayes Horseback RideThrough Texas. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, LXVIII, 3(January, 1965), 352-360.
Hart, Amos W. The Case Between the PresidentialCandidates. Statement of Controversies Respecting the Presidential Vote in theStates of Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Oregon, RhodeIsland, South Carolina, Virginia and Vermont. Together with Verbatim Copies ofthe Statutes of Said States Under Which the Controversies Have Arisen, and byWhich They Are to be Decided. Washington: J.L. Ginck, 1876.
Haworth, Paul Leland. The Hayes-Tilden DisputedPresidential Election of 1876. Cleveland: The Burrows Brothers Company,1906.
Hendricks, Gordon. The Eakins Portrait of Rutherford B.Hayes. American Art Journal (Spring, 1969), 104-114.
Hickerson, Frank R. The Educational Contribution ofRutherford B. Hayes. Northwest Ohio Quarterly, XXXIII, 1 (Winter,1960-61), 46-53.
Hill, Frederick T. Decisive Battles of the Law: TheHayes-Tilden Contest, A Political Arbitration. Harpers Monthly, CXIV(March, 1907), 557-567.
House, Albert V., Jr. President Hayes Selection of DavidM. Key for Postmaster General. The Journal of Southern History, IV, 1(February, 1938), 87-93.
Howard, J.Q. The Life Public Services and Select Speechesof Rutherford B. Hayes. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1876.
Howells, William Dean, Sketch of the Life and Characterof Rutherford B. Hayes. New York; Hurd and Houghton, 1876.
Hugh, Edward A. President Rutherford Birchard Hayes: CivilService Reformer. Ph.D. dissertation: Western Reserve University, 1962.
Keeler, Lucy Elliot. The Centenary Celebration of theBirth of Rutherford Birchard Hayes at Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio, October 4,1922. Columbus, Ohio: The F.J. Heer Printing Co., 1923.
Krebs, Frank J. Hayes and the South. Ph.D. dissertation:The Ohio State University, 1950.
Lewis, William R. The Hayes Administration and Mexico. TheSouthwestern Historical Quarterly, XXIV, 2 (October, 1920), 140-153.
MacDonald, Curtis C. Ansequago, A Biography of Sardis Birchard. Ph.D. dissertation: Western ReserveUniversity, 1958.
McFeeley, William. Grant: A Biography. New York: W.W.Norton & Co., 1981.
Marchman, Watt P., ed. The Memoirs of Thomas Donaldson. HayesHistorical Journal, II, 3-4 (Spring/Fall, 1979), 151-265.
Monroe, James. The Hayes-Tilden Electoral Commission. TheAtlantic Monthly, LXXII (October, 1893), 521-538.
Morgan, H. Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National PartyPolitics, 1877-1896. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1969.
Myers, Elisabeth P. Rutherford B. Hayes. Chicago:Reily & Lee, 1969.
Ohio History (Rutherford B. Hayes Special Edition),LXXVII, 1, 2 and 3 (Winter, Spring and Summer, 1968).
Palmer, Upton S. A Historical and Critical Study of theSpeeches of Rutherford B. Hayes with an Appended Edition of His Addresses.Ph.D. dissertation: University of Michigan, 1950.
Parker, Wyman W. President Hayess Graduation Speeches. TheOhio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, LXIII, 2 (April, 1954),135-146.
Peskin, Allan. Was There a Compromise of 1877? Journal ofAmerican History, LX, 1 (June, 1973), 63-75.
Polakoff, Keith Ian. The Politics of Inertia: TheElection of 1876 and the End of Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: LouisianaState University Press, 1973.
Rable, George C. Southern Interests and the Election of1876: A Reappraisal. Civil War History, XXVI, 4 (December, 1980),347-361.
Rhodes, James Ford. President Hayes Administration in theLight of Thirty Years. Century Magazine, LXXVIII (October, 1909),883-891.
Richardson, Lyon N. and Garrison, Curtis W., eds. GeorgeWilliam Curtis, Rutherford B. Hayes and Civil Service Reform. MississippiValley Historical Review, XXXII, 2 (September, 1945), 235-250.
Robinson, Lloyd. The Stolen Election; Hayes Versus Tilden- 1876. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1968.
Rogers, Joseph M. How Hayes Became President. McCluresMagazine, XXIII, 1 (May, 1904), 76-88.
Rubin, Louis D., Jr. Teach the Freeman: TheCorrespondence of Rutherford B. Hayes and the Slater Fund for Negro Education,1877-1887. 2 vols. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
Schwarz, John. The Hayes-Conkling Political Conflict.Unpublished manuscript. (Available at The Rutherford B. Hayes PresidentialCenter).
Severn, William. Samuel J. Tilden and the Stolen Election.New York: Ives Washburn, 1968.
Shores, Venila L. The Hayes-Conkling Controversy,1877-1879. Northampton, Massachusetts: Department of History of SmithCollege, 1919.
Stapleton, Darwin H. An Assessment of HistoriansPerspectives of Rutherford B. Hayes. Northwest Ohio Quarterly, XLIV, 4(Fall, 1972), 75-84.
Sternstein, Jerome L. The Sickles Memorandum: Another Lookat the Hayes-Tilden Election-Night Conspiracy. The Journal of SouthernHistory, XXXII, 3 (August, 1966), 342-357.
Swint, Henry L. Rutherford B. Hayes, Educator. TheMississippi Valley Historical Review, XXXIX, 1 (June, 1952), 45-60.
Thelen, David P. Rutherford B. Hayes and the ReformTradition in the Gilded Age. American Quarterly, XXII, 2, pt. 1(Summer, 1970), 150-165.
Trefousse, Hans L. Carl Schurz: A Biography.Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982.
Vaughan, Harold Cecil. The Hayes-Tilden Election of 1876:A Disputed Presidential Election in the Gilded Age. New York: FranklinWatts, Inc., 1972.
Vazzano, Frank P. Hayes, Congress, and the Resurrection ofPresidential Authority. Ph.D. dissertation; Kent State University, 1972.
Watterson, Henry. The Hayes-Tilden Contest for thePresidency: Inside History of a Great Political Crisis. Century Magazine,LXXXVI, 3 (June, 1913), 3-20.
Williams, Charles Richard. Diary and Letters ofRutherford B. Hayes, Nineteenth President of the United States. 5 vols.Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, 1922-1926.
______ . The Life of Rutherford Birchard Hayes,Nineteenth President of the United States. 2 vols. Columbus, Ohio: OhioState Archaeological and Historical Society, 1928.
Williams, Ora. Iowa and the Making of a President. Annalsof Iowa, XXXII, 3rd Series, 7 (January, 1955), 507-514.
Williams, T. Harry. Hayes of the Twenty-Third: The CivilWar Volunteer Officer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965.
______ . Hayes; The Diary of a President, 1875-1881.New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1964.
Winkler, Ernest W., ed. The Hayes-Bryan Correspondence. TheSouthwestern Historical Quarterly, XXV-XXX (October, 1921 to July, 1930).
Wittke, Carl F. Carl Schurz and Rutherford B. Hayes. TheOhio Historical Quarterly, LXV, 4 (October, 1956), 337-355.
Woodward, C. Vann. Reunion and Reaction; The Compromiseof 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. Boston: Little, Brown and Company,1951.
______ . Yes, There Was a Compromise of 1877. Journalof American History, LX, 1 June, 1973), 215-223.
Hayes & Webb Family Genealogies
Although Rutherford B. Hayes collected miscellaneousmaterials relating to his own and Lucy Webb Hayes ancestors throughout most ofhis life, his gubernatorial years represent the period of greatest activity inthis endeavor. Since the executive duties of a governor in post-bellum Ohiowere less than demanding, Hayes was able to invest much of his surplus time andenergy in genealogical research. He compiled much of the information he foundon the Hayes and Webb families in two small journals or notebooks and madenumerous miscellaneous notes on specific family members or family lines.
It was on an extended trip to New England in 1870 thatRutherford acquired a good portion of the material in this series. Some of thenotes included here are found in other series - his manuscript diaries for example.Minor additional genealogical information can be gleaned from incoming andoutgoing correspondence, diary entries, scrapbooks and other portions of theHayes Papers which are not a part of this series, but are included in thismicrofilm edition. The Library of the Hayes Presidential Center also possessesgenealogical notes and material gathered by the Presidents descendants whichrelate to the family ancestry. Although this material is not filmed, it isavailable to researchers in the reading room of the Library.
Material constituting the first series is arranged by familyline for the readers convenience. The series is divided into two majordivisions: Hayes Genealogy and Webb Genealogy. Within each of these divisionsrelated material is filmed together as much as possible, even where thearrangement requires breaking the continuity of the Presidents notebooks onthe Hayes and Webb families. Miscellaneous notes regarding specific familymembers or family lines represent the immediately relevant material. In mostcases additional documents and information concerning family members areavailable at the Library.
The various diaries and daily journals which Rutherford B.Hayes kept periodically throughout his life contain a wealth of informationconcerning his legal, military and political career, as well as his privatelife. Both routine narrative notations and revealing personal insights appearin abundance. Entries are filmed chronologically, with appropriate targetsindicating when this chronology interrupts the continuity of the volumes. TheHayes Papers contain a few additional, dated loose-leaf diary notes which arefiled chronologically in series five, Outgoing Correspondence. Somemiscellaneous, undated loose-leaf notes filmed at the end of the fifth seriesand in series ten, Miscellaneous, may be diary entries as well.Occasional diary-life notations appear in various notebooks, account books, andpersonal correspondence. These entries are filmed in the series to which theymost closely relate. Manuscript diary volume one, and the 1841 journal containseveral school essays which are filmed both with the diary volumes in whichthey appear, and again with the Common Place Books in the third series.Manuscript diary volumes four, six, eight, and ten contain genealogical noteswhich are filmed both with the diaries and with the genealogical material inseries one.
Like many diarists, Hayes did not always keep a strict dailyaccount of his activities. Sporadic breaks occur in what, nonetheless, remainsan amazingly complete record of the Presidents life. In addition to thesenormal breaks, one major hiatus mars the continuity of the diary record. Thisbreak is due to an unfortunate incident. Hayes satchel, which contained his diaryfor the period from May 26 to November, 1886, was stolen at the CincinnatiCentral Depot on November 15, 1886. Although a reward was advertised for itsreturn, neither the satchel nor any of its contents were ever recovered. (Seediary entry for November 18, 1886, volume nineteen and one-half.)
The numbers designating the various diary volumes wereassigned sometime after Rutherfords death. He had a different numberingarrangement. Thus, current volume nineteen and one-half was originally volumetwenty-one, and the still missing volume was number twenty.
Lucy Elliot Keelers index to Charles Richard Williamsfive-volume edition of the Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes(Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1922-1926) is veryuseful, but the published diary text is incomplete. Many entries from themanuscript diaries were omitted or shortened, and additional items have beenfound since publication of this work. T. Harry Williams Hayes: The Diary ofa President, 1875-1881 (New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1964) is afaithful work covering this period of Hayes public service. Only minoradditions have been found and added to Hayes diary record since publication ofthis work. Interested researchers also may peruse the massive unpublished diaryand day-by-day accounts concerning the Presidents entire life compiled by WattP. Marchman. Additions are continually being made to this manuscript, which isavailable for reference use at the Library.
For retrieval purposes the editors have chosen to use theinclusive dates which President Hayes assigned to each of the diary volumes. Insome instances, as in the case of Volume 9B, one of the Civil War diaries,miscellaneous entries or notations can be found after the indicated endingdate. The researcher is alerted to pay particular attention to the diariesspanning the period of the Civil War.
Common Place Books, Law Notebooks, Campaign Notebooks,Etc.
The common place books and other materials which compose thethird series contain school notes and essays, law notes and newsclippings, andpolitical, social and miscellaneous notes. The series runs in loosechronological order under the subseries of School Notes, Law Notes, PoliticalNotes, and Miscellaneous Notes, but does not include material relating toRutherford B. Hayes presidency, 1877-1881. This latter material is filmed inseries six, The White House Years. The school essays contained inmanuscript diary volume one and the 1841 journal are also filmed with thediaries in series two. The names and numbers assigned to the various notebooksare those which appear on the slip cases in which they are contained. In someinstances the contents of these slip cases are split in order to keep relevantmaterial together and maintain chronology. Although some correlationundoubtedly exists, no effort was made to interfile the material from Hayespolitical notebooks with his political speeches. These speeches are filmedchronologically in series nine, Speeches and Message.
The school notebooks contain various lecture notes andschool essays kept by Hayes while attending the Isaac Webb School inMiddletown, Connecticut and Kenyon College. The law notebooks includeRutherfords notebooks from Harvard with Moot Court Cases and his classnotes. Newspaper clippings concerning law cases Hayes participated in, or wasinterested in, are preserved in the law scrapbooks. Loose-leaf notes of casesand clients follow these scrapbooks. Some newspaper accounts of trial experiencesare also included. The political notebooks are predominantly Hayes notationsand newspaper clippings on various personalities and topics pertinent to thepolitical campaigns he was interested in, either as a candidate or as an activeparticipant. Miscellaneous notes on various other subjects also occasionallyappear.
Incoming Correspondence, 1829-1893
The incoming correspondence of Rutherford B. Hayes includesletters, invitations, programs, petitions, newspaper clippings, Executive Mansionfile envelopes (with and without accompanying letters), and other items sent toHayes. Miscellaneous obituaries, some memorial speeches delivered in 1893, anda book apparently containing names of those who sent condolences to the familyupon the Presidents death are filmed with the material for 1893. Unidentifiedand uncatalogued items, including envelopes of limited research value, arefiled at the end of this series.
While the entire collection of incoming correspondencereceived by President Hayes has been included in the microfilm edition, thebulk of the manuscript material deals with Hayes tenure as the nineteenthPresident of the United States (1877-1881). The correspondence in this sequenceof the publication is useful for considering such contemporary events andissues relating to his administration as the Great Railway Strike, southernaffairs, civil service reform, foreign relations, Indian policy, economicmatters, and political appointments just to mention a few. Much of thecorrespondence is of routine nature, but considerable material exists betweenHayes and leading men of the day both in and out of government, such as GeorgeWilliam Curtis, Carl Schurz, John Sherman, William Henry Smith, etc.Correspondence pertaining to his three terms as governor of Ohio also isavailable as is material relating to the other facets of his life, particularlyfor the post-presidential years.
In addition to letters addressed to Rutherford, the seriescontains a volume of the personal letters of his sister, Fanny A. Platt,compiled and bound by Rutherford in her memory. The volume includes familycorrespondence amongst Sophia, Fanny, Hayes, and Sardis Birchard.Transcriptions of some of the letters from this volume which are addressed toRutherford are also placed in the appropriate chronological location within theseries. Roll number nine, on which this volume was filmed, also includes thePresidents Recollections of Fanny (1856) and a short memorandum of Fannyslast illness in July, 1856.
Many letters addressed to William King Rogers, thePresidents private secretary, 1877-1881, but obviously intended for thePresident, are included in the fourth series. Copies of some, but not all ofthese also appear in the Rogers correspondence in series six, The WhiteHouse Years. Letters addressed to other parties, but referred to Hayes, orwhich were in the Presidents collection are filmed as part of this series.Where possible, enclosures are filmed following their covering letters. It isprobable, nevertheless, that a number of enclosures may remain separated fromtheir covering letters.
Outgoing Correspondence, 1834-1893
The outgoing correspondence of Rutherford B. Hayes consistsof letters, drafts of letters, loose-leaf diary notations, miscellaneous notes,and some business notations written by him. Press releases and letters in theholograph of the President, intended to be sent over the signature of someoneelse, are a part of this series. Transcriptions of the Hayes correspondence in themanuscript volume, Opinions and Correspondence of the City Solicitor[Cincinnati, Ohio], January 7, 1858 through January 20, 1867, are filmed intheir appropriate chronological order. The fifth series also includes materialwritten by Hayes private secretaries (William R. Thrall, John B. Neil, AlfredE. Lee, and William K. Rogers), and various state and federal executivedepartment clerks (Rodney Foos, O.L. Pruden, William H. Crook, C.C. Sniffen,G.A. Gustin, and others), as well as occasional items written by thePresidents son, Webb C. Hayes, and cabinet and other government officials forthe President.
The bound Ohio Executive Department letterpress copy booksand personal letterpress copy books for Hayes gubernatorial years are filmedafter the unbound material. A letter book compiled by Webb C. Hayes for hisfather in 1876 also is included. Although some of the Ohio Executive Departmentletterpress copy books contain correspondence written by and for Hayespredecessors and successors, only the material pertinent to his three terms hasbeen filmed. The length of some of these letter books has required two rolls offilm. Appropriate targets indicate where this occurs. In addition, some of thecorrespondence contained in these letterpress copy books is duplicated byoriginals or transcriptions in the chronological outgoing file. However, alarge number of letters, especially those pertaining to routine matters, appearonly in the letter books.
White House Records, 1877-1881
Series six contains material relating to the presidentialyears of Rutherford B. Hayes. Filmed first are the seventeen volumes ofRegisters of Letters Received by the President, 1877-1881. These volumesconstitute a record of incoming letters kept by the clerks in the Presidentsoffice, who recorded the date the letters were received, the authors address,brief statements of content, and departments to which the letters were referredby the President. The clerks also filled out for each communication a printed transferor filing envelope or jacket, containing essentially the same data included onthe Registers. Those marked File were retained in the White House files forthe President. An index to the Registers, compiled between 1947 and 1950 by thestaff of The Rutherford B. Hayes Library, precedes these volumes. TheRegisters, however, do not include all the letters received by Hayes during theyears of his presidency, only those passing through the hands of the clerks.Nevertheless, the Registers are invaluable for reference. The letters markedFile usually are found in the Hayes Papers and they were filmed in seriesfour, Incoming Correspondence.
Two volumes of Executive Mansion Telegrams contain arecord of telegraphic messages to and from the President, various members ofhis family, and Executive Mansion clerks. This record, however, is by no meanscomplete. Many, but not all of these telegrams have been transcribed, and filedchronologically with the Hayes correspondence. All the entries in these two volumeshave been catalogued and appear in the master card index to the Rutherford B.Hayes Papers. The White House collection also includes the Executive MansionLetterbook, a compilation of negative photostats obtained from the NationalArchives and Records Service. Some of these letters duplicate originals foundelsewhere in the Hayes Papers. This volume also is included in the master cardindex at the Hayes Presidential Center.
The Senate Executive Session Minutes, in six boundvolumes, are manuscript copies of minutes. Four volumes of Indian Territorycorrespondence pertain to the Attempted Settlement within the limits of theIndian Territory (now Oklahoma); also of instructions issued to the Military
The various social and business record books are largelyexplained in the roll breakdown which follows this introduction. The scrapbookson rolls two hundred and eleven through two hundred and thirty-five encompassmore than the four years Hayes spent in Washington as President. However, sincemost of the 130 volumes pertain to Rutherfords presidency, they all areincluded under the title White House Scrapbooks. These volumes were numberedsubsequent to Hayes death. Compiled by the President and members of the WhiteHouse staff, the scrapbooks contain miscellaneous newspaper clippings relatingto the Hayes administration. They incorporate a wealth of material describingstate and national politics. The chronology of the volumes overlapsconsiderably. The dates provided in the roll notes are intended only as ageneral guide. Some volumes have indexes, but most do not. Where indexes exist,they are filmed in front of the contents of each volume. Occasional lettersfound in the scrapbooks have been photocopied and interfiled with the Hayescorrespondence.
The subseries of related correspondence, 1876-1881, includessegments from the collections of the Presidents immediate family: Webb CookHayes, Rutherford Platt Hayes, Birchard Austin Hayes, Fanny Hayes, ScottRussell Hayes; and of his private secretary, William King Rogers. Thecorrespondence of Lucy Webb Hayes in the microfilm edition covers the years1868-1881, and includes a large amount of undated letters, many relating to heryears as the nations First Lady.
Scattered diary entries for the years 1876-1881 appear inthe outgoing correspondence of both Webb C. and Rutherford P. Hayes. Thesesporadic accounts contain information on family matters. Webbs diaries alsohave notations regarding business activities at Spiegel Grove, the Presidentsestate in Fremont, Ohio. In addition, his papers include a scrapbook containingmaterial largely relating to Sergeant William Gaines, a veteran of the Battleof Fort Stephenson in 1813, for whom his father secured a pension.
With the exception of the manuscript material pertaining toLucy Webb Hayes and Webb C. Hayes, the incoming and outgoing files of each ofthe several collections which are filmed in the subseries of relatedcorrespondence are interfiled. Copies and transcriptions provide considerableduplication. For example, correspondence between Webb C. and Birchard A. Hayesappear in the collections of both men. Similarly, the papers of William K.Rogers included in the microfilm edition duplicate some material found inRutherford. Hayes incoming and outgoing correspondence for the White Houseyears.
Additional manuscript material for the related collections,both prior to and subsequent to the years covered in this publication, isavailable at the Hayes Presidential Center. While only selected items from eachof these collections are found in the master card index, separate indexes areavailable for all the related collections.
Supplementary items relating to the White House years may befound in series ten, Miscellaneous (rolls 300-301). These items includecommissions, appointments, letters of commerce, proclamations, and somepetitions.
Civil War Records
The seventh series consists of miscellaneous materialrelating to the Civil War, particularly Rutherford B. Hayes regiment, theTwenty-Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The typed regimental history manuscriptis by an unknown author. The J.Q. Howard notes were made during personalinterviews with Hayes in preparation for writing his campaign biography of theOhio governor (The Life, Public Services and Select Speeches of RutherfordB. Hayes, Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1876). The material from theRussell Hastings Papers in the Library of the Hayes Presidential Center hasbeen included because of its relevance. The James M. Comly Papers, OhioHistorical Society (available on microfilm) contain additional materialrelative to the Twenty-Third O.V.I. The regimental roster books include recordsof each soldiers Civil War military service, as well as data about numerous23rd O.V.I. reunions. Information on surviving members of the regimentcontinues beyond General Hayes death in 1893.
The business papers of Rutherford B. Hayes contain receiptedinvoices, real estate deeds and titles, tax assessment notices, bank books,canceled checks and check stubs, promissory notes, various account books, realestate record books, and estate records. This material is filmedchronologically where possible. Receipted invoices are filed by the date paidand not by the original invoice date. Undated bills having a series of datedentries, but no date indicating payment, are filed by the last date appearingon the bill. Deeds are filed by the date executed, not by the recorded date,while Hayes promissory notes are arranged by the dates of the notes. Checkstub books are filmed prior to the checks they match. However, most checks lackstubs, and many stubs do not have matching checks.
The eighth series also contains records pertaining to theestate of the Presidents uncle, Sardis Birchard (1800-1874). These items arefilmed by the first entry in Rutherford B. Hayes hand and integrated with therest of the chronological file. Many of these documents, on which Hayeshandwriting appears, can be found in the first two years following his unclesdeath in January 1874.
When the Hayes Papers were first organized years ago, nouniform criteria was followed to separate business paper from generalcorrespondence. The content of many of the manuscripts has made it difficult toadopt a clearcut standard of separation. As a consequence, many businessrelated papers have been placed in Hayes outgoing and incoming correspondence.
Speeches and Message
An effort has been made to identify all of the speeches madeby Rutherford B. Hayes and to match numerous fragment notes in the files withspeeches according to time and place of delivery. Where available, acontemporary printing or report of the speech has been included. Fragmentswhich were not datable are placed at the end of the collection by topic: forexample, miscellaneous education, labor, Civil War, prison reform, etc. Thereis also a folder of general miscellaneous material. When more than one draftappears, the last draft is accepted as the final version available.
Official messages from Hayes terms as governor andpresident are interfiled on a strict chronological basis, rather than beingseparated into subgroupings. Folders for these official communications ofteninclude supporting material written by members of various executive departmentsand offer insight into the way Hayes went about formulating policy.
The bulk of the notes and drafts in the Hayes speech fileare concentrated in the post-presidential years. Here can be found notes foraddresses on education, especially manual training, and prison reform, his pettopics. In addition, numerous sets of notes also exist for talks at soldiersreunions and memorial celebrations, in which Hayes outlined his ideas on thesignificance of the Civil War to appreciative groups of veterans. A handful ofspeeches for the Womans Home Missionary Society, delivered by Lucy Hayes butwritten by Rutherford, complete the series. The speech notes for these finalyears of the former Presidents life offer a glimpse into the changing natureof his social views, as he became more outspoken in his support of such liberalprograms as better educational facilities for blacks and rehabilitation ratherthan vindictive punishment for criminals.
Series ten consists of items which, because of size ornature of content, could not be conveniently included in any of the otherseries. The guide describes the nature of this series content.